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Research presentation final

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Environmental Impact of Building Technologies - A Study of Energy Efficient Materials & Technology for Building Facades systems in Mumbai City.

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Research presentation final

  1. 1. Research thesis Environmental Impact Of Building Materials: A Study Of Energy Efficient Materials For Building Facade Systems In Mumbai City. Guide: Ar. Vinit Mirkar -Ar. Mitisha Prajapati M.Arch. (Environmental Architecture)-Sem-14 IES College of Architecture
  2. 2. Table of Content 1. Introduction 2. Aim & Objectives 3. Background Study 3.1. Literature Review 3.1.1. Current Trend of Green Building Materials. 3.1.2. Role of Various Green Building Rating Systems 3.1.3. Exiting Policies and government initiatives 3.2. Case Study : Criteria for the selection and rating of Green building materials 4. Need and Importance of Study 4.1. Introduction of Building Material & Construction industry of India. 4.1.1. Environmental Impacts 4.1.2. Building Façades in Mumbai: Trends & evolution pattern 4.2. Problem Identification 5. Hypothesis 6. Description of research and Limitations 6.1. Identify Scope of research 6.1.1. Identify Building Systems to be studied 6.1.2. Identify Criteria of Environmental impact assessment 6.2. Limitations of Research 7. Research data collection & Analyses 8. Proposed Strategies 8.1. Alternative Façade Solution 8.2. Façade Design considerations for optimum day lighting 8.3 Further Suggestions & Conclusion Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  3. 3. 1. Introduction  Mumbai is the financial capital of India with the highest number of population of all the Indian cities. Mumbai is undergoing a massive construction boom, with more than 15 super-tall buildings, hundreds of skyscrapers and thousands of high-rises under construction (The Economic Times, Dec-2014).  With the rapid automation and mechanization, the construction industry of the city has emerged as most dynamic as well as rapidly advancing industry sector. With the industry facing fast-time growth in past few years, the expansion and modernization involve use of new technologies as well as new materials to match the demands.  At the same time in India, with a value of 22%, the construction sector is responsible for higher share of carbon dioxide emissions and previous research has demonstrated that the use of alternative building technologies can reduce drastically (up to 50%) the embodied energy of the production processes ( Venkatarama & Jagadish, 2003).  It is found that high proportion of this energy is used to produce a small number of key materials such as concrete, mortar, plaster and bricks. The highest energy is used in the manufacture of aluminum, copper, stainless steel and plastics (primary energy requirements for production vary from 250 Giga Joules (GJ)/ ton to 100 GJ/ton) followed by glass  The country has incorporated use of green building materials to march toward sustainable development. Green Building Materials are environmentally responsible because its environmental impacts are considered over the life of the product (Spiegel and Meadows, 1999). They include the resource inputs and the product outputs of industrial production which can be assessed. Depending upon project-specific goals, an assessment of green materials may involve an evaluation of one or more of the criteria. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  4. 4. 2. Aim & Objectives  Objective of the study is to understand environmental impact of various building materials and systems.  Review the various initiatives taken for the encouragement of sustainable building materials worldwide.  categorize the criteria to assess building materials for environmental impact within the selected context and assess the selected materials to find the energy efficient materials.  Identify potential of using energy efficient building materials for various building systems.  Suggesting upon appropriate building technologies to the various stack holders of the building industry for the benefits of reducing environmental impacts and energy consumptions. Executive Summery-importance of the study  The Building construction industry is generating worldwide substantial environmental impacts. In fact, it contributes to about half of the total energy consumption of high income countries and is responsible of a major share of greenhouse gas emissions also in developing nations. Scientific data on environmental impacts of building materials and technologies in developing countries are rather limited and it is difficult to make informed choices aiming at reducing such impacts.  The study aims at filling a gap in the assessment and documentation of environmental impacts of building materials in India. It is based on a detailed analysis of various building façade materials and technologies in the city of Mumbai mainly focused on commercial buildings. Based mainly on primary data, the impacts have been assessed including the production chain of materials, their transportation on site, construction activities and maintenance activities over years. With the tools like LCA (life cycle assessment), Embodied energy, material performance, Contribution to green house gas emissions etc comparative analyses is generated. