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Fuel Cell Library - Overview

Modelon
Modelon

The Modelica Fuel Cell Library (FCL) is used to model, simulate, analyze and control fuel cell design and operation, especially for PEMFC (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) and SOFC (Solid Oxide) fuel cell systems. It contains the essential components needed to research, design and configure fuel cell systems, including components, subsystems, templates and media.

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©2019 Modelon.
FUEL CELL
LIBRARY
Overview
©2019 Modelon.
 About Fuel Cell Library
 Key Benefits
 Key Capabilities
 Key Applications
 Library Contents
 Modelon Compatibility
 Latest Release: 2018.1
AGENDA
©2019 Modelon.
• Modeling and simulation of fuel cell systems for
• Process design
• component sizing and system integration
• Requirement verification
• Analysis of dynamics
• Controller design and tuning (HIL/SIL)
• Optimization of operating conditions to improve the system efficiency
• Start-up sequence verification
• avoiding costly component failures
ABOUT FUEL CELL LIBRARY
©2019 Modelon.
• Rapid model development using pre-configurable templates and
numerically efficient models & fluids
• Ready to apply out of the box, accurate and robust models with a
large set of correlations
• Real time capable models for use in HIL/SIL applications
• Ability to simulate start-up sequences, standard and emergency
scenarios
• Design optimization using predictive physics based model
• Extendable to various application domains:
• Power generation
• Automotive
• Aerospace
• Residential
KEY BENEFITS
©2019 Modelon.
• System and component design
• Support of Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)
• Reactors for fuel pre-processing and internal stack reforming
• Reactions calculated using several approaches
• Quasi-equilibrium, Equilibrium with reaction invariant, Reaction kinetics
• Support for various flow structures using manifolds:
• Z-flow, U-flow, mid-flow, external
• Handles a wide range of media
• City gas, Diesel
• Natural gas (with and without propane and butane), reformate and other ideal gas mixture
• Two phase condensation media
• Support for stack cooling
KEY CAPABILITIES
©2019 Modelon.
KEY APPLICATIONS

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Fuel Cell Library - Overview

