Wh Explorers


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Wh Explorers

  1. 1. Unit # 3 Exploration and Discovery
  2. 2. Reconquista <ul><li>Retaking of the Iberian Peninsula by Christian soldiers after 732 AD (Battle of Tours) </li></ul><ul><li>Completed by Portugal – early 1400s </li></ul><ul><li>Completed by Spain – 1492 </li></ul>http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/europe/iberian.gif
  3. 3. Reconquista <ul><li>Iberian Muslims – called “Moors” </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Soldiers: Conquistadores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Spain and Portugal to explore Africa and the New World for the “Glory of God” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings also needed to get them off the Iberian peninsula – they could cause trouble with no one left to fight </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Reconquista Image
  5. 5. Spices <ul><li>Key to wealth in the Renaissance world </li></ul><ul><li>Highly desired by Europeans in an age before refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Grown in what is today Indonesia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spices <ul><li>Spice Trade was controlled by Muslims (remember – Mecca had been a trading center before Islam came to Arabia – the trade flowed through Arabia and Egypt and into the Northern Italian City States) </li></ul><ul><li>Pepper – worth its weight in gold by 1492 </li></ul><ul><li>Cloves and Cinnamon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both very expensive – used for “medicine” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Modern Spice Market in Turkey
  8. 9. Factors that lead to Exploration <ul><li>Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the diffusion of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Political and economic competition between European empires </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations in navigational arts (European and Islamic origins) </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator </li></ul>
  9. 10. Map showing Spanish and Portuguese Explorations of Africa and the New World
  10. 11. Let’s start with the rivalry between Spain and Portugal
  11. 12. <ul><li>Portugal is first out of the gate </li></ul><ul><li>-They didn’t have the Spanish Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>They take anyone who thinks they can make sailing better </li></ul><ul><li>They are the 1st to sail to Africa then to get to India and Indonesia </li></ul>
  12. 13. Prince Henry the Navigator <ul><li>Portuguese prince – Son of King John I (first king of Portugal) </li></ul><ul><li>Started a school of navigation in Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to bring the Renaissance to Portugal – needed money to do so </li></ul><ul><li>spices = money </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamed of sailing around Africa and reaching the Spice Islands of the Indies </li></ul>
  13. 14. Prince Henry the Navigator and the Portugal Empire The Portuguese yearned to find a sea route to India to thwart Arab m i ddlemen who controlled overland routes, keeping prices of pepper and other spices high by keeping supplies low.
  14. 15. <ul><li>CARAVEL -A multi-sail ship that can sail in different directions regardless of which way the wind blows. Larger, sturdier than previous ships. </li></ul><ul><li>ASTROLABE- (invented by the Muslims). Shows latitude by position of the stars. </li></ul><ul><li>COMPASS -(Chinese) Shows direction by always pointing due North. </li></ul><ul><li>Better maps-maps began to include the western continents! </li></ul>NAVIGATIONAL ARTS
  15. 16. Portuguese Explorations <ul><li>Series of explorations sent down the coast of Africa – looking for the route around it to India </li></ul>
  16. 17. Portuguese Explorations <ul><li>Ran into islands off the coast of Africa (Madeira and Azores) </li></ul><ul><li>Found the bight of Africa in the 1450s (before Henry’s death) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Kingdom of Ghana <ul><li>Powerful and wealthy African coastal kingdom found in the Bight of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Three major trading items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt (used for preserving meat and milk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold (will fund Portuguese exploration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves (minor trading item in the 1450s – not really important until the discovery of the New World and the establishment of sugar plantations) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Slavery out of Africa <ul><li>12 million slaves taken: 1450-1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese ran the trade </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Passage – from Africa to Havana, Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Where did they all go? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million never reached land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million to Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 million to Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million to New Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million to Europe (various places – many as domestic servants , coachmen and other house laborers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500,000 to what is today the US South </li></ul></ul>http://www.unitetheunion.com/images/africamatters_slavetrade.gif
  19. 20. The Middle Passage The Middle Passage is the slave trade route from Africa to the New World
  20. 21. Africa <ul><li>Europeans, especially Portuguese established trading posts along the coasts </li></ul><ul><li>Traded in slaves, gold, and other products </li></ul><ul><li>Trading posts became center of slave trade </li></ul>
  21. 22. Slavery and the Middle Passage http://www.kislakfoundation.org/millennium-exhibit/pics/burnside/0261.jpg
  22. 23. Slavery and the Middle Passage
  23. 24. Slavery and the Middle Passage
  24. 25. Meanwhile… The Portuguese just keep going and going and going….