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  5. 5. 3. Background Study3.1 Literature Review  The Aim of Literature review is to understand background of existing Green building material trends and innovations within the selected context. 3.1.1. Current Trend of Green Building Materials.  As the awareness of green building materials come to pass, the demand for the research in the direction of sustainable building materials is occurring worldwide.  Below are few examples of various green building material related initiatives carried out by few organizations. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 NumberofBuilding Year Green Building Movement in India Green Building Registerd Green Building Certified 1.GRIHA Product Catalogue  GRIHA Product Catalogue is an online product catalogue which has been developed to provide green building designers and clients with all necessary information on green building products which can be used in order to make buildings GRIHA compliant.  While GRIHA has prepared the list with the greatest care, GRIHA is not able to guarantee that the information provided is accurate and/or exhaustive, and as such GRIHA cannot be held liable for claims pertaining to use of the information.  At the same time the criteria are based on product property & performances such as VTL(visual light transmittance), U-value, recycle content, sound transmittance, noise reduction coefficient etc.  however it does not highlight the embodied energy or life cycle approach based criteria through which the environmental impact of product and energy consumption measures are examined. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  6. 6. 2. Various ECO-Labeling for Products  (i) Central Pollution Control Board ECO LABEL: A government operated seal of approval program for environmentally preferable consumer products. Launched in 1991 with the aim of easy identification of environment-friendly products.  The criteria follow a cradle-to-grave approach, i.e. from raw material extraction, to manufacturing, and to disposal.  Criteria of ECO LABEL • Production process including source of raw materials; • Use of natural resources; • Likely impact of the environment; • Energy conservation in the production of the product; • Disposal of the product and its container; • Utilization of "Waste" and recycled materials; • Suitability for recycling or packaging; and • Biodegradability • Effect of waste arising from the production process Limitations • 16 product categories that Government of India has notified the final criteria for. • Which covers hardly 2 architectural products i.e. Wood, Paints & powder coating. • The drawback of the scheme is its complicated layered process of the examination and lack of awareness. • As per a survey of manufacturers, the data required for the criteria is time and money consuming, which has led them to loose interest.  (ii) ISO 14000 : The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) develops international standards for all industrial sectors. The ISO 14000;2004 family addresses various aspects of environmental management.  There are various companies in India that provides training service for ISO;14000 standards. There are also a few industries which has received ISO14000 certification. As we see lack of popularity and interest of consumer in terms of knowledge & the benefits of ISO;14000, there is no awareness and enough information available to reach such certified industries. 3. Background Study Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  7. 7. 3. Market demand and product innovations  India is a growing Building Materials market in terms of increasing demand and need for innovations. A lot of new construction material and technologies are being introduced to consumers day by day.  Solar reflective surfaces, Energy star for power saving products, Noise reducing, U-Value for heat transfer coefficient etc. are various properties of material being demand by consumer for particular awareness of Sustainable products. Various manufacturers have come up with innovative products with such properties, which is also a marketing factor for them. Case Of Saint-Gobain glass India •Saint-Gobain, One of the leading architectural glass provider in India, has come up with the ‘Glass is Green’ movement to support glass product with the properties that makes it green. •The company has taken efforts to educate clients on how the glass is ‘Green’ with various awareness seminars and other marketing sources. Recyclability, Energy-efficiency, Day lighting, Transparency, Noise control etc are the properties to consider a glass green. •To support these properties the company has come up with products with higher VLT (visual light transmission), less SHGC (solar heat gain coefficient), low-e Glass coating and sufficient U-value. •However it is not highlighted the embodied energy & carbon emissions of product. 3. Background Study Conclusion The country has initiated incorporating the idea of Green building and materials, yet we lack upon proper structuring, government initiated schemes, funds and access to correct data. Since the trend of green building materials is rather new, it is more over trend and market demand driven rather research driven. