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French Revolution For Web


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French Revolution For Web

  1. 1. The French Revolution Liberty Leading The People by Delacroix
  2. 2. The French Revolution In The Beginning... 1789-1792
  3. 3. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
  4. 4. Why The French Revolution Is Important
  5. 5. French Revolution Trouble is brewing in France <ul><li>Why it matters : </li></ul><ul><li>The French Revolution became the model for revolution in the modern world. </li></ul><ul><li>The power of nationalism was first </li></ul><ul><li>experienced during the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>and it is still powerful in existing nations and emerging nations today. </li></ul><ul><li>The French Revolution spread the principles of liberty and equality, which are held dear by many nations and individuals today. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Happened When in the French Revolution
  7. 7. <ul><li>student outline </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of kings until 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Estates general called in 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of Bastille July 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>New Constitution 1789-1791 </li></ul><ul><li>Republic 1792 </li></ul><ul><li>Extremists in power 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Reign of Terror 1793-1794 </li></ul><ul><li>The Directory 1795 </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon First Consul 1799 </li></ul>The French Revolution of 1789
  8. 8. What Life Was Like Before the French Revolution Began
  9. 9. Louis XVI Marie Antionette The Rulers of France Let them eat cake
  10. 10. <ul><li>When she was 14 years old, her mother sent her to Paris to marry the Dauphin and become France's future Queen. Maria Teresa thought her a silly girl (&quot;Her age craves indulgence,&quot; she wrote father-in-law Louis XV)--and only sent her when her other daughters defaulted and she had no other choice (beautiful Marie Elizabeth, for example, contracted small pox and became too ugly to qualify). Indeed, Marie Antoinette had been a lousy student, didn't like to read, and could barely write. </li></ul><ul><li>Her 15-year-old husband, the future Louis XVI, was a shy, gawky boy who most loved hunting, reading history, and working in his little locksmith shop. Whereas womanizing Louis XV immediately examined his daughter-in-law's breasts (and was disappointed--she was, after all, only 14), the future Louis XVI was not able to complete the sex act with his bride for a whole 7 years and 3 months after the wedding. </li></ul>Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her
  11. 11. For 7 years and 3 months, then, Marie Antoinette filled her life with other gay pursuits--dancing, music, gambling; theatricals, buying things, gambling; riding horses, frisking with dogs, gambling--and she shocked the pants off France when she made an outing with courtiers and her household one morning to watch daybreak--the so-called l'lever d'Aurore . Positively Rousseau-esque! Decadent and unqueenly! It prompted the first of thousands of vitriolic pamphlets written against her specifically. In 1774, Louis XV died, and King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ascended to the throne.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Finally in 1778, thanks to the intervention in 1777 of Marie Antoinette's brother Joseph (the future Holy Roman Emperor) in the role of sex therapist, the King and Queen delivered a healthy baby girl...followed by a son in 1781, the coveted Dauphin and future King...another son in 1785...and daughter Sophie in 1786. These were the Queen's happiest years--so fulfilled as a mother, by her own account, that she packed on weight and mostly gave up her antic behavior. But sad days followed fast: Sophie died in 1787. The Dauphin, always a sickly boy, became hideously diseased, crippled, and feverish as he slipped into advanced tuberculosis. And, with the treasury empty, bread riots everywhere, and the fear of war rampant, the Queen got the blame. </li></ul>Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her
  13. 13. Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children
  14. 14. Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”
  15. 15. Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”
  16. 16. The Necklace Scandal <ul><li>Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan </li></ul><ul><li>The Countess de LaMotte </li></ul>1,600,000 livres [$100 million today]
  17. 17. Let Them Eat Cake! <ul><li>Marie Antoinette NEVER said that! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Madame Deficit” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Austrian Whore” </li></ul>
  18. 18. What will happen to her next? Wait and see…. Queen Marie Antoinette: Love Her or Hate Her
  19. 19. What Are The Conditions That Lead to a Revolution?
