Assembly - Astronaut Tim Peake lands back on earth


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On June 18th, 2016, British Astronaut Tim Peake, will return back to earth after more than half a year on the International Space Station. This presentation is 80% material prepared by ESA to support science communication, with some small tweaks from me....

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  • This is Tim, Newton and Principia. What’s one got to do with the other??

    The photo was taken at the Royal Society, at an event held to celebrate the naming of Tim’s mission. ESA gives names to all of astronaut’s missions. ESA asked the whole of Europe to suggest names for Tim’s mission, and there were more than 4000 suggestions.

    Tim chose from all of these the name Principa, which was suggested 20 times, to honour the great British scientist. Newton was a strong choice, there were many other suggestions relate to Newton (Newton, Isaac, 1687 , Trinity etc) – it was a very strong theme, because of the clear resonances.

    The Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687, first described gravity, which is of course the physics at the very heart of space flight.

    Suggested questions:
    Do you know who Isaac Newton is?
    What is gravity?
    Do you know how Newton came up with his theory? Apple…
    Why is gravity an issue for spaceflight?
  • This presentation provides slides and information for a talk about British European Space Agency Astronaut Tim Peake, and what he will be doing on his 6 month mission.

    This presentation may be adapted as required by the presenter. Additional slides with more information on the science program and education program are available to ‘add on’ to this.

    All Images are from NASA / ESA unless otherwise stated. Illustrations reproduced from The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd, and can only be used with permission

    Introduction to yourself

    Structure of presentation:
    Who is Tim?
    What’s his mission?
    How will he get to space?
    Where will he live? Where will he work?
    What will he be doing in space?
    Who supports him?

    Some general notes:
    Tim is a European Space Agency Astronaut.
    Please do not refer to him as ‘Major Tim Peake’. Tim is still a Major in the Army Reserves, but as a civilian organisation, ESA prefer not to highlight this aspect.
    Tim is not the first Brit in space, or the first British astronaut.
    Helen Sharman was the first Briton in space in 1991. Her mission was funded partially by a private UK consortium as Project Juno and by the Soviet Union.
    Other Brits have been into space:
    3 as a NASA astronaut with US or dual nationality: Michael Foale, Piers Sellers and Nicolas Patrick.
    2 as dual nationality spaceflight participants (space tourists): Richard Garriott.(US/British dual national) and Mark Shuttleworth

    Questions and Answers

    There is a list of top 10Q&A on the UK Space Agency Blog. But, if you only have time for one thing, watching this 8 minute video from Suni Williams, where she explains sleeping, personal hygiene, going to the toilet and the kitchen. You’ll be able to answer all the most common questions after you see this:

  • From The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
  • Tim is part of Europe’s team of space plumbers/lab techs/space walkers/robotic operators etc.

    6 astronauts were selected in 2009 to join the existing team of astronauts (at ESA, NASA, Roscosmos)

    Tim Peake
    Andreas Mogensen (went for 2 weeks: IrISS mission: 1 Sept 2015 – 11 Sept 2015)
    Alexander Gerst (Blue Dot mission: 28 May 2014 – 10 Nov 2014)
    Luca Parmitano (first to go: Volare mission: 28 May 2013 – 11 Nov 2013)
    Samantha Cristoforetti (Furtura mission: 23 Nov 2014 – 11 Jun 2015)
    Thomas Pesquet (due to fly 30 Nov 2013 – 16 May 2017)

  • This is the Soyuz rocket, launching from Baikonour in Kazakhstan
    It is a Russian rocket, designed in the 1960s, still in service today. The same design was also used to transport cosmonauts to Salyut, Mir and now the ISS.
    Soyuz can carry up to three crew members and provide life support for about 30 days

    Video of Soyuz launch sequence explained (ESA):
    Video of Soyuz rendezvous and docking (ESA):
  • The Soyuz will dock with the ISS 6 hours after launch

    Tim will be living and working here for 6 months from 15 December 2015 – May 2016

    What is the ISS?
    ISS is an international orbiting laboratory in low earth orbit (about 400km up). Continuously occupied since 2000, home to an international crew.

    Video of ISS orbiting, timelapse:
    Minute: 1:52 goes past the UK

    Suggested Questions:
    Do you know how far away the ISS is from Earth? About 400km up
    How fast do you think it’s flying? 7kilometers per second
    How many astronauts do you think live here? Normally 6, when a new crew of 3 arrives, there are 9 astronauts for a period of around 2 weeks
    How long does it take to go once round Earth? Every 90 minutes, 15.5 orbits per day
    How does the ISS stay up / not pulled back to Earth by gravity? Orbital boosting can be performed by the station's two main engines on the Zvezda service module
  • Where is Columbus?
  • This is Columbus. It’s Europe’s main contribution to the ISS.

    It was attached to the ISS on 11 February 2008

    c. 7m Long
    C 4.5m Diameter (max) (About the size of 1 double decker bus, spun on it’s axis)
    Weigh c. 12 tonnes (about 1 fully laden bus)

    Other interesting / fun facts here on Columbus?

    What do you think is important when designing the lab? Protection from sun, radiation, debris
    What do you think it needs to run? Power, water, life support
  • A fish eye view inside the module. As you can see, there are no windows (sadly, a design flaw, engineers have on occasion overlooked the importance of windows). The Cupola came close to being shelved, but the astronauts demanded it be flown. They love the views, and we get amazing photographs from it).
    Columbus is crammed wall to wall (and ceiling) with Experiment racks. The systems equipment (computers, air conditioning, water cooling loops etc) are hidden in the floor (deck racks) and in the corners.
  • Education
    Staying fit
  • This is the EML – electromagnetic Levitator – it heats metal to very high temperatures (2000+°C!) so that it melts, and can be cooled again very quickly.
    It is on the European Columbus module of the ISS.
    The magnets holds the metal in place and stop it floating away.
    In the absence of gravity, very precise measurements on properties of the metal can be made – especially as there is no container to hold the metal.
    The information gained through looking at metals this way leads to new alloys with useful characteristics, e.g.
    UK scientists are contributing to 2 international experiments using this laboratory.
    Previous experiments have led to breakthroughs, like 40-50% reduction in the weight of important parts for turbines – this saves energy and materials; which is good from a financial and an environmentaal point of view.
  • Two experiments, BOSS and BIOMEX, are mounted on the outside of the ISS.
    This exposes microorganisms to the harsh conditions of space
    Will help scientists understand where and how life might survive in the universe - and how life began in our Solar System
    Scientists from University of Edinburgh, Open University and Bradford University are contributing to this work.
  • Photo: Marchbanks’ intracranial pressure monitoring device.  This indicates the brain pressure – important to keep track of for astronauts’ health.

    NASA experiment Fluid Shifts looks at how fluid shifts in the body during spaceflight
    Weightlessness increases pressure in upper body and head
    Unique British hardware, developed by SME from Southampton, Marchbanks Measurement Systems, is being tested to measure the changes in brain pressure
    Normally done by drilling into the skull or lumbar puncture!
    New device is non-invasive – can indicate brain pressure just by placing in the ear
    Critical for astronaut health – especially on longer duration missions
    Application on earth – quickly assessing critical signs in emergency trauma situations

  • No, not testing a new rollercoaster ride - research into muscle atrophy and how this may help patient rehabilitation on Earth
  • Photo: from a field trial with BRIDGET – one of the Airbus rovers used to test systems for ExoMars.  BRIDGET will be adapted so that Tim can control her from space.

    Looks at technologies needed for human-robotic partnerships in planetary exploration
    A new experiment called SUPVIS-M will see Tim Peake control a rover on Earth from orbit the ISS
    The rover will be in a ‘Mars yard’ in Stevenage (at Airbus Defence and Space) – a mock-up of the Martian environment on Earth – in a simulation of how we may explore Mars in future
    Makes the most of UK expertise in robotics and telecommunications
  • Science – Ground Operated Experiments

    As well as the Human Physiology experiments, there are many more experiments that are being run remotely by teams of scientists on the ground.

    This is ESA’s Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), running the GEOFLOW experiment (

    Miniature Earth

    The core of the Geoflow experiment can be seen as a representation of Earth (or other planet) in miniature. A viscous incompressible fluid (silicone oil) is held between two concentric spheres, which rotate about a common axis. A high voltage difference between the spheres creates a force field that plays the role of gravity and holding the inner sphere at a higher temperature to the outside sphere creates a temperature gradient from inside to outside as, for example, on Earth.

    Understanding the flow of the silicone oil under different conditions will be of importance in such areas as flow in the atmosphere, the oceans, and the movement of Earth's mantle on a global scale, as well as other astrophysical and geophysical problems. Results from Geoflow will also be useful for making improvements in a variety of engineering applications, such as spherical gyroscopes and bearings, centrifugal pumps and high-performance heat exchangers.
  • Maintenance

    As well as running all the science experiments, the crew have to maintain the ISS itself. There are no plumber or electricians or so on in space, and so the crew have to do all of this work too. If the toilet breaks, fixing it becomes the most important job for the day.

    This is Italian ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano replacing one of the Water Pump Assemblies (WPAs) in Columbus. The WPA pumps the water around the shell of Columbus, providing cooling to the powered equipment and air conditioning of the air.
  • There is a list of top 10Q&A on the UK Space Agency Blog. But, if you only have time for one thing, watching this 8 minute video from Suni Williams, where she explains sleeping, personal hygiene, going to the toilet and the kitchen. You’ll be able to answer all the most common questions after you see this:

    How do astronauts sleep in space?
    Astronauts cannot lie ‘down’ in a bed because of the weightlessness. They zip themselves into special sleeping bags that have holes for the arms, which are attached to the wall inside their crew quarters. (Which are the size of a broom cupboard). They end up in a ‘Zombie’ pose.

    What do astronauts eat in space?
    Most food is long lasting (over 2 years), but some fresh fruit and vegetables are included with each cargo delivery. Imagine going hiking and camping for 6 months without going near a supermarket, and you get an idea of the food. A lot of food is flown in a dehydrated state, and the astronauts add warm or cold water to it before eating it. Some food is tinned or thermostabilied in pouches, and others just flown in natural form (like nuts, dried fruit etc.)

    How do astronauts go to the toilet in space?
    A seat belt and foot restraints hold the astronaut on the seat, while high-speed air currents pull the waste into the respective receptacles. There is a small potty like receptacle for solid waste, and a hose for liquid waste. Solid waste is collected and put into one of the cargo ships for disposal and destruction during re-entry. Liquid waste is recycled into drinking water.

    What do they do in their free time?
    At the weekends they have to do the cleaning and vacuuming. Evenings and weekends are their free time to relax, call and email friends and family, watch TV, play instruments and enjoy the view!

  • Food and Drink

    Just like us, the crew have to eat and drink on board ISS. Their working days are very similar to ours, - they sometime eat lunch together, they sometimes just grab a ‘sandwich’. The crew will often try to eat together at evenings and weekend, - food serves exactly the same purposes on ISS as it does here on Earth, it is just different to eat and drink in space.
  • Food

    Food is all pre-prepared, - there are no ovens to cook things on ISS. Dehydrated food is rehydrated using hot and cold water, other food comes in its natural from (crackers, nuts etc). Some food (mostly meat and fish) is thermostablised (canned or bagged) and heated in a food warmer. (Essentially a small suitcase with two hot plates).

    Note the scissor – very important!

    Heston Blumenthal competition for Tim’s dinners…:
    What would you choose to take with you?
  • Exercise

    In order to help slow the rate of muscle and bone deterioration, the crew must exercise for 2 hours every day. (1 hour cardio, 1 hour weights).

    Andre Kuipers on the treadmill (Left) and Luca Parmitano on the bicycle (right)

  • ARED

    Chris Cassidy works out using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)
  • The crew also get a chance to visit the Cupola (another European contribution) to take stunning photographs of the Earth

    Here is Samantha Cristoforetti, an Italian astronaut selected in 2009 at the same time as Tim, in the Cupola. The astronauts can take amazing photos from here
  • Photo taken by Paolo Nespoli in 2012
  • More detail in the ‘careers’ presentation – on all the support team, engineers, scientists etc
  • NASA support the overall running of the ISS

    But for the Columbus module we have our Columbus Flight Control Team, who monitors the Columbus module 24/7, 365 days a year.

    This is Libby Jackson – she was a Columbus Flight Director (COL-Flight), in charge of the Columbus Flight Control team, based in Oberpfaffenhofen (Munich, Germany). That’s quite hard to say so our call sign is Munich. ‘Munich, we’ve got a problem…’

    She has an overview of everything, and is supported by the rest of the Flight Control Team
  • There is a team of 4 people all the time, looking after the systems and payloads, with the Flight Director in charge.
    COL FLIGHT: In charge of Columbus operations, reports to the Houston Flight Director (in NASA’s Johnson Space Centre)
    COMET: : Looks after all the planning in the flight control room.
    STRATOS: Monitors and remotely operates all of the Columbus systems (Electrical systems, Cooling, Computers, Fire detection etc.)

    During the day this increases to include:
    Eurocom: crew interface
    COSMO: stowage and mechanics, - basically in charge of knowing how to fix everything and where everything is kept
    Plus engineers in back rooms and all the payload specialists in USOC (User Support Operations Centres)
  • Video link of Soyuz undocking, re-entry and landing:
  • Home Time

    After about 6 months in orbit, it is time to come back to Earth. The crew will spend part of their time in the last couple of weeks refreshing their training, packing, checking the Soyuz for leaks and generally readying themselves for the journey home.
  • Return To Earth

    It takes about 3 and a half hours from leaving the space station to landing back on Earth, though the hatches are closed a couple of hours before the crew leave, to allow for final leak checks and preparations.

  • Landing

    The crew land back on the Kazakhstan Steppe. Parachutes slow the capsule a descent rate of about 7 metres per second, but this is still too fast for a comfortable landing. One second before touchdown, two sets of three small engines on the bottom of the vehicle fire, slowing the vehicle to soften the landing.

    Crew report that the feelings is ‘like being in a controlled car crash’
  • Home!

    You’ve survived re-entry, your capsule has hit the ground. Your body is feeling the effect of gravity after 6 months in a weightless environment. You may well be feeling queasy, battered, some crew even pass out. But you have to put a smile on your face and face the media. You’ll still be very happy to be home and smell fresh air though!
  • ESA astronaut Timothy Peake during a water survival training session near Star City, Russia, on 2 July 2014.
    Survival training is an important part of all Soyuz mission training. When a Soyuz spacecraft returns to Earth there is always the possibility that it could land in water.
    Tim is currently training for his long-duration mission to the International Space Station, to be launched at the end of November 2015. He will be the first British ESA astronaut to visit the Space Station. Until his assignment was announced in 2013, Tim was Lead Eurocom for Luca Parmitano’s six-month Volare mission that started in May of that year.
  • Tim will fly on 15 December 2015, first union jack in orbit for over 20 years.

  • Assembly - Astronaut Tim Peake lands back on earth

    1. 1. What’s so special about Saturday?
    2. 2. June 16, 2016
    3. 3. June 16, 2016 Tim Peake
    4. 4. June 16, 2016
    5. 5. June 16, 2016
    6. 6. Tim Peake is on the International Space Station, with a team of other Astronauts From The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
    7. 7. Date/Time 7 Photo:ESA
    8. 8. How did Tim get to space? ©Usborne, from The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook
    9. 9. June 16, 2016 15 December 2015 11:02:33 GMT
    10. 10. Where does Tim live? From The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
    11. 11. Change title style Change slide master text style – 2nd level 3rd level –4th level Date/Time Presentation Title 11 Photo:NASA
    12. 12. Where does Tim work? From The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
    13. 13. Change title style Change slide master text style – 2nd level 3rd level –4th level Date/Time Presentation Title 13 Photo:NASA
    14. 14. Change title style Change slide master text style – 2nd level 3rd level –4th level Change slide master text style – 2nd level 3rd level –4th level Date/Time Presentation Title 14 Photo:ESA/NASA
    15. 15. Date/Time Presentation Title 15 Photo:NASA
    16. 16. June 16, 2016
    17. 17. What has Tim been doing in space? From The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
    18. 18. June 16, 2016
    19. 19. June 16, 2016
    20. 20. Keeping fit, sleeping, eating! From The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
    21. 21. June 16, 2016
    22. 22. Who is supporting Tim’s mission? From The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
    23. 23. Date/Time 3 5 Photo:G.Zoeschinger
    24. 24. Photo:G.Zoeschinger
    25. 25. How will Tim return to Earth? Illustrations reproduced from The Usborne Official Astronaut's Handbook © 2015 Usborne Publishing Ltd
    26. 26. June 16, 2016
    27. 27. June 16, 2016
    28. 28. June 16, 2016
    29. 29. June 16, 2016 Photo:©NASA/BillIngalls
    30. 30. June 16, 2016
    31. 31. June 16, 2016