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  8. 8. 3.1.2. Role of Various Green Building Rating Systems (i) GRIHA Manual / Guidelines (Synopsis of the criteria for rating), 2011: Total 34 criteria under 9 major points; 1. Sustainable Site Planning, 2. Health & Well Being, 3. Building planning & Construction, 4. Energy; Renewable, 5. Recycle- Recharge-Reuse of Water, 6. Waste management, 7. Health & Well Being, 8. Building operation & Maintenance, 9. Innovation Points.(total point 104). Criteria concerned with Energy efficient materials:  Criterion 15: Utilization of fly-ash in building structure(Max. 6 Points)  Criterion 16: Reduce volume and weight, and time of construction by adopting  Criterion 17: Use low-energy material in interiors (Max. 4 Points)  Thus the manual tries to cover a part to promote green building materials such as fly ash, yet it does not succeed at suggesting upon the materials which has less embodied energy, life cycle approach and avoids possibility to promote green rated or labeled materials. 3. Background Study (ii) IGBC- LEED v4 for Building design and construction, April 2015:Total 45 Credits & 12 mandatory prerequisite under 8 major categories; 1. Location & Transportation, 2. Sustainable sites, 3. Water efficiency, 4. Energy & Atmosphere, 5. Material & Resources, 6. Indore Environmental Quality, 7. Innovation, 8. Regional. Credits for the rating concerned with Materials: • Mr-credit 1-building life-cycle impact reduction ; intent- to encourage adaptive reuse and optimize the environmental performance of products and materials • Mr-credit 2-building product disclosure and optimization—environmental product declarations • Mr-credit 3-Building product disclosure and optimization – sourcing of raw materials; • Mr-credit 4-Building product disclosure and optimization – material ingredients;  LEED 04 version has incorporated major points for sustainable building materials with LCA based approach and labeled or third party rated product. Yet this version is very new (Launched in India in April 2015) and thus no project is found being rated on the same in India. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  9. 9. 3.1.3. Existing policies and Government initiatives (i) Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) for Building envelope : Requirement for Fenestrations  Fenestration must be rated using procedures and methods specified in ECBC; three fenestration performance characteristics are significant in ECBC : 1. U-Factor; determines the heat conduction through the material. 2. Solar Feat Gain Co-efficient (SHGC); indicates how well glazing/glass and fenestration products insulate heat caused by sun falling directly on it. 3. Visible Light Transmission(VLT); indicates penetration/transmission of day light through the given product.  The code successfully guides user in selecting appropriate façade technology that helps reduce energy loads on building due to, HVAC and artificial day lighting with the given mandatory criteria. • At present, there are no specific policies or guidelines from the government body of India on using sustainable building materials to reduce environmental impacts and conserve energy. • Yet there is concerned awareness of promoting Life Cycle based approach for the organization to achieve sustainable development 3. Background Study Frame Types Glazing Type Clear Glass Tinted Glass U-Factor (W/m2K) SHG C VLT U-Factor (W/m2K) SHG C VLT All Frame Types Single Glazing 7.1 0.82 0.76 7.1 0.70 0.58 Wood, vinyl, Fiber glass frame Double Glazing 3.3 0.59 0.64 3.4 0.42 0.39 Metal And Other Frame Double Glazing 5.1 0.68 0.66 5.1 0.50 0.40 WWR<40 % 40%<WW R<60% Climate Zone Max U- factor Max. SHGC Max. SHGC Composite 3.30 0.25 0.20 Hot & dry 3.30 0.25 0.20 Warm & Humid 3.30 0.25 0.20 Moderate 6.90 0.40 0.30 Cold 3.30 0.51 0.51 Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  10. 10.  Discussed below are the policy initiatives put forth by different Ministries and Government bodies which includes a consideration of life cycle based approach for sustainable development: 3. Background Study 1. National Voluntary Guidelines on Social, Environmental & Economic Responsibilities of Business Issued by: Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA) Ministry: Ministry of Corporate Affairs Aim: “Businesses should provide goods and services that are safe and contribute to sustainability throughout their life cycle. Responsible businesses, therefore, should engineer value in their goods and services by keeping in mind these impacts.” 2. SEBI Guidelines on Business Responsibility Report Issued by: Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Ministry: Independent regulator Objective: SEBI has asked listed companies to mandatorily submit an annual business responsibility report wherein they have to disclose compliance to various environmental, social and governance aspects. 