  25. 26. Map showing Spanish and Portuguese Explorations of Africa and the New World
  26. 27. Portugal and the Search for Spices <ul><li>After finding Ghana the Portuguese continued down the coast of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1498 – Vasco Da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope and establishes trade with India and Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal quickly became Europe’s spice traders </li></ul><ul><li>Huge money to be made by Portugal in trade (salt, slaves and spices) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Africa’s Indian Ocean Coast <ul><li>Arabs had already established trading posts </li></ul><ul><li>Swahili was the common language of trade </li></ul>http://www.apsara-media.com/images/dhow.jpg
  28. 29. Africa’s Indian Ocean Coast <ul><li>Intrusion of the Portuguese--established trading posts </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Spain and international trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain wanted the gold, spices, wealth of the Portuguese. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent out expeditions to compete with Portuguese </li></ul></ul>http://www.apsara-media.com/images/dhow.jpg
  29. 30. Asia <ul><li>India, the East Indies, and China were colonized first by small groups of merchants </li></ul><ul><li>More merchants and army followed </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese, Dutch and British established trading companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch East India, British East India Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian textiles influenced the British textile industry-cotton, design </li></ul>http://www.wordtravels.com/images/map/India_map.jpg
  30. 31. The British will eventually discover a route to India and they will defeat all others to take over the country. They will change the world with the East India Tea Company
  31. 32. So how did the East India Tea Company end up changing the world?
  32. 33. East India Tea Company <ul><li>What comes to mind when you hear the word &quot;corporation?&quot; Maybe a giant, faceless conglomerate? Ruthless captains of industry? Perhaps you think of corporate scandals like Enron and WorldCom. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, the unscrupulous plundering done by some modern-day corporations pales in comparison to the activities carried out by one of the world's first corporations: the British East India Company </li></ul>http://www.wordtravels.com/images/map/India_map.jpg
  33. 34. East India Tea Company <ul><li>The concept of corporations was first established under ancient Roman law [source: University of Virginia]. </li></ul><ul><li>But it wasn't until England emerged from the Middle Ages that it created what we recognize as the modern corporate structure. </li></ul><ul><li>It all began on Dec. 31, 1600, when Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the British East India Corporation, naming the corporation &quot;The Governor and Company of Merchants of London, trading with the East Indies.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The corporation conducted business in the East Indies (land that we now consider India and the Middle East) at the behest of the queen </li></ul>http://www.wordtravels.com/images/map/India_map.jpg
  34. 35. East India Tea Company <ul><li>The East India Company established a few major precedents for modern corporations. But it also shaped the world in countless other ways. </li></ul><ul><li>With both the financial and military support of the Crown, the EIC served as an instrument of imperialism for England. </li></ul><ul><li>The company had its own private army and raised soldiers in the areas it subjugated. Its expansionism spurred several wars that produced at least two sovereign nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Among its many claims to fame (and notoriety), the EIC indirectly built Yale University, helped create two nations and was the world's largest drug-dealing operation in the 18th century . </li></ul>http://www.wordtravels.com/images/map/India_map.jpg
  35. 36. China <ul><li>Chinese created enclaves (certain areas) to restrict foreign influence and control trade </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese, Dutch, British competed for trade in China </li></ul><ul><li>Official imperial policy established to control foreign influences and trade </li></ul><ul><li>China didn’t need anything from the western world so they had no strong desire to trade </li></ul>http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/Sparganosis/Sparganosis%20Website/asia-map.gif
  36. 37. Japan <ul><li>Japanese society characterized by powerless emperors ruled by military leaders (shoguns) </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign influences </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigners (Dutch) could only trade in Nagasaki </li></ul>
  37. 38. Let’s go back to the rivalry between Spain and Portugal
  38. 39. Spain is behind the game- even with what will be the #1 navy (called the Spanish Armada) in the world. That armada will later be sunk by fate, bad weather, and Elizabeth I of England in 1588 - never to rise again!
  39. 40. http://www.mypodcast.com/fmimage-4-174264.jpeg In 1598 Philip III of Spain offered a prize and a lifetime pension to anyone who could discover a way to find the longitude at sea. Later the English through Parliament and the scientific societies did the same. el escorial http://www.cs.utah.edu/~bigler/pictures/europe2002/spain/el%20escorial.jpg
  40. 41. Meanwhile on the other side of the world…the unknown world
  41. 42. Christopho Columbo <ul><li>From a common family in Genoa, Italy (a sea trading city with connections to the Spice trade) </li></ul><ul><li>went to Portugal early in the 1470s </li></ul><ul><li>Worked for the Portuguese sailing from Lisbon to Iceland – hears tale of the Vikings and western settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the Vikings had actually settled north of Japan on the east coast of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced by the Journal of Marco Polo, an Italian who traveled overland to China in the 13 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a plan to sail west to reach the Indies </li></ul><ul><li>Pitched his plan to the Portuguese crown – turned him down (Portugal is already going around Africa and dealing with Ghana) </li></ul><ul><li>1486 – Arrives in Spain – Reconquista is not finished – has to wait – Queen Isabella liked the idea, but would not fund it until the end of the Reconquista </li></ul>
  42. 43. 1492 – Two Worlds Collide <ul><li>Jan 1492 – Granada surrenders – Reconquista is over and the Spanish crown agrees to fund Columbus’ venture </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus was given three ships: Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria </li></ul><ul><li>October 12, 1492 – land sighted </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus named the island “Hispaniola” and claimed it for Spain (most experts believe he’s somewhere in the modern Bahamas) </li></ul><ul><li>He’s convinced that he’s somewhere off the east coast of China </li></ul><ul><li>Called the natives “Indians” – named after the Indies (where he believes he is) </li></ul>
