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Lesson Overview
 12.3 DNA Replication
Lesson Overview           DNA Replication


  THINK ABOUT IT
     Before a cell divides, its DNA must first be copied.

     How might the double-helix structure of DNA make that possible?
Lesson Overview        DNA Replication


  Copying the Code
     What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA?
Lesson Overview         DNA Replication


  Copying the Code
     What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA?

     DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce
     a new strand of DNA.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Copying the Code
     Base pairing in the double helix explained how DNA could be copied, or
     replicated, because each base on one strand pairs with only one base on
     the opposite strand.

     Each strand of the double helix has all the information needed to
     reconstruct the other half by the mechanism of base pairing.

     Because each strand can be used to make the other strand, the strands
     are said to be complementary.
Lesson Overview           DNA Replication


  The Replication Process
     Before a cell divides, it duplicates its DNA in a copying process called
     replication.

     This process ensures that each resulting cell has the same complete set of
     DNA molecules.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  The Replication Process
     During replication, the DNA molecule separates into two strands and then
     produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base
     pairing.

     Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for
     the new strand.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  The Replication Process
     The two strands of the double helix separate, or “unzip,” allowing two
     replication forks to form.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  The Replication Process
     As each new strand forms, new bases are added following the rules of
     base pairing.

     If the base on the old strand is adenine, then thymine is added to the newly
     forming strand.

     Likewise, guanine is always paired to cytosine.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  The Replication Process
     The result of replication is two DNA molecules identical to each other and
     to the original molecule.

     Each DNA molecule resulting from replication has one original strand and
     one new strand.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  The Role of Enzymes
     DNA replication is carried out by a series of enzymes. They first “unzip” a
     molecule of DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between base pairs and
     unwinding the two strands of the molecule.

     Each strand then serves as a template for the attachment of
     complementary bases.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  The Role of Enzymes
     The principal enzyme involved in DNA replication is called DNA
     polymerase.

     DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce
     a new strand of DNA.

     DNA polymerase also “proofreads” each new DNA strand, ensuring that
     each molecule is a perfect copy of the original.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Telomeres
     The tips of chromosomes are known as telomeres.

     The ends of DNA molecules, located at the telomeres, are particularly
     difficult to copy.

     Over time, DNA may actually be lost from telomeres each time a
     chromosome is replicated.

     An enzyme called telomerase compensates for this problem by adding
     short, repeated DNA sequences to telomeres, lengthening the
     chromosomes slightly and making it less likely that important gene
     sequences will be lost from the telomeres during replication.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Replication in Living Cells
     How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
Lesson Overview           DNA Replication


  Replication in Living Cells
     How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

     Replication in most prokaryotic cells starts from a single point and
     proceeds in two directions until the entire chromosome is copied.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Replication in Living Cells
     How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Replication in Living Cells
     How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

     In eukaryotic cells, replication may begin at dozens or even hundreds of
     places on the DNA molecule, proceeding in both directions until each
     chromosome is completely copied.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Replication in Living Cells
     The cells of most prokaryotes have a single, circular DNA molecule in the
     cytoplasm, containing nearly all the cell’s genetic information.

     Eukaryotic cells, on the other hand, can have up to 1000 times more DNA.
     Nearly all of the DNA of eukaryotic cells is found in the nucleus.
Lesson Overview           DNA Replication


  Prokaryotic DNA Replication
     In most prokaryotes, DNA replication does
     not start until regulatory proteins bind to a
     single starting point on the chromosome.
     This triggers the beginning of DNA
     replication.

     Replication in most prokaryotic cells starts
     from a single point and proceeds in two
     directions until the entire chromosome is
     copied.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Prokaryotic DNA Replication
     Often, the two chromosomes produced by replication are attached to
     different points inside the cell membrane and are separated when the cell
     splits to form two new cells.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Eukaryotic DNA Replication
     Eukaryotic chromosomes are generally much bigger than those of
     prokaryotes.

     In eukaryotic cells, replication may begin at dozens or even hundreds of
     places on the DNA molecule, proceeding in both directions until each
     chromosome is completely copied.
Lesson Overview          DNA Replication


  Eukaryotic DNA Replication
     The two copies of DNA produced by replication in each chromosome
     remain closely associated until the cell enters prophase of mitosis.

     At that point, the chromosomes condense, and the two chromatids in each
     chromosome become clearly visible.