3. Guidelines on Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability for Central Public Sector Enterprises Issued by: Department of Public Enterprises Ministry: Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises. Aim: corporate enterprises are expected to produce goods and services which are resource efficient, consumer friendly and environmentally sustainable throughout their life cycles. Conclusion As already identified, the lack of data about the environmental impact and energy consumptions by various products has kept back the consumers from making informed choices on energy efficient building materials. At the same time due to lack of government initiatives, there is lack of awareness. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  11. 11. 3.2. Case Study: Criteria for the selection and rating of Green building materials • Below are few initiatives for the successful application of Green Building material rating systems, Apart there are few certification systems discussed to understand the criteria of rating a product ‘Green’. (i) Singapore Green Building Rating System- (Est. year 2010):The Singapore Green Building Product (SGBP) certification scheme is the first certification scheme dedicated to assessing green building products and materials, and setting benchmarks for a building product’s environmental performance.  AIM: Identifying and helping the industry select environmentally-preferred products and materials to achieve environmental sustainability for Singapore’s built environment. Complies with the ISO 14020 Type I International Standard for environmental labeling. 3. Background Study Certification Assessment Requirements 1. Energy Efficiency 2. Water Efficiency 3. Resource Efficiency 4. Health and Environmental Protection 5. Other Green Features • On the basis of criteria certified products are included in SGBC certification directory which is online and easy accessible. Along with certified products, SGBC also provides information of trusted certified services for Green Architecture, Environment Sustainability Design, Energy performance contracting, Mechanical & Electrical services. • This has led to more than 1,500 green buildings in Singapore, translating to a floor area of nearly 47 million square meters, or 20 percent of Singapore buildings’ total Gross Floor Area (GFA). •Various sectors of green building material rating. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  12. 12. (ii) Cradle to Cradle Certified™ Product Standard (Est. year 2002 CA, USA) is a certification and label based on criteria that addresses the materials contained in a product, the material reutilization cycle, the amount of energy and water used in manufacturing, and corporate social responsibility.  Aim: Products Program is to encourage continuous improvement, innovation, and formulation of products that benefit humans and the environment. The criteria set for certification are simplified in 5 categories to examine all products from different industries. 1. Material Health Knowing the chemical ingredients of every material in a product, and optimizing towards safer materials. 2. Material Reutilization Designing products made with materials that come from and can safely return to nature or industry. 3. Renewable Energy & Carbon Management Envisioning a future in which all manufacturing is powered by 100% clean renewable energy. 4. Water Stewardship Manage clean water as a precious resource and an essential human right. 5. Social Fairness Design operations to honor all people and natural systems affected by the creation, use, disposal or reuse of a product  With the launch of the new LEED v4, Cradle to Cradle Certified products are written into LEED. Choosing certified products can earn project teams up to two points for Materials & Resources Credit 4. 3. Background Study Inferences The case studies demonstrated here are successful model of building material rating systems, with the appropriate criteria to rate products/materials. The third party involvement for the rating system can be established for the successful implementations. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  13. 13. 4. Need and Importance of Study 4.1. Building Material & Construction industry India.  The construction sector in India has grown at a tremendous pace in last few years, faster than the 9 percent pa growth of GDP. The emergence of newer segments in the economy like Hospitality, Retail, Entertainment and Education have largely contributed to this stupendous growth.  Here are various figures showing growth in various Building material industries: 1. Cement Consumption per Capita in 2011 (in Kg.), Census of India-Ananad Rathi 2. Split of National Aluminum Consumption by end use Sectors (Source Aluminum Association India) 3. Demand of various building materials over one decade. 4.1.1. Environmental Impacts  The manufacturing process and various property of building materials can contribute to environmental impacts such as Green house gas (GHG) emissions, non renewable energy consumptions, Pollutions, Deploying of resources, waste generation etc.  Some of the figures showing impacts are shown below. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  14. 14. 4. Need and Importance of Study 1. As per Data provided by UMEP, Sustainable Building and Construction Initiatives,2006: Building product raw material use up to 30% of resources and entire built environment has 40% GHG emission 2. Here is a pie chart of an experiment that is indicative of how high energy consumptions (in terms of Carbon Tonnage) can be in the process of construction (assuming air- conditioned office building or house). 