  20. 20. The French Urban Poor
  21. 21. <ul><li>Urban Commoner’s Budget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tithe 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes 35% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL 170% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King’s Budget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versailles 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronation 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loans 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin. 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL 160% </li></ul></ul>Financial Problems in France, 1789
  22. 22. What Is French Society Composed Of Before the French Revolution?
  23. 23. The Three Estates The Estates General is the French body of lawmaking Nobility Clergy Bourgeoisie Commoners Peasants
  24. 24. The Three Estates First and Second Estates First Estate: Clergy (1% population) -control lots of land -operated the schools -aided the poor -lived in great luxury – chateaux -doesn’t have to pay tax (taille) to King (common people pay tax to King and tithe to church) Second Estate: nobles -Nobles had almost complete authority over peasants -Nobles did not have to do military service -Nobles were exempt from most taxes -Nobles collected tolls from people using roads and markets -
  25. 25. The Three Estates The Third Estate <ul><li>Workers (sans culottes) </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie (businessmen) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants were forced to do military service </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants could not hunt or fish on noble’s estates </li></ul><ul><li>-Peasants had to pay taxes to their lord, the king, and </li></ul><ul><li>the Church </li></ul><ul><li>-Peasants had to use the lord’s mill, oven and </li></ul><ul><li>winepress, and pay for them </li></ul><ul><li>- Peasants made up 90% of the population </li></ul>
  26. 26. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! 300 300 648
  27. 27. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1 st What is the Third Estate? Everything! 2 nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! 3 rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abbé Sieyès 1748-1836
  28. 28. Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
  29. 30. <ul><li>The causes of the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>This cartoon was produced in the 1780s and is a comment on the social situation in France at that time. It can be used to help explain the causes of the French Revolution of 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>You have two tasks for this piece of homework. You should use your knowledge and evidence from your lessons on the causes of the French Revolution to help you complete the tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Label the three figures in the cartoon by writing in the spaces provided: </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant </li></ul><ul><li>Priest </li></ul><ul><li>Noble </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Use your own knowledge to explain how the cartoon </li></ul><ul><li>can be used to describe the causes of the French Revolution. </li></ul>
  30. 31. What Are The Causes of the French Revolution?
  31. 32. Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution <ul><li>King Louis XVI and Marie Antionette ran out of money. He spent lots of money on two wars against Britain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One in 1756 (French and Indian War or the 7 Years War) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One in 1778 (American Revolution against Britain) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution <ul><li>2. Problems faced by peasants. They were so poor they couldn’t feed their families. Then there were 2 years of bad harvest. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution <ul><li>3. Clergy and Nobles would not give the king more money. Clergy and nobles had lots of land and money but would not pay more taxes. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Four Causes of the 1789 French Revolution <ul><li>4. Final cause of the French Revolution was ideas. A new set of ideas called the Enlightenment attacked the power of the king and the church. These made lots of ordinary French people think that they should have some of the power of the gov’t. </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>The causes of the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>There was a revolution in _ _ _ _ _ _ in 1789. The ruler of France before the Revolution was King _ _ _ _ _ XVI. His wife was Queen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ King Louis XVI lived in his palace at _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ near Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the reasons why there was a revolution in France in 1789 is that the king ran out of _ _ _ _ _. He spent lots of money on two wars with _ _ _ _ _ _ One was in 1756 and another one was in 1778. In the second war the French were helping the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ break away from British control. </li></ul><ul><li>Another cause of the French Revolution was the problems faced by the _ _ _ They were so poor that they did not have enough money to feed their families. This was made worse when the crops failed to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ failed in 1787 and 1788. </li></ul><ul><li>Another cause of the French Revolution was that the two _ _ _ _ __groups in France would not give the king more money. The _ _ _ _ _ and the _ _ _ _ _ had lots of land and money but would not pay more _ _ _ _ _. This left the king unable to find more money. </li></ul><ul><li>A final reason why the French had a revolution in 1789 was ideas. A new set of ideas called the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ attacked the power of the king and the church. These made lots of ordinary French people think that they should have some of the power of the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. </li></ul>I am a lord. I have lots of money and do not want to pay any extra taxes to the king! I am a bishop of the church. I have lots of money but I do not want to give the king any extra taxes either! I am a peasant. I have nothing. When the crops fail to grow the prices rise and I starve. I am King Louis XVI. I have run out of money fighting the British. Perhaps the lords and the church could give me some more taxes?
