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The Industrial Age For The Web

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The Industrial Age For The Web

  1. 1. The Industrial Age <ul><li>Leave your wide open spaces for dark and dirty places </li></ul>
  2. 2. So What Type Of Questions Would You Ask? (turn to a partner....) (turn to a partner....)
  3. 3. What Will We Discuss? <ul><li>What Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Why England? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the old come it changed to the new way? </li></ul><ul><li>What did they have to make it happen there? </li></ul><ul><li>How exactly did it begin? </li></ul><ul><li>What did it look like then? </li></ul><ul><li>What inventions where created? </li></ul><ul><li>How did society change because of the Industrial Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Protests </li></ul><ul><li>New Ways of Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Results of British Industrialization </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Revolution?
  5. 5. The Industrial Revolution was, indeed, a revolution. Not the typical, bloody, war-based event that many of us associate with “revolution”, but a HUGE change in the human condition which occurred over a relatively short period of time. <ul><li>More people began to live in cities rather than countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Population of England doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Coal production doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Iron production 4x </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton imports 4x </li></ul>Napoleonic wars of 1799 stimulated the Industrial Revolution - why? Created need for more guns, warships, uniforms 1806-1808 England produced 3 million gun barrels but the real story is textiles...
  6. 6. Change is viewed in a positive way by those who benefit from it, but what about the under- privileged, the minorities, women and children? The mass movement of human populations from agrarian, rural areas to urban centers and cities had huge sociological, psychological, political and economic consequences. The life style change from the farm to the city, loss of the extended family structure, changes from the home to the factory as the center of production, the degradation of the environment, the creation of a class society which includes blue collar and middle classes and the colonization of the world in the search for raw materials were incredible catalysts that have changed the course of history and still affect us today.
  7. 7. Why England? What made it so different? What made it so different?
  8. 8. The Old Way Traditional Agrarian England Traditional Agrarian England
  9. 9. 17th century English Agrarian Society
  10. 10. Feudal Common Field System
  11. 11. Small Town “Farmer’s Markets”
  12. 12. Supplemental Income Cottage Industries: “Putting-Out” System
  13. 13. What Was The Old Way and What Caused It To Change?
  14. 14. Advantages of the Putting Out System <ul><li>Peasants could supplement their agricultural incomes esp. in the winter </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants could avoid the higher wage demands and regulations of urban workers </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants could acquire capitol which in part would fund later industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants acquire skills </li></ul><ul><li>Young people could start their own households earlier thereby contributing the to population growth </li></ul>
  15. 15. Disadvantages of the Putting Out System <ul><li>18c demand rose -this system inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant capitalists couldn’t get peasants to increase their output </li></ul>By necessity the Factory System is born <ul><li>Factory System meant all workers concentrated in one place under a manager </li></ul><ul><li>Had to be near water or steam power </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Did They (England) Have to Make It Happen There?
  17. 17. Population Boom! One reason the Industrial Age began in England... Reason # 1
  18. 18. British Raw Materials One reason the Industrial Age began in England... Reason # 2
  19. 19. Location, location, location One reason the Industrial Age began in England... Reason # 3 Growth of Foreign Trade in England Bustling British Port
  20. 20. The Capitalist Entrepreneur One reason the Industrial Age began in England... Reason # 4 “ Nouveau Riche” Text
  21. 21. Why not in France? Economic Advantages in France <ul><li>Napoleonic Code. </li></ul><ul><li>French communal law. </li></ul><ul><li>Free contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Open markets </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform & clear commercial regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Standards weights & measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Established technical schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The government encouraged & honored inventors & inventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Bank of France European model providing a reliable currency. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why not in France? Economic Disadvantages in France <ul><li>Years of war </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the American Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Early 19c Napoleonic Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy debts. </li></ul><ul><li>High unemployment soldiers returning from the battlefronts. </li></ul><ul><li>French businessmen were afraid to take risks. </li></ul>This is why not in France!
  23. 23. Industry and Population in Europe 18th c
  24. 24. Urbanization in Europe (especially England)
  25. 25. So England It Is... THE WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD THE WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD THE WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD “ That nation of shopkeepers!” Napoleon Bonaparte
  26. 26. So What Did It Look Like?
  27. 27. “ Gin Lane” William Hogarth 1751 “ Gin Lane” by William Hogarth 1751 “ Beer Street” by William Hogarth 1751
  28. 28. What Began It All?
  29. 29. Jethro Tull 1701 Englishman invented seed planting machine
  30. 30. What Began It All? The Enclosure Movement
  31. 31. Early Canals Transportation Infrastructure Transportation Infrastructure
  32. 32. Coalfields and Industrial Areas 1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners 1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners 1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners 1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 miners
  33. 33. Young Coal Miners “ Child Hurriers
  34. 34. Richard Arkwright “Pioneer of the Factory System” System” The “Water Frame” Arkwright's achievement was to combine power, machinery, semi-skilled labour, and a new raw material (cotton) to create, more than a century before Ford , mass production. His mechanical abilities and, above all, his genius for organization made him more than anyone else, the creator of the modern factory system.