3. CO2 Emissions per unit of GDP from fossil fuel use in cement production The Data here is example to shows that being a country to produce lower goods than developed country, due to its less efficient processing Systems, places it amongst higher CO2 emitting counties across world specific for cement industry. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  15. 15. (i) GHG Emissions  Here are few data that indicates the emissions from various industries, Highlighted are specific data of the materials extensively used in Building construction sector.  Out of gross emissions 12% are from only 2 building material related industries.(other material industries are not accounted) (ii) Energy Consumption  After the emissions, it is considerable to note that the building construction sector beg for good amount of energy consumption overall.  Here it is shown that around 35% of energy is consumed by Building Industry. 4. Need and Importance of Study 1.The chart shows GHG Emissions by sector in India in 2007 (million tons of CO2 equivalent),Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India Industry CO2 Emissions (Thousand Tons) Cement production 129920 Glass & Ceramic Production 300 Iron & Steel Production 116958 Aluminum Production 2730 2. The table showing figures of energy consuming building material industries showing critical data of Co2 emission in 2007.(GHG Emission Data,, Source: INCCA; GHG emissions report-2007, MOEF, India) 3. Figure shows the major source of energy consumption in building process after operational in use energy is the material and product manufacture activities. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  16. 16. 4. Need and Importance of Study 1. Breakdown of Initial Embodied Energy by Typical Office Building Components Averaged Over Wood, Steel and Concrete Structures [Cole and Kernan, 1996]. 2. Embodied energy of Different wall construction sytems, Published by: Ruth Soni on Sep 24, 2011 (iii) Various Pollution Impact • The Central Pollution Control Board has identified 17 highly polluting industries, majority of which are building material manufacturing industries. 3. category wise PM (particulate Matter) load in Mumbai City 4. Status of large and medium industries in 17 highly polluting industrial sectors (as of June 2010) Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  17. 17. 4.1.2. Building Façades in Mumbai: Trends & evolution pattern  Mumbai has scarcity of land to accommodate ground based construction, since the tall buildings are the solutions suggested by municipal authorities with providing higher Floor Space Index (FSI).  here is the Survey of building facade materials usage pattern in city, which indicates identical increase in the pattern of using glazing based products and cladding materials in façade. 4. Need and Importance of Study 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 1.OpaqueWalls 2.GlazingbasedFenestration 3.Claddingofvarious material 1.OpaqueWalls 2.GlazingbasedFenestration 3.Claddingofvarious material 1.OpaqueWalls 2.GlazingbasedFenestration 3.Claddingofvarious material 1.OpaqueWalls 2.GlazingbasedFenestration 3.Claddingofvarious material Before 2000 2000-2005 2005-2010 2010-2015 Ratio of facade material usage Usage Pattern & Evolution • Over last decade the commercial buildings in city has come up with lot of innovative designs demonstrating modern materials and technology with loud façade design and architecture statements. • There is an evolution pattern noticed over a decade where it is easy to identify how the façade systems has took over from traditional method of solid wall and windows opening to transparent glazed facades. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  18. 18. 4. Need and Importance of Study Conclusions •As we assess the data of environmental impacts and energy construction from the building construction industry, the need for efficient construction and material is observed. •At the same time one of the fastest growing construction industry of Mumbai city has a rising demand of modern façade materials; thus the study is pursued to understand environmental impacts and energy consumptions by such materials. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  19. 19. 4.2 Problem Identification  Looking at the current scenario of environmental impact and increased demands of architectural facades, below are the problems prevail in the direction to achieve energy efficient building façade materials. 1. Lack of Awareness: the most importantly awareness of the benefits of energy efficient materials is not present, though being aware of green building benefits, it is noticed that building materials are not often selected on the bases of energy efficiency measures. 2. Lack of Data & Research: the proper research & data to indicate the energy efficiency & environmental impact criteria of materials are most important to have the awareness. Since there is no proper research and data base available architects & developers are abandoned from making informed choices on efficient building materials. 