  36. 38. “ The Third Estate Awakens” <ul><li>The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” </li></ul><ul><li>They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France. </li></ul>
  37. 39. “ The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
  38. 40. You tell me who said what: worksheet link
  39. 41. 1789 The French Revolution Begins
  40. 42. June 20, 1789 What happened after the Tennis Court oath? The National Assembly ruled and created documents and new decrees (laws)
  41. 43. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 <ul><li>A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>18 died. </li></ul><ul><li>73 wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>7 guards killed. </li></ul><ul><li>It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen]. </li></ul>
  42. 44. Bastille - a symbol of tyranny
  43. 45. The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789) <ul><li>There was chaos and fear everywhere as the National Assembly took over </li></ul><ul><li>Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos ] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land. </li></ul>
  44. 46. The Path of the “Great Fear” Why did the Great Fear occur? ____ Peasants believed nobles were planning to kill them and stop revolution. Many food shortages, so people hungry and angry ______ What was the Great Fear? ____ Peasants attacked manor houses and monasteries. Destroyed possessions and documents recording rents, feudal dues and other feudal obligations
  45. 47. The Creation of the National Assembly and the new Constitution
  46. 48. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 During that August there were decrees (laws) passed that ended the privileges of the rich aristocracy Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
  47. 49. 1789 The National Assembly continued to meet. <ul><li>3 reforms of the National Assembly which occurred in August, 1789? (August Decrees) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Outlawed the 10% tithe to Catholic Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Canceled all feudal dues and services from peasants to nobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Removed privileges of First and Second Estates, therefore outlawed Feudalism in France _ </li></ul></ul></ul>Equality & Meritocracy!
  48. 50. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Aug 26, 1789) <ul><li>5 rights stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. men are born and remain equal before the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Freedom of speech, press, and religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Right to take part in government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Right to hold public office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. Right to a fair trial </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793) Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791) <ul><li>Women played a vital role in the Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. </li></ul>
  50. 52. BUT . . . . . <ul><li>Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!] </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate. </li></ul></ul>Their Goal Safeguard the right of private property!!
  51. 53. BUT . . . . . <ul><li>Many nobles flee to Europe - they hope the other noble families will protect them and try to retake the throne for the French king. </li></ul><ul><li>What is an em i gr e ? French nobles who fled to Britain, Prussia, Switzerland </li></ul>
  52. 54. The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!
  53. 55. The Tricolor is the Fashion!
  54. 56. The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge
  55. 57. Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock La Republic Liberté
  56. 58. Revolutionary Playing Cards
  57. 59. Laws Passed by The National Assembly <ul><ul><ul><li>2 laws passed by the National Assembly which reformed France? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided France into 83 departments instead of unequal provinces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all local officials to be elected </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 60. 83 Revolutionary Departments are created February 26, 1790
  59. 61. The Creation of the New Constitution <ul><li>The Assembly adopted its Constitution of 1791, which set up a limited monarchy with a king and a legislative Assembly with the power to make laws </li></ul><ul><li>Only the most affluent(rich) members would be elected. </li></ul><ul><li>Only men over 25 who paid a specified amount in taxes could vote. This keeps the mob from running the gov’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people–Catholic priests, nobles, and lower classes hurt by economic hard times–opposed the new order. </li></ul><ul><li>The king tried to flee France, but he was recognized and returned to France. </li></ul>
  60. 62. The Creation of the New France and How Do They Pay For It? 1791
  61. 63. How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate and sell Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
  62. 64. How to Finance the New Govt.? Why did the National Assembly seize lands from the Catholic Church? land was sold to the people and money used to pay down the national debt
  63. 65. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy People in parishes would elect their own clergy and government pay salaries of priests and bishops What was the result of this law? Catholic Church upset and many Catholics began to oppose the Revolution
  64. 66. New Relations Between Church & State <ul><li>Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. </li></ul><ul><li>The church was reorganized: </li></ul><ul><li>The pope had NO voice in the </li></ul><ul><li>appointment of the French clergy. </li></ul><ul><li>It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!! </li></ul>Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]
  65. 67. 2. Print Assignats <ul><li>Issued by the National Constituent Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused inflation </li></ul>
  66. 68. What did the National Assembly Accomplish? limited the authority of the king and divided the government into 3 branches--executive, judicial, legislative--who believed in 3 branches of government?????