     They separate from each other in anaphase of mitosis, producing two cells,
     each with a complete set of genes coded in DNA.

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Powerpoint12.3

  • 1. Lesson Overview 12.3 DNA Replication
  • 2. Lesson Overview DNA Replication THINK ABOUT IT Before a cell divides, its DNA must first be copied. How might the double-helix structure of DNA make that possible?
  • 3. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Copying the Code What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA?
  • 4. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Copying the Code What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA? DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA.
  • 5. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Copying the Code Base pairing in the double helix explained how DNA could be copied, or replicated, because each base on one strand pairs with only one base on the opposite strand. Each strand of the double helix has all the information needed to reconstruct the other half by the mechanism of base pairing. Because each strand can be used to make the other strand, the strands are said to be complementary.
  • 6. Lesson Overview DNA Replication The Replication Process Before a cell divides, it duplicates its DNA in a copying process called replication. This process ensures that each resulting cell has the same complete set of DNA molecules.
  • 7. Lesson Overview DNA Replication The Replication Process During replication, the DNA molecule separates into two strands and then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand.
  • 8. Lesson Overview DNA Replication The Replication Process The two strands of the double helix separate, or “unzip,” allowing two replication forks to form.
  • 9. Lesson Overview DNA Replication The Replication Process As each new strand forms, new bases are added following the rules of base pairing. If the base on the old strand is adenine, then thymine is added to the newly forming strand. Likewise, guanine is always paired to cytosine.
  • 10. Lesson Overview DNA Replication The Replication Process The result of replication is two DNA molecules identical to each other and to the original molecule. Each DNA molecule resulting from replication has one original strand and one new strand.
  • 11. Lesson Overview DNA Replication The Role of Enzymes DNA replication is carried out by a series of enzymes. They first “unzip” a molecule of DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between base pairs and unwinding the two strands of the molecule. Each strand then serves as a template for the attachment of complementary bases.
  • 12. Lesson Overview DNA Replication The Role of Enzymes The principal enzyme involved in DNA replication is called DNA polymerase. DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA. DNA polymerase also “proofreads” each new DNA strand, ensuring that each molecule is a perfect copy of the original.
  • 13. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Telomeres The tips of chromosomes are known as telomeres. The ends of DNA molecules, located at the telomeres, are particularly difficult to copy. Over time, DNA may actually be lost from telomeres each time a chromosome is replicated. An enzyme called telomerase compensates for this problem by adding short, repeated DNA sequences to telomeres, lengthening the chromosomes slightly and making it less likely that important gene sequences will be lost from the telomeres during replication.
  • 14. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Replication in Living Cells How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
  • 15. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Replication in Living Cells How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells? Replication in most prokaryotic cells starts from a single point and proceeds in two directions until the entire chromosome is copied.
  • 16. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Replication in Living Cells How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
  • 17. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Replication in Living Cells How does DNA replication differ in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells? In eukaryotic cells, replication may begin at dozens or even hundreds of places on the DNA molecule, proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is completely copied.
  • 18. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Replication in Living Cells The cells of most prokaryotes have a single, circular DNA molecule in the cytoplasm, containing nearly all the cell’s genetic information. Eukaryotic cells, on the other hand, can have up to 1000 times more DNA. Nearly all of the DNA of eukaryotic cells is found in the nucleus.
  • 19. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Prokaryotic DNA Replication In most prokaryotes, DNA replication does not start until regulatory proteins bind to a single starting point on the chromosome. This triggers the beginning of DNA replication. Replication in most prokaryotic cells starts from a single point and proceeds in two directions until the entire chromosome is copied.
  • 20. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Prokaryotic DNA Replication Often, the two chromosomes produced by replication are attached to different points inside the cell membrane and are separated when the cell splits to form two new cells.
  • 21. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Eukaryotic DNA Replication Eukaryotic chromosomes are generally much bigger than those of prokaryotes. In eukaryotic cells, replication may begin at dozens or even hundreds of places on the DNA molecule, proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is completely copied.
  • 22. Lesson Overview DNA Replication Eukaryotic DNA Replication The two copies of DNA produced by replication in each chromosome remain closely associated until the cell enters prophase of mitosis. At that point, the chromosomes condense, and the two chromatids in each chromosome become clearly visible. They separate from each other in anaphase of mitosis, producing two cells, each with a complete set of genes coded in DNA.