  • 2. ©2019 Modelon.  About Fuel Cell Library  Key Benefits  Key Capabilities  Key Applications  Library Contents  Modelon Compatibility  Latest Release: 2018.1 AGENDA
  • 3. ©2019 Modelon. • Modeling and simulation of fuel cell systems for • Process design • component sizing and system integration • Requirement verification • Analysis of dynamics • Controller design and tuning (HIL/SIL) • Optimization of operating conditions to improve the system efficiency • Start-up sequence verification • avoiding costly component failures ABOUT FUEL CELL LIBRARY
  • 4. ©2019 Modelon. • Rapid model development using pre-configurable templates and numerically efficient models & fluids • Ready to apply out of the box, accurate and robust models with a large set of correlations • Real time capable models for use in HIL/SIL applications • Ability to simulate start-up sequences, standard and emergency scenarios • Design optimization using predictive physics based model • Extendable to various application domains: • Power generation • Automotive • Aerospace • Residential KEY BENEFITS
  • 5. ©2019 Modelon. • System and component design • Support of Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) • Reactors for fuel pre-processing and internal stack reforming • Reactions calculated using several approaches • Quasi-equilibrium, Equilibrium with reaction invariant, Reaction kinetics • Support for various flow structures using manifolds: • Z-flow, U-flow, mid-flow, external • Handles a wide range of media • City gas, Diesel • Natural gas (with and without propane and butane), reformate and other ideal gas mixture • Two phase condensation media • Support for stack cooling KEY CAPABILITIES
  • 7. ©2019 Modelon. HIL Testing of a Truck Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) Objective CASE STUDY Results Verify failsafe and environmentally friendly PLC start-up sequence in an APU to avoid costly component failures during testing. • Verified PLC implementation • Cost and time savings by minimizing component failures during prototype testing. In collaboration with:
  • 8. ©2019 Modelon. Fuel Cell Vehicle Drive Cycle Simulation Objective CASE STUDY Results Evaluate the performance of a fuel cell vehicle during a full drive cycle simulation, monitoring the overall performance and efficiency and predicting the behavior of a real vehicle. • A flexible model architecture for hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, covering physical phenomena across thermal, fluid, electrical and mechanical • Real-time capable for HIL/SIL testing
  • 9. ©2019 Modelon. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Validation Objective CASE STUDY Results • Validated PEMFC model ready to be used for design optimization and control scheme development. Parameter setup with using FMI Researchers at Tokyo Metropolitan University set out to create a PEMFC test bench model for virtual design optimization. In collaboration with:
  • 11. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS • Examples displaying typical use-cases and capabilities • Fuel cell components • Reaction models • Membranes • Stacks • Auxiliary system components • Heat exchangers • Pumps • Pipes • Media models
  • 12. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS • 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel System example • Addresses complex thermal interactions • Fed with natural gas, air and water • Pre-reforming of natural gas • Stack with 60 cells, manifolds and insulation • Catalytic afterburner to  Burn remaining fuel  Pre-heat the fuel and generate steam in the preprocessor
  • 13. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS • Preprocessor and Micro gas turbine examples
  • 14. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS • Diesel Fueled auxiliary power unit (APU) for trucks • Fed with hydrogen-rich gas made from reformed diesel • Challenges:  CO content in pre-reformed gas must be < 25 ppm.  Fast dynamics in pre-processing unit due to chemical reactions  Start-up sequence (controls, fast dynamics etc.) atr wgs atrHex sinkP pT wgsHex prox proxHex sinkP1 pT sinkP2 pT T. m sourceW3 volume frictionLoss atrPI PI atr_set k=573 atrHex.summary.Tout_prim atr_meas wgsPI PI wgs_set k=473 wgsHex.summary.Tout_prim wgs_meas proxPI PI prox_set k=400 proxHex.summary.Tout_prim prox_meas fuel_in feed_air drain_ref
  • 15. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS An example of SOFC stack An example of water-cooled stack • Stack and templates • Substacks connected thermally in parallel • Templates for full stack configurations • With or without cooling • Support for various manifold configurations
  • 16. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS An example of PEMFC substack • Substacks • Anode and cathode channels connected to a membrane model • 1D discretization along flow direction • Flexible fidelity level option • Multiple cells or single for faster simulations • Support for condensation in the flow channels
  • 17. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS Membrane Template An example of PEMFC Membrane • Membranes • Detailed electrochemical models or simplified models for real-time applications • Define the electrical behavior of the fuel cell (including different kinds of losses) and the fuel cell reaction: 2𝐻2 + 𝑂2 → 2𝐻2 𝑂
  • 18. ©2019 Modelon.  Manifolds for different flow configurations  Internal manifolds  External manifolds  Can be used to achieve  U-flow  Z-flow  Mid-flow  Equally distributed flows LIBRARY CONTENTS Different types of manifolds
  • 19. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS Test model for a auto thermal reformer • Reactors • Lumped reactors • Discretized pipe reactors  Internal reforming (SOFC)  Plate HEX reactor coated with catalyst
  • 20. ©2019 Modelon. • Reactions • Reactions modelled in three approaches:  Equilibrium with reaction invariants  Quasi-equilibrium reactions  Reaction kinetics LIBRARY CONTENTS Equilibrium mass fractions for methane reforming at different temperatures
  • 21. ©2019 Modelon. • Burners • Start-up burners • Catalytic afterburners • Purpose  Pre-heating  Burning excess fuel  Steam generation • Combustion efficiency as the main parameter LIBRARY CONTENTS Test model for a burner
  • 22. ©2019 Modelon. LIBRARY CONTENTS • Media properties • Reaction media  Ideal gas using NASA polynomials  Used in reactors  Common reaction properties  Suitable when the temperature, T, and the amount of substance, Z, are used as states • Condensing media  Ideal gas with simplified liquid water model • Two Phase media  Support for the industry standard IAPWS-IF97 • Fast media for real-time applications  Low order polynomials with analytic inverses
  • 24. ©2019 Modelon. • Modelon’s Fuel Cell Library is compatible with Modelon’s Vehicle Dynamics Library for the creation of fuel cell vehicle models. RECOMMENDED MODELON LIBRARY COMPATIBILITY
  • 26. ©2019 Modelon. RELEASE:2019.2 New Features 26 • Fuel Cell Library 1.10 is based on Modelon Base Library 3.4 and Modelica Standard Library 3.2.3. It is also compatible with Modelica Standard Library 3.2.2.

Editor's Notes

  1. This case study details how one of Germany’s largest thermal power plants has improved their primary control reserves; resulting in an electric grid that can integrate a higher number of renewable energy sources, including wind and solar. Modelon’s Thermal Power Library enabled researchers to develop a model consisting of different sub-sections, coupled through fluid-connections and a control signal bus. Nearly 11,000 differential-algebraic equations are used to describe the system which includes about 500 thermodynamic states.
  2. This case study details how one of Germany’s largest thermal power plants has improved their primary control reserves; resulting in an electric grid that can integrate a higher number of renewable energy sources, including wind and solar. Modelon’s Thermal Power Library enabled researchers to develop a model consisting of different sub-sections, coupled through fluid-connections and a control signal bus. Nearly 11,000 differential-algebraic equations are used to describe the system which includes about 500 thermodynamic states.
  3. This case study details how one of Germany’s largest thermal power plants has improved their primary control reserves; resulting in an electric grid that can integrate a higher number of renewable energy sources, including wind and solar. Modelon’s Thermal Power Library enabled researchers to develop a model consisting of different sub-sections, coupled through fluid-connections and a control signal bus. Nearly 11,000 differential-algebraic equations are used to describe the system which includes about 500 thermodynamic states.