  67. 69. 4 Provisions of the 1791 Constitution? <ul><ul><ul><li>king couldn’t make or stop law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.tax paying males elected members to Legislative Assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. National Assembly abolished, Legislative Assembly established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. No member of National Assembly could be a member of the Legislative Assembly </li></ul></ul>
  68. 70. How did Louis XIV feel about the 1791 Constitution?
  69. 71. Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791 Agreed, but plotted with e migres to overthrow gov’t and restore Old Regime j
  70. 72. What were the problems with the Legislative Assembly of 1791? <ul><ul><li>weak executive branch, inexperienced legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elected by minority of population, discontent among poor, inflation </li></ul></ul>
  71. 73. Timeline Orientation Where Are We Going With This?
  72. 75. Meanwhile the rest of Europe watches and fears what is going on in France Revolutionary France prepares a new army
  73. 76. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
  74. 77. French Expansion: 1791-1799 During the revolution in France other countries are scared. They are frightened the revolution will spread to their lands. Some offer support to Louis XVI and nobles of France. New French army (commoners) expands Fr territory. Out of this Napoleon will arise.
  75. 78. Why did the Legislative Assembly and Louis XVI favor war? Louis XVI-would defeat revolutionary army and restore him to power. Legis Assemb--increase their power and spread revolution
  76. 79. __ 1. the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people __ 2. obligations of peasants to noble landlords that survived into the modern era __ 3. “without breeches,” members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patriots (in other words, they wore long trousers instead of fine knee-length breeches) __ 4. one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first estate), the nobles (second estate), and the townspeople (third estate) A. estate B. relics of feudalism C. bourgeoisie D. sans-culottes Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C B D A Checking for Understanding
  77. 80. The French Revolution and the Radical Phase 1793-1794
  78. 81. The Political Spectrum <ul><ul><li>conservative . Group that does not want change--revolution had gone far enough-king with limited authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>radical. Person who wants more change-wants to get rid of king, set up republic and more reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moderate. Person who does not hold extreme views--sided with both sides depending on the issue </li></ul></ul>
  79. 82. The Political Spectrum Jacobins Montagnards (“The Mountain”) Girondists Monarchíen (Royalists) 1790s: The Plain (swing votes) TODAY:
  80. 83. Now there is an uprising Due to all the continued problems and discontent What led to uprisings in France? Failures in war and economic/food shortages From all this discontent new voices/groups will rise in power in the France….
  81. 84. The Political Chaos <ul><li>The Girondins (rural) wanted to keep the king alive. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jacobins (especially the Mountain -left branch) wanted the King killed. </li></ul>
  82. 85. Things Go Wild There is murder and mayhem and chaos in the streets. The Jacobins take over. The Reign of Terror begins.
