England had long been a loyal Catholic Kingdom. When Martin Luther began his Protestant Reformation, Henry VIII wrote a scholarly rebuttal which so impressed the Pope that he named Henry VIII the “Defender of the Faith”
Still, politics are funny things and in Henry VIII’s case he broke with the Church not over politics but over the desire for a male heir and a new wife.
Henry’s brother, Arthur, had married the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabelle of Spain – Her name was Catherine and she came with great wealth. She was Catholic.
Arthur died and Henry VIII rose to become king. Henry VIII was Catholic. He married Catherine himself. He was 14 years her junior. He had one child by Catherine.
Catherine of Aragon (it was a good match) They had one daughter- Mary But no sons….
I need a son. I have been married for 20 years and my wife, Catherine of Aragon is too old to have any more children. Who will inherit my throne when I die? I spy an attractive lady – in-waiting called Anne Boleyn. If only I could marry her instead. Will the Pope give me a divorce? The Church is very rich. I need money for my luxurious court. If only I could get my hands on it. The new Protestant ideas are spreading in Germany. Princes there are reforming their churches and throwing out the Catholic Church. Some people in England like the new Protestant ideas. They believe that the Bible should be in English not Latin. The Church takes money out my country in taxes to help build St Peter’s in Rome. What do I get in return? Many speculate that the highly popular English folk tune “Greensleeves” was composed by Henry VIII of England for Anne Boleyn, his lover and future queen consort. The fact that Anne rejected Henry’s advances is said to be written about in the song, when the writer’s love cast him off “discourteously.” No one knows if the legend is true, but the song is often associated with Boleyn in the public mind. The song likely circulated in manuscript form, as most social music did, long before it was actually printed. A tune by this name was registered at the London Stationer’s Company in 1580 as “A New Northern Dittye of the Lady Green Sleeves.” No copy of that printing is known.
He had to divorce her. To do that, he had to get the Pope to grant him a divorce which is a sin to Catholics He asked for a divorce on the grounds that by marrying his brother’s widow he had violated Biblical law. He thought the lack of a male heir was God’s punishment for this sin. The Pope would not do so. Parliament declared Church of England which was sort of half Catholic and half Protestant
<ul><li>Henry dissolved the monasteries and sold their land and possessions to the wealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>This gave him more money and supporters. </li></ul><ul><li>He stuck close to Catholic teachings, however. </li></ul><ul><li>church officials moved the Church of England, also called the Anglican Church, in a Protestant direction . </li></ul>The Reformation in England Henry, the “Defender of the Faith”, left the Catholic church and created The Church of England
<ul><li>His second wife was Anne Boleyn. </li></ul><ul><li>She was a Protestant </li></ul>
<ul><li>At Henry’s request, in 1534 Parliament moved to break England’s Catholic Church away from the pope in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Act of Supremacy of 1534 ruled that the king was the supreme head of the new Church of England. </li></ul><ul><li>The king controlled religious doctrine, clerical appointments, and discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded. </li></ul>The Reformation in England What is it With these British kings And beheading! Author of Utopia … how ironic!
Anne Boleyn <ul><li>Miscarried many times but only had one live birth… </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth I </li></ul><ul><li>Anne was beheaded on a charge of treason and adultery. </li></ul>
MOM Daughter: Elizabeth I http://www.smh.com.au/ffximage/2006/05/21/cateblanchett_wideweb__470x313,0.jpg
His third wife, Jane Seymour, bore Henry a son who later became Edward VI. She died a few days later.
Henry’s Exs (a repeat so you can keep them straight) <ul><li>Catherine of Aragon , divorced, retired to live out rest of natural life…a bonus in those days </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Boleyn, wife #2, mother of Elizabeth, executed </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Seymour, #3, gave birth to son Edward, died young </li></ul>
Due to politics, Henry arranged to marry Anne of Cleves. Never saw her before marriage, took one look at her, was appalled by what he saw. Married in Jan., divorced in July, claimed she was “untouched” and probably “untouchable,” but she did survive 17 more years –which is more than can be said for the man who arranged the marriage
His fifth wife was Catherine Howard. She was convicted of adultery and executed.
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His last wife was Catherine Parr, who outlived him. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
Henry’s Exs (keep them straight) <ul><li>5 . Henry then married #5 Catherine Howard who, to say the least, was flighty. Her head flew off in 1542. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Last wife was Catherine Parr, nice lady though she wasn’t too keen on marring Henry and who could blame her? </li></ul><ul><li>Henry was dead 4 years later </li></ul>
<ul><li>Henry’s daughter Mary came to the throne in 1553. </li></ul><ul><li>She wanted to return England to Catholicism, but her actions had the opposite effect. </li></ul><ul><li>She earned the name “Bloody Mary” by having 300 Protestants burned as heretics. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of her reign, England was more Protestant than ever. </li></ul>The Reformation in England
http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/eng-m.htm http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/Elizabeth%20I.jpg Mary Catholic Elizabeth Protestant
http://images.amazon.com/images/P/B00007AJF9.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg To be shown at the unit’s end
<ul><li>Meanwhile </li></ul><ul><li>More on the religious front … </li></ul>