3. Lack of Initiatives: Lack of policies are the major drawback for efficient green building material consumption and promotion. At the same time among a few initiatives taken by Green building rating systems in India (GRIHA & IGBC), the Green building material segment is given less importance and being optional same is many times being avoided. 4. Trend Driven Market: India is developing country and seeks for many global technologies for the advancement. Such influential approach many times lead to the direction of unsustainable development and big abundance to local technologies, responsible for energy intensive development. 5. Hypothesis  In the city of Mumbai, where the construction industry is growing at its peak, selection of appropriate building material with low embodied energy and minimum environmental impact can contribute towards reducing carbon emission and energy efficient constructions at the urban level. 5. Hypothesis Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  20. 20. 6. Description of research and Limitations 6.1. Identify Scope of Research  The research will cover study of one building element to understand various materials available within Mumbai city based on market studies, Surveys and observations.  The research will establish criteria to rate environmental impact factor of selected building materials & technology and with the results will provide comparative analyses of all materials to find the more efficient material.  The research will test weather selecting appropriate material with less impact can improve environmental performance of building and have environmental benefits at larger context. 6.1.1. Identify the building Systems to be studies  On the bases of previous survey study, most of commercial tall building façade systems in the city are cladding based, which can be broadly classified as below. • Glazing based façade cladding system • Metal based façade cladding system • Stone based facade cladding system • Wooden based cladding products • Other cladding product products(concrete sheets, pvc, tensile fabric etc) 6.2. Limitations of Research  The research is applied for selection of façade materials and systems of tall commercial building type up to the height of 40 floors (125Mt.) within the limits of Mumbai city.  The materials studied and compared within the boundary of research are strictly environmental performance based. In overall study and impact assessment it will not consider, sustainable construction methods and overall building sustainability performance.  The research dose not aim to suggest materials that can benefit the building for Green certification ratings, the considerations are not based on rating systems.  The materials selected to study are based on trend and demands, cost factor are not considered while the selection process however, the cost effective material are highlighted to understand Life cost factor.  The research will provide basic strategies for the building façade design based on; 1. Selection of appropriate building material with less environmental impact. 2. Within the framework of aesthetical requirement of building façade design including modern materials. 3. Functional considerations such as day lighting, view/visibility & opacity for the desired area. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  21. 21.  The building façade systems to be studied for the environmental performance are given as below; 6. Description of research and Limitations 1. Glazing Based Façade cladding System Type of Façade: Stick built curtain wall, it is a cladding and exterior wall system, which is hung on the building structure from floor to floor. It is assembled from various components to include steel or aluminum anchors, mullions, rails, vision glass, spandrel glass and insulation. In addition, various hardware include anchors, aluminum connectors, setting blocks, corner blocks, pressure plates, caps, gaskets and sealants. 2. Aluminum Based Cladding System Type of Façade: ACP Panel cladding It is a composite panel consisting of two aluminum cover sheets and a plastic core, screwed on aluminum carrier sections and framing and sealed with appropriate sealant. Product/Materials to be studied for the assessment: 12mm thick clear Float Glass. Product/Materials to be studied for the assessment: 4mm thick ACP Sheet. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  22. 22. 6. Description of research and Limitations 3. Stone based Cladding System Type of Façade: Sand Stone Dry cladding System It is a cladding system of fixing approved make of stone to the wall with dry cladding using S.S. angle, clamps, anchors bolts/dash fasteners and necessary adhesive for grouting of clamps in stone. 4. Wooden Façade Cladding System Type of Façade: Engineered wood panels cladding system is a cladding system of fixing wooden panels of soft, hard or engineered wood to the wall using stud blocks, nails, sheathing, groove joints, bolts / fasteners and necessary adhesive. Product/Materials to be studied for the assessment: 18mm thick Marble stone. Product/Materials to be studied for the assessment: 18mm thick Ply wood (due to the lack of data for wooden composite panel and engineered wood products, data considered for 18 mm thick ply) Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  23. 23. 