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‫المصادر‬
‫المادية‬
‫واالدبية‬
‫لدراسة‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫تاريخ‬
‫الحضارات‬
‫القديمة‬
‫موضوع‬
‫البحث‬
‫خطة‬
‫البحث‬
‫المقدمة‬
‫المطلب‬
‫االول‬
:
‫تعريف‬
‫المصادر‬
‫المطلب‬
‫الثاني‬
:
‫تعريف‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫المطلب‬
‫الثالث‬
:
‫تعريف‬
‫المصادر‬
‫االدبية‬
‫المطلب‬
‫الرابع‬
:
‫تعريف‬
‫المصادر‬
‫المادية‬
‫المطلب‬
‫الخامس‬
:
‫تعريف‬
‫المصادر‬
‫المادية‬
‫واالدبية‬
‫لدراسة‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫المبحث‬
‫االول‬
‫مدخل‬
‫مفاهيمي‬
‫المطلب‬
‫االول‬
:
‫المصادر‬
‫المادية‬
‫المطلب‬
‫الثاني‬
:
‫المصادر‬
‫االدبية‬
‫المطلب‬
‫الثالث‬
:
‫اهمية‬
‫المصادر‬
‫المادية‬
‫واالدبية‬
‫لدراسة‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫المبحث‬
‫الثاني‬
‫المصادر‬
‫المادية‬
‫و‬
‫االدبية‬
‫لدراسة‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫خاتمة‬
‫قطع‬
‫علم‬
‫االثار‬
‫من‬
‫خالل‬
‫البقايا‬
‫المادية‬
‫للنشاط‬
‫البشري‬
‫شوطا‬
‫بعيدا‬
‫منذ‬
‫ان‬
‫بدا‬
‫على‬
‫ايدي‬
‫فئة‬
‫من‬
‫الهواة‬
‫المترفين‬
‫في‬
‫اوروبا‬
‫في‬
‫القرن‬
‫السادس‬
‫عشر‬
‫و‬
‫حتى‬
‫احذ‬
‫يتجسد‬
‫شيئا‬
‫فش‬
‫يئا‬
‫في‬
‫القرن‬
‫التاسع‬
‫عشر‬
‫و‬
‫ازداد‬
‫تطورا‬
،
‫حيث‬
‫يعتمد‬
‫علماء‬
‫االثار‬
‫لتقصي‬
‫الماضي‬
‫على‬
‫التكنولوجيا‬
‫الحديثة‬
‫اذ‬
‫ان‬
‫دراسة‬
‫االثار‬
‫ال‬
‫يقتصر‬
‫دورها‬
‫على‬
‫معرفة‬
‫االنجازات‬
‫اللتى‬
‫حقق‬
‫ها‬
‫االسالف‬
‫فقط‬
‫بل‬
‫تعتبر‬
‫عامل‬
‫اساسي‬
‫من‬
‫عوامل‬
‫التنمية‬ . ‫وهته‬
‫االثار‬
‫مادية‬
‫و‬
‫ادبية‬
‫وهذا‬
‫ما‬
‫يجعلنا‬
‫نطرح‬
‫التساؤل‬
‫التالي‬ : ‫ما‬
‫تعريف‬
‫المصادر‬
‫المادية‬
‫و‬
‫االدبية‬
‫لدراسة‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫و‬
‫ماهي‬
‫هاته‬
‫المصادر‬
‫مقدمة‬
‫مدخل‬
‫مفاهيمي‬
01
__
‫المطلب‬
‫االول‬
:
‫تعريف‬
‫المصدر‬
:
‫لغة‬
:
‫يقول‬
‫ابن‬
‫منظور‬
: “
‫الصدر‬
:
‫أعلى‬
‫مقدم‬
‫كل‬
‫شيء‬
‫وأوله‬
…
‫صدر‬
‫األمر‬
‫أوله‬
،
‫وصدر‬
‫كل‬
‫شيء‬
‫أوله‬
…
‫المصدر‬
:
‫أصل‬
‫الكلمة‬
‫التي‬
‫تصدر‬
‫عنها‬
‫مصادر‬
‫األفعال‬
” .