  35. 35. Factory System FACTORS OF PRODUCTION 1. Land - includes natural resources 2. Labor - people to do the work 3. Capital - money to invest 4. Enterprise - ability to combine the other three factors and create a business or service
  36. 36. Factory Production Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor.
  37. 37. Factory System Rigid schedule. 12-14 hour day. Dangerous conditions. Mind-numbing monotony. Young “Bobbin Doffers”
  38. 38. New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
  39. 39. Frenchman Jacquard’s Loom James Hargrave’s, Spinning Jenny
  40. 40. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin Interchangeable parts Responsible for increase in American slavery
  41. 41. Crop Rotation “ Turnip” Townshend
  42. 42. Mining - Forge More powerful than water is coal. More powerful than wood is iron. Innovations make steel feasible. “ Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.” “ Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel. Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.
  43. 43. The Power Loom James Watt’s Steam Engine
  44. 44. Steam Tractor Robert Fulton’s Steam Ship
  45. 45. Early Steam Locomotive George Stephenson
  46. 46. Impact of the Railroad
  47. 47. Volta’s Battery 1800 Italian Scientists Volta made the first battery which provided a steady source of electric power <ul><li>1820 Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted, used Volta’s electric battery to move compass needle </li></ul><ul><li>1826 German Ohm (Ohm’s Law) discovered different metals (copper and lead) resisted the flow of electric current at different levels. Measurement of resistence levels - “Volts” </li></ul><ul><li>1836 Samuel Morse, sent fist electrical message by wire - using Morse code. </li></ul><ul><li>1864 James Maxwell, mathematically unified friction, current, and chemical electricity into single unified theory of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>1865 Thomas Edison, tied the theory and practical aspects of electricity together with 3 inventions: electromagnetic generator run by steam engine - electrical incandescent lamp - electrical metering system for billing </li></ul>
  48. 48. Society Changes Changes
  49. 49. 19th c Bourgeoise Industrial Nouveau Riche Industrial Nouveau Riche
  50. 50. Criticism of the Nouveau Riche
  51. 51. Stereotype of Factory Owner
  52. 52. The “Have-Nots” The Poor The Destitute The Destitute The Destitute
  53. 53. Industrial Staffordshire England
  54. 54. Problems of Pollution People no longer worked at their own pace but had to keep up with machines that did not rest. Never before had so much coal been burned, iron smelted, and cloth manufactured. <ul><li>World had never seen so many people packed into cities, so much crime, so much raw sewage floating in the streets. </li></ul><ul><li>no air filters </li></ul><ul><li>no underground sewer so all sewage flowed down ditches in streets </li></ul><ul><li>no clean drinking water </li></ul>
  55. 55. Problems of Pollution The Industrial City Worker Housing in Manchester
  56. 56. Life of New Urban Poor A Dickensian Nightmare A Dickensian Nightmare Private Soup Kitchens- Charity
  57. 57. Protests and Reformers Reformers Reformers
  58. 58. The Luddites 1811-1816 Attacks on the “frames” [power looms]. Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] <ul><li>large mov’t - took 12,000 soldiers to put the mov’t down </li></ul><ul><li>many new inventions made things faster, cheaper - for the factory owners but not for the workers who were being replaced by machines. </li></ul>PEOPLE WHO DON’T KNOW COMPUTERS ARE CALLED LUDDITES
  59. 59. New Ways of Thinking
  60. 60. Who should benefit from the profits of the new factories - the capitalists owners or the workers?
  61. 61. Robert Owen Thomas Malthus David Ricardo New economic views on factors of production Economist = those who study the “dismal science ” of economics - dismal because workers will always be poor
  62. 62. Robert Owen A factory owner who believed that workers in his factories - if treated well with good pay, decent working hours, and safe working conditions - would work harder, produce more, and buy more thereby making a higher profit for both the owner and the workers
  63. 63. Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Malthus and Ricardo believed in “ laissez-faire ” (free market - hands off) economics of Adam Smith but for much more negative reasons. Smith believed that workers should be paid well so they could buy more in a free market system
  64. 64. Thomas Malthus Adam Smith you are wrong. THE human population grows faster than the food supply that feeds them. Only disease, disaster, war, and famine keeps the human population in check. Therefore, if workers are paid high wages, receive better working conditions, and gov’t assistance then they are going to eat more food and produce more children which will only result in more poverty
  65. 66. David Ricardo Iron Law of Wages: higher wages = more children= more workers competing for jobs = drive wages down, create unemployment and famine
  66. 67. David Ricardo “ Iron Law of Wages.” When wages are high, workers have more children. More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages.
  67. 68. The Utilitarians Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net.
  68. 69. Jeremy Bentham Utilitariansim -This philosophy, utilitarianism, argued that the right act or policy was that which would cause &quot;the greatest happiness of the greatest number&quot;
  69. 70. The Utilitarians John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill believed in Utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham but his conception was different Mill's On Liberty addresses the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. One argument that Mill develops further than any previous philosopher is the harm principle. The harm principle holds that each individual has the right to act as he wants, so long as these actions do not harm others.
  70. 71. The Socialists Utopians and Marxists Utopians and Marxists <ul><li>People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to build perfect communities [ utopias ]. </li></ul>
  71. 72. Karl Marx (1818-1883) Friedrich Engles (1825-1895) Not happy with Robert Owen’s “utopian socialism” - want a more revolutionary approach.
  72. 73. Karl Marx (1818-1883) Friedrich Engles (1825-1895) Want a revolutionary mov’t where workers (proletariat) overthrow the existing rulers and factory owners (bourgeoisie) in order to form a country run by workers. Ultimately this would lead to a communist state where all property would be shared. This is a good idea!
  73. 74. What is the difference between socialism capitalism communism ? ? ? ? ? ?
  74. 75. Communism, Socialism, Capitalism Communism Socialism Capitalism Gov’t role in the economy Gap b/w “haves and have-nots” Countries Your definition
  75. 76. Results of British Industrialization
  76. 77. 1850 Zones of Industrialization Northeast France. Belgium. The Netherlands. Western German states. Northern Italy East Germany Saxony
  77. 78. Industrialization by 1850
  78. 79. Railroads on the Continent
  79. 80. Share in World Manufacturing Output 1750-1900

Editor's Notes