  83. 86. The September Massacres, 1792 <ul><li>Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front. </li></ul><ul><li>Buveurs de sang [“drinkers of blood.”]  over 1000 killed! </li></ul><ul><li>It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad. </li></ul>
  84. 87. The Radicals Seize Power <ul><li>They called themselves the Commune Radicals/Jacobins who seized government in Paris </li></ul>
  85. 88. France’s Monarchy Will End <ul><li>The steps leading to the end of the monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Prussia vowed to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Commune demanded Legis Assemb abolish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Commune accused Louis XIV of plotting with foreign powers to overthrow Const of 1791 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Legis Assembly suspended office of king </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e. Parisian mob marched to Tuileries, killed guards, and imprisoned the royal family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f. Commune ruled Paris and Legis Assembly tried to govern France </li></ul></ul></ul>
  86. 89. Why did the Legislative Assembly End? <ul><li>Legislative Assembly voted itself out of existence and sets date for new elections--Legis Assembly a constitutional monarchy and since no longer a king, need a new constitution _ </li></ul>
  87. 90. The Change in the French Revolution The Republic and the Reign of Terror 1792-1795
  88. 91. So what exactly changed? The National Assembly added universal manhood suffrage every adult male could vote no matter if owned property or not
  89. 92. Who were the leaders in the chaos of this time? 1792-1795
  90. 93. The Leaders <ul><li>Georges Danton </li></ul><ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Paul Marat </li></ul>
  91. 94. Important Jacobins <ul><li>A. One of the more important radical leaders was Jean-Paul Marat, who published the radical journal Friend of the People. </li></ul><ul><li>He argued that the poor had a right to take from the rich whatever they needed, even by violence! </li></ul>
  92. 95. “ The Death of Marat” by Jacques Louis David, 1793
  93. 96. The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19 c [A Romantic View]
  94. 97. 1. The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class <ul><li>Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Small shopkeepers. </li></ul><ul><li>Tradesmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans. </li></ul>They felt the gov’t should make sure they had wage increases and the price of food was fixed! They were the voice of the common man!
  95. 98. 2. The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House <ul><li>Started as a debating society. </li></ul><ul><li>Membership mostly middle class unlike the Sans-Collotes who were more peasant and working class . </li></ul><ul><li>Created a vast network of clubs. </li></ul>
  96. 99. Who were the important Jacobins? <ul><li>Robespierre was a lawyer and activist, so known for his honesty that he was called “The Incorruptible.” </li></ul><ul><li>He followed Rousseau’s ideas in The Social Contract, and he believed that anyone who would not submit to the general will as he interpreted it should be executed. </li></ul>B. To respond, the National Convention formed the 12-member Committee of Public Safety , led first by Danton and then by Maximilian Robespierre .
  97. 100. This New Gov’t Is Called The National Convention. What Form Is It? A Republican Gov’t Without A King
  98. 101. The 4 Tasks of The National Convention. a. end monarchy b. write a new constitution c. keep order at home d. fight foreign invaders
  99. 102. Committee for Public Safety <ul><li>Revolutionary Tribunals. </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>16,000 – 50,000 executed. </li></ul>
  100. 103. Committee for Public Safety <ul><li>It’s task was to try enemies of the Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>To direct the army to try to stop invading armies </li></ul><ul><li>To control the Revolution </li></ul>
  101. 104. The “Monster” Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939 !
  102. 105. A French physician, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, was instrumental in having a law passed requiring all sentences of death to be carried out humanely by “means of a machine.” Use of the guillotine, named for Guillotin,continued in France through the 1970s. In 1981, France outlawed capital punishment.
  103. 106. The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! <ul><li>The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. </li></ul><ul><li>The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000! </li></ul>
  104. 107. Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793) Louis XIV is accused of plotting against the gov’t of The National Convention and against France
  105. 108. Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793 The rest of the world is shocked that the king and queen were executed!