  43. 44. Christopher Columbus: a critical assessment <ul><li>Crazy? He saw Asians in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary? He opened the way to the West </li></ul><ul><li>Heartbroken? He sailed 4 times to the New World, yet always believed that he was just off the coast of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Died Penniless in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Did he really “discover” anything? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is he so important? </li></ul>
  44. 45. Nueva Espaňa <ul><li>Three reasons to come to the new world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God : Christianize the American Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold : gold found in Central Mexico (Aztecs) and silver found in Peru (Incas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glory : glory for the Conquistadores </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Nueva Espaňa <ul><li>Super colony – stretched from today’s Utah to the end of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Mexico City </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish really focused on the gold and silver mines of central and south America </li></ul>http://www.maps-charts.com/images/120.03%20Nieuwe%20Kaart%20-%20Tirion.jpg
  46. 47. It’s a lot of Gold…. It’s a lot of gold and silver coming from the new world to Spain http://www.flheritage.com/archaeology/underwater/galleontrail/plateFleets.cfm
  47. 48. It’s a lot of Gold…. http://www.flheritage.com/archaeology/underwater/galleontrail/plateFleets.cfm The vast amounts of natural resources discovered in the New World inspired envy among Spain’s European rivals, especially France and England. Spanish shipments of silver ( plata ), gold, gems, spices, and other exotic goods soon became prey for pirates and corsairs intent on stealing their share. To counter this threat, Spain developed a formal convoy system as early as 1537 to protect its merchant vessels from predators. At least two armed escorts, a capitana or flagship sailing at the front of the fleet and an almiranta or vice-flagship in the rear, accompanied the heavily laden ships across the Atlantic. Additional armed galleons often protected large fleets. To pay for this protection, merchants whose cargos were carried in the fleet paid a tax on their goods to the Spanish Crown How much gold and silver? $2.35 Trillion in today’s money
  48. 49. Pirate…
  49. 50. Remember that rivalry between Spain and Portugal?
  50. 51. Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty to solve the land dispute between Castile (present-day Spain) and Portugal. 1) It clarified the spheres of influence and rights of possession in the New World.- 2) it reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal.- 3) it granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain. The treaty was organized where the land would be divided by a hypothetical north-south (longitudinal) line around the world.
  51. 52. Spanish Missions <ul><li>The Spanish used a series of missions to link the parts of New Spain together </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the cities of the American southwest were originally missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Diego, San Antonio, Santa Fe, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Francisco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 fort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 school </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Alamo (San Antonio)
  53. 54. Nueva Espana Indigenous - native - people became enslaved on plantations where they worked until they died. These mega-farms or mining plantations were called encomienda - labor system used by the Spanish to colonize the New World https://jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/EXPL2A-00099~Cruelty-of-the-Spanish-Encomienda-System-on-a-Sugar-Plantation-Santo-Domingo-Posters.jpg
  54. 55. Map of New Spain
  55. 56. Meanwhile other nations are discovering this new world… Especially England and France
  56. 57. North American Colonization <ul><li>Six European Countries colonized North America – 3 were minor settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Russia – Alaska – fishing and whaling </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden – New Sweden (along the Delaware River) – now southern parts of New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands (Dutch) – New Amsterdam – becomes New York in 1664 </li></ul>
  57. 58. European Colonization of North America
  58. 59. Major European Settlements in North America <ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nueva Espana – stretched to Utah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>included Florida (has oldest city in the US) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This territory was not where Spain concentrated its resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New France (along the St. Lawrence Seaway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisiana (along the Mississippi River) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly settled for trade with the Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French saw the Indians as allies and partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies run by Absolutism – governors had complete control </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Map of New France Map of New France
  60. 61. English Settlements <ul><li>Most were founded for religious choice </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans – wanted to clear the Anglican Church of its Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Quakers – went to Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Only Rhode Island founded for religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Gives America the idea of the “city on a hill” – we’re God’s chosen people </li></ul><ul><li>Generally founded for economic reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Cash crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigo (blue dye) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton (after 1793) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavily dependent on labor </li></ul><ul><li>Will turn to slavery by 1640 – it makes economic sense </li></ul><ul><li>Home of the “American Dream” </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>(Massachusetts) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>(Virginia) </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Map of the English Colonies before 1763 </li></ul>
  62. 63. What purpose did the colonies serve? Why did they exist? <ul><li>Mercantilism – economic system whereby colonies exist solely to serve the mother country in terms of providing raw materials and as a market for finished goods. The “needs” of the colony were secondary to the needs of the mother country. </li></ul>
  63. 64. Mercantilism and Triangle Trade
  64. 65. http://faculty.umf.maine.edu/~walters/web%20230/triangle%20trade_routes.gif Triangle Trade
  65. 66. The Columbian Exchange <ul><li>Old World to New World </li></ul><ul><li>New World to Old World </li></ul><ul><li>People – colonists / slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Horses and other draft animals </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural products – wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases – especially smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas behind government and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural products -- corn, beans, squash, tomatoes, potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases – syphilis </li></ul>
  66. 67. Columbian Exchange