‫للمفهوم‬
‫اللغوي‬
‫داللة‬
‫واضحة‬
‫في‬
‫اإلشارة‬
‫إلى‬
‫المصدر‬
‫هو‬
‫أصل‬
‫األشياء‬
،
‫و‬
‫هو‬
‫أمر‬
‫يتوافق‬
‫بشكل‬
‫كبير‬
‫مع‬
‫الهدف‬
‫من‬
‫التعامل‬
‫مع‬
‫المصدر‬
‫والرجوع‬
‫إليه‬
،
‫وهو‬
‫أن‬
‫يأخذ‬
‫الباحث‬
‫أو‬
‫المؤرخ‬
‫الخبر‬
‫التار‬
‫يخي‬
‫من‬
‫أصله‬
‫ومنبعه‬
‫المطلب‬
‫الثاني‬
:
‫تعريف‬
‫الحضارة‬
:
‫لغة‬
:
‫يعرف‬
‫ابن‬
‫منظور‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫لغة‬
،
‫أنها‬
‫االقامة‬
‫في‬
‫الحضر‬
،
‫وهي‬
‫بفتح‬
‫الحاء‬
‫وكسرها‬
،
‫تعني‬
‫االقامة‬
‫ف‬
‫ي‬
‫الحضر‬
،
‫وأن‬
‫مظاهر‬
‫الرقي‬
‫العلمي‬
‫والفني‬
‫واالدبي‬
‫واالجتماعي‬
‫في‬
‫الحظر‬
.
‫ويعود‬
‫أصل‬
‫كلمة‬
civilization
‫إلى‬
‫الجذر‬
‫االلتيني‬
civite s
‫ب‬
‫معنى‬
‫مدني‬
،
‫و‬
civis
‫بمعنى‬
‫ساكن‬
‫المدينة‬
،
‫أو‬
civilis
‫بمعنى‬
‫مدني‬
‫أو‬
‫ساكن‬
‫المدينة‬
،
‫أو‬
citizen
‫وهو‬
‫ما‬
‫يعرف‬
‫بالمواطن‬
‫الرومانيي‬
‫المتعالي‬
‫على‬
،‫البربري‬
‫ولم‬
‫يشتق‬
‫منها‬
‫اال‬
‫في‬
‫القرن‬
‫الثا‬
‫من‬
‫عشر‬
‫مصطلح‬
.
‫وعلى‬
‫العموم‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫تدل‬
‫في‬
‫اللغة‬
‫على‬
‫نوع‬
‫خاص‬
‫من‬
‫الحياة‬
‫وهو‬
‫االستقرار‬
‫واالقامة‬
‫الدائمة‬
،
‫ول‬
‫يس‬
‫بالضروري‬
‫أن‬
‫يكون‬
‫هذا‬
‫االستقرار‬
‫في‬
‫المدينة‬
،
‫بل‬
‫إن‬
‫االستقرار‬
‫نشأ‬
‫تاريخيا‬
‫في‬
‫القرى‬
‫الصغيرة‬
‫و‬
‫عندما‬
‫تطورت‬
‫القرى‬
‫واتسعت‬
‫تحولت‬
‫الى‬
‫مدن‬
.
‫اصطالحا‬
:
‫الحضارة‬
‫نظام‬
‫اجتماعي‬
‫يعين‬
‫االنسان‬
‫على‬
‫الزيادة‬
‫من‬
‫إنتاجه‬
‫الثقافي‬
،
‫وإنما‬
‫تتألف‬
‫الحضارة‬
‫من‬
‫عناصر‬
‫أربعة‬
:
‫الموارد‬
‫االقتصادية‬
،
‫النظم‬
،‫السياسية‬
‫والتقاليد‬
‫الخلفية‬
،
‫ومتابعة‬
‫العلوم‬
‫والفنون‬
،
‫وهي‬
‫تبدأ‬
‫حيث‬
‫ينتهي‬
‫االضطراب‬
‫والقلق‬
،
‫ويعرفها‬
‫ابن‬
‫خلدون‬
‫بأنها‬
:
‫تفنن‬
‫في‬
‫الترف‬
‫وإحكام‬
‫الصنائع‬
‫المستعملة‬
‫في‬
‫وجوهه‬
‫ومذاهبه‬
،
‫من‬
‫المطابخ‬
‫والمالبس‬
‫والمباني‬
‫والفرش‬
،
‫وسائر‬
‫عوائده‬
‫وأحواله‬
،
‫فلكل‬
‫واحد‬
‫منها‬
‫صنائع‬
‫في‬
‫استجادته‬
‫وال‬
‫تأنق‬
‫فيه‬
.

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