6.1.2. Identify Criteria of Environmental impact assessment Important definitions  Environmental impact of building materials: Environmental impact assessment is the formal process used to predict the environmental consequences (positive or negative) of a plan, policy, program, or project prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. Environmental impact of building material is the impact caused to environment due to various stage activities of building material i. e. - mining/extraction/harvesting, manufacture, construction, use, demolition.  Life Cycle Assessment: LCA is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by: Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases. Evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases.  Embodied Energy: Embodied energy is the total energy required for the extraction, processing, manufacture and delivery of building materials to the building site. Embodied energy is measured as the quantity of non-renewable energy per unit of building material, component or system. It is expressed in mega joules (MJ) or gigajoules (GJ) per unit weight (kg or tonne) or area (m2). 6. Description of research and Limitations •Here is the LCA based process inventory considered for the assessment of various materials. ENERGY (Embodied Energy) Solid waste Material property based impacts Wastage & Pollutions GHG Emissions GHG Emissions & Waste (solid & Liquid) generation GHG Emissions Minerals depletion & soil erosion effects Environmental Impacts Stage-3 Stage-4 Stage-5 Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  24. 24. Goal and Scope Definition for the LCA method  Goal: The goal of the study is to evaluate the overall environmental impact of tall commercial Building Façade systems to help in identifying the life-cycle stages and materials processes causing maximum impact. The study is focused on determining the inventory analysis results in terms of energy use, resource use and emissions, and impact assessment results available in terms of impact categories.  Scope: The scope of the LCA is limited to assessing environmental impacts in terms of GHG emissions, various types of pollutions, wastage and disposing methods and overall performance of selected building façade system. These categories have been chosen as being common to the various environmental issues at country level. Having common categories should facilitate easy comparison and benchmarking of the LCA results of this study.  Functional Unit: For comparison purposes, the results have also been normalized on a per-square-meter basis.  System Boundary: The study includes upstream processing and production of materials and energies that make up the production of the stated functional unit, transport of materials to production sites transport to warehouses and customers, and end of life disposal.  Building Lifespan: A 50-year building life has been estimated  Based on the various environmental impacts of building materials studied previously, the environmental performance of any product it can be tested within 3 major categories; 1. Environmental Impact; Green House Gas emissions, water utilizations, waste and pollutions being generated. 2. Energy consumption; embodied energy. 3. Material performance; reutilization, disposing methods, climatic conditions based performance.  This LCA aims at providing quantitative and comparative values of the environmental impacts of various building technologies in the given context. It is applied to the understanding of selected case studies of facade materials and systems through their life cycle. The product to be assessed is the façade materials & system of tall commercial building (up to 40 floors-125 mt.) within the city of Mumbai. 6. Description of research and Limitations Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  25. 25. 6. Description of research and Limitations Criteria Indicators Particular Data & Unit LCA Stage Environment al Impact 1.GHG Emissions from manufacturing process GHG emission during its manufacturing process _______KgCO2/m2 emission Stage-2 2. Water consumption during the manufacturing process Amount of water used during manufacturing process _______Lt/m2 water consumption Stage-2 Energy consumption 3. Embodied energy Embodied energy of major material _______mj/m2 energy Stage-2 & Stage-3 Material performance 4. Climate condition based performance Thermal performance of material/system for the climatic conditions of City ________U-value W/m2 K Stage-4 5. Reutilization how much of the material can be reused in the same form ______% can be reused Stage-5 6. Method of disposing material At the demolition stage how the material is disposed 1. Biodegradable methods 2. Non-biodegradable methods Stage-5 Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  26. 26. 7. Research data collection & Analyses Criteria 1: GHG Emissions from manufacturing process Product Co2 emission Glass(12 mm float glass) 24 Kg Co2/m2 Aluminum(4 mm ACP Panels) 55 Kg Co2/m2 Stone(18mm Marble sheet) 4 Kg Co2/m2 Wood (18 MM thick Ply wood) 12 Kg Co2/m2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Co2 emission ( Kg Co2/m2 ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Water Consumption (Lt/m2) Product Water Con- sumption Glass(12 mm float glass) 90 Lt/m2 Aluminum(4 mm ACