Honor Chemistry 1


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Honor Chemistry 1

  1. 1. Chemistry Chapter 1 <ul><li>What is Chemistry? </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is CHEMISTRY? <ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Research/ Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Farming/ Fertilizers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why study CHEMISTRY? <ul><li>To help examine the world around us </li></ul><ul><li>Career opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>To be an informed citizen </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is matter ? <ul><li>Anything that has mass and takes up space </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chemistry <ul><li>The study of the composition of matter and the changes it undergoes </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with both living and non-living </li></ul><ul><li>States of matter: solid, liquid, gas </li></ul><ul><li>Changes of state: melt, freeze, condense </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Chemistry <ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types, defined <ul><li>Organic – study of carbon containing chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic – study of chemicals that do not contain carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry – study of the processes that take place in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical – study of the composition of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Physical – study of the mechanism, rate and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research <ul><li>Basic/ Pure Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Applied </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic vs Microscopic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Research, defined <ul><li>Basic/ Pure Chemistry – pursuit of knowledge for its own sake </li></ul><ul><li>Applied – research directed toward a practical goal/ use/ application; technology & money </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic vs Microscopic </li></ul>
  10. 10. How are we affected by CHEMISTRY? <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic vs Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alchemy <ul><li>WHO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original chemists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>400 BCE - China and India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 th century CE – Spain and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHAT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Alchemy <ul><li>Mystical Alchemy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on changing common metals into the perfect metal of gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practical Alchemy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed techniques for working with glass, metals, dyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed processes for separating mixtures and purifying substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed equipment – beakers, funnels, flasks </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Past Alchemy <ul><li>1500-1600 England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved away from alchemy to explaining through experimental evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lavoisier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of modern chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French, late 1700’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed chemistry from a science of observation to a science of measurement </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Scientific Method <ul><li>Logical, systematic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment/ test hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop theories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a hypothesis? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we do if out idea is incorrect? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we repeat experiments? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Scientific Method <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>educated guess, proposed explanation for an observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable you change/ manipulate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable that we observe, responds to changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-tested explanation for a set of observations, after an experiment has been repeated numerous times with the same results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of the results of many observations and experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A law does not try to explain the relationship it describes, that is the job of a theory </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Problem Solving <ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the given and unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the math </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does you answer make sense? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are your units correct? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Think About… <ul><li>How can a theory change? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is collaboration so important? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a practical use of collaboration? </li></ul><ul><li>How do scientists collaborate? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should you estimate an answer when problem solving? </li></ul>