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Lecture 1 for Digital Image Processing (2nd Edition)

-What is Digital Image Processing?
-The Origins of Digital Image Processing
-Examples of Fields that Use Digital Image Processing
-Fundamentals Steps in Digital Image Processing
-Components of an Image Processing System

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Lecture 1 for Digital Image Processing (2nd Edition)

  1. 1. Digital Image Processing (2nd Edition) Rafael C. Gonzalez Richard E.Woods Dr Moe Moe Myint Technological University (Kyaukse) www.slideshare.net/MoeMoeMyint moemoemyint@moemyanmar.ml drmoemoemyint.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Miscellanea  Lectures: Class A  Tuesday 6-7  Thursday 1-2  Lectures: Class B  Monday 1-2  Wednesday 6-7  Labs:  Tuesday for Class A and Wednesday for Class B  Web Site:  www.slideshare.net/MoeMoeMyint  drmoemoemyint.blogspot.com  E-mail: moemoemyint@moemyanmar.ml 2
  3. 3. Contents for Chapter 1  This lecture will cover:  What is digital image processing? 1  The origins of digital image processing? 3  Examples of fields that use digital image processing? 7  Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing 25  Components of an image processing system 28  Summary 30 3
  4. 4. Introduction “One picture is worth more than ten thousand words” Anonymous 4
  5. 5. Preview  Digital image processing methods are interested by two major applications: i. Improvement of pictorial information for human perception and processing of image data for storage, transmission  Noise filtering  Content Enhancement  Contrast enhancement  Deblurring  Remote sensing ii. Representation for autonomous machine perception 5
  6. 6.  Objectives i. To define the scope of the field that we call image processing ii. To give a historical perspective of the origins of this field iii. To give an idea of the state of the art in image processing by examining some of the principal areas in which it is applied iv. To discuss briefly the principal approaches used in digital image processing v. To give an overview of the components contained in a typical, general-purpose image processing system vi. To provide direction to the books and other literature where image processing work normally is reported 6
  7. 7.  An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function f (x , y) where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x, y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point.  When x, y, and the amplitude values of f are all finite, discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image.  The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer.  Digital image is composed of a finite number of elements, each of which has a particular location and value.  These elements are referred to as picture elements, image elements, and pixels. Pixel is the term most widely used to denote the elements of a digital image. What is Digital Image Processing? 7
  8. 8. The Origins of Digital Image Processing  Early 1920s: One of the first applications of digital imaging was in the newspaper industry  In 1920s Submarine cables were used to transmit digitized newspaper pictures between London and New York using Bartlane systems.  Specialized printing equipments were used to code the images and reproduced at receiver using telegraphic printers.  In 1921, photographic printing press improved the resolution and tonal quality of images.  Bartlane system was capable of coding 5 distinct brightness levels.  It increased to 15 by 1929. 8
  9. 9. Fig. telegraphic printer 9
  10. 10. Fig. A digital picture produced using telegraphic printer (in 1921, 1922 - Atlantic, 1929 – London to New York ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 10
  11. 11.  After 35 years of improvement in processing technique  In 1960s, Improvements in computing technology and the onset of the space program during the period.  In 1964, Computer processing techniques were used to improve picture of moon transmitted by Ranger 7 at JPL. This was the basis of modern image processing technique. Fig. The first picture of the moon by a U.S. spacecraft ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 11
  12. 12. Fig. Typical head slice CAT image  1970s: Digital image processing begins to be used in medical applications  1979: Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield & Prof. Allan M. Cormack share the Nobel Prize in medicine for the invention of tomography, the technology behind Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT) scans ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 12
  13. 13.  Today: The use of digital image processing techniques has exploded and they are now used for all kinds of tasks in all kinds of areas  Image enhancement/restoration  Artistic effects  Medical visualisation  Industrial inspection  Law enforcement  Human computer interfaces 13
  14. 14. Fig. Noisy Image Fig. Filtered Image Fig. Low Contrast Image Fig. Enhanced Image Image Enhancement ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 14
  15. 15. Fig. Motion Blurred Fig. Deblurred Restoration Image Enhancement ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 15
  16. 16.  Artistic effects are used to make images more visually appealing, to add special effects and to make composite images. Artistic Effects16
  17. 17. Medical Visualisation 17
  18. 18. Industrial Inspection  Human operators are expensive, slow and unreliable  Make machines do the job instead  Industrial vision systems are used in all kinds of industries  Can we trust them? 18
  19. 19. Law Enforcement  Image processing techniques are used extensively by law enforcers  Number plate recognition for speed cameras/automated toll systems  Fingerprint recognition  Enhancement of CCTV images ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 19
  20. 20. HCI Try to make human computer interface more natural  Face recognition  Gesture recognition Does anyone remember the user interface from “Minority Report”? These tasks can be extremely difficult 20
  21. 21. Fig. The electromagnetic spectrum arranged according to energy per photon Examples of Fields that Use Digital Image Processing 21
  22. 22. Infrared Imaging (Performance) 22
  23. 23. UV Imaging 23
  24. 24. X-Ray Imaging 24
  25. 25. X-Ray Imaging25
  26. 26. Gamma Ray Imaging 26
  27. 27. Fig. Examples of gamma-ray imaging. (a) Bone scan. (b) PET image Gamma-Ray Imaging 27
  28. 28. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands 28
  29. 29. Table : Thematic bands in NASA’s LANDSAT satellite 29 ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002)
  30. 30. GIS  Geographic Information Systems  Digital image processing techniques are used extensively to manipulate satellite imagery  Terrain classification  Meteorology ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 30
  31. 31. GIS (cont…)  Night-Time Lights of the World data set  Global inventory of human settlement  Not hard to imagine the kind of analysis that might be done using this data ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 31
  32. 32. Industrial Inspection  Human operators are expensive, slow and unreliable  Make machines do the job instead  Industrial vision systems are used in all kinds of industries  Can we trust them? ImagestakenfromGonzalez&Woods,DigitalImageProcessing(2002) 32
  33. 33. Imaging in the Microwave Band33
  34. 34. Imaging in the Radio Band34
  35. 35. Examples in which other imaging modalities are used35
  36. 36. PCB Inspection  Printed Circuit Board (PCB) inspection  Machine inspection is used to determine that all components are present and that all solder joints are acceptable  Both conventional imaging and x-ray imaging are used 36
  37. 37. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 37
  38. 38. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 38
  39. 39. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 39
  40. 40. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 40
  41. 41. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 41
  42. 42. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multi-resolution processing Compression 42
  43. 43. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 43
  44. 44. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 44
  45. 45. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 45
  46. 46. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 46
  47. 47. Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Object Recognition Image Enhancement Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Wavelets and multiresolution processing Compression 47
  48. 48. Components of an Image Processing System Image displays Computer Mass storage Specialized image processing hardware Hardcopy Image processing software Image sensors Problem domain 48
  49. 49. Summary  We have looked at:  What is a digital image?  What is digital image processing?  History of digital image processing  State of the art examples of digital image processing  Key stages in digital image processing  Next time we will start to see how it all works… 49
  50. 50. References  “Digital Image Processing”, 2/ E, Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods, www.prenhall.com/gonzalezwoods. 50
  51. 51. Questions? 51

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-What is Digital Image Processing? -The Origins of Digital Image Processing -Examples of Fields that Use Digital Image Processing -Fundamentals Steps in Digital Image Processing -Components of an Image Processing System

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