  106. 109. Different Social Classes Executed 28% 31% 25% 8% 7%
  107. 110. Many other countries are at war with France while the Reign of Terror continues within France Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Netherlands, Spain, Sardinia. They feared France would try to export revolutionary ideas about overthrowing monarchy
  108. 111. The French Army was different than the old regime A conscription is passed. Conscription is to draft all unmarried 18-25 year old men into the army How was the new French army different from the army of the Old Regime? anyone could become an officer if proved their ability
  109. 112. The Creation of the Republic Wars <ul><li>The French revolutionary army changed the nature of modern warfare and was an important step in creating modern nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Previously, small armies fought wars between governments and ruling dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li>The new French army was a people’s army fighting a people’s war on behalf of a people’s government. Warfare also became more destructive. </li></ul>
  110. 113. More Changes Under the Reign of Terror
  111. 114. The Reign of Terror (cont.) <ul><li>A new calendar was adopted. Years were numbered from September 22, 1792, the first day of the French Republic, and not from Christ’s birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The calendar contained 12 months with each month having three weeks of 10 days, with the tenth day a day of rest. This practice eliminated Sundays. </li></ul><ul><li>Robespierre realized, however, that France was too Catholic to be dechristianized. </li></ul>
  112. 115. The New Republican Calendar 18 August-21 September (Fruit) Fructidor 19 July-17 August (Heat) Thermidor 19 June-18 July (Harvest) Messidor 20 May-18 June (Meadows) Prairial 20 April-19 May (Flowers) Floreal 21 March-19 April (Budding) Germinal 19 February-20 March (Wind) Ventose 20 January-18 February (Rain) Pluviose 21 December-19 January (Snow) Nivose 21 November-20 December (Frost) Frimaire 22 October-20 November (Fog) Brumaire 22 September-21 October (Vintage) Vendemaire Time Period Meaning New Name August 18 – September 21 Fruit Fructidor July 19 – August 17 Heat Thermidor June 19 – July 18 Harvest Messidor May 20 – June 18 Meadow Prairial April 20 – May 19 Flowers Floreal March 21 – April 19 Budding Germinal February 19 – March 20 Wind Ventose January 20 – February 18 Rain Pluviose December 21 – January 19 Snow Nivose November 21 – December 20 Frost Frimaire October 22 – November 20 Fog Brumaire September 22 – October 21 Vintage Vendemaire
  113. 116. Religious Terror: De-Christianization (1793-1794) <ul><li>The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime and superstitious practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Very popular among the sans-culottes . </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic! </li></ul>
  114. 117. The De-Christianization Program <ul><li>The public exercise of religion was banned. </li></ul><ul><li>The Paris Commune supported the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>destruction of religious & royal statues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ban on clerical dress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the “Temple of Reason.” </li></ul><ul><li>The deportation of priests denounced by six citizens. </li></ul>
  115. 118. The “Temple of Reason” Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple, Become the goddess of the French people.
  116. 119. The Festival of Supreme Being A new secular holiday
  117. 120. The Radical’s Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
  118. 121. The Results of the Reign of Terror
  119. 122. The Results of the Reign of Terror Jacobins lost power, bourgeoisie took control of National Convention, Fashions became fancier, inflation increased _____________________________
  120. 123. The Response to the Reign of Terror The Thermidoran Reaction 1794
  121. 124. The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794 <ul><li>July 26  Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>he alienated members of the CPS & CGS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many felt threatened by his implications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July 27  the Convention arrests Robespierre. </li></ul><ul><li>July 28  Robespierre is tried & guillotined! </li></ul>
  122. 125. The Arrest of Robespierre The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794
  123. 126. The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
  124. 127. The Revolution Comes to an End What was the impact anyway?
  125. 128. 6 Reforms of the National Convention a. Opened new schools b. supported ideas of universal elementary education c. encouraged religious toleration d. established wage and price controls to stop inflation e. adopted metric system f. abolished slavery in French colonies
  126. 129. France and Wars – Why the Directory came about Why Napoleon came to power
  127. 130. A New Form of Gov’t Is Created (the third one….) A new constitution is written It creates a Directory
  128. 131. The Directory The Directory New ruling gov’t of France 1795-1799 Elector choose legislators They choose 5 men to direct the country – They are called the Directory
  129. 132. How is it organized? 2 House legislature-500 members Council of 500 - propose laws. 250 members - House of Ancients-vote on laws and select executive branch. Executive branch=5 members=directors_
  130. 133. <ul><ul><ul><li>Who voted in Directory elections? How was this different from elections during the National Convention? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male property owners, therefore bourgeoisie controlled govt. all men could vote during National Convention. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  131. 134. <ul><ul><ul><li>What problems did the Directory face? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>weak, corrupt rulers, Inflation, Used army to put down revolts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  132. 135. __ 1. an individual qualified to vote in an election __ 2. a dissenting group __ 3. a sudden overthrow of the government A. faction B. elector C. coup d’ é tat Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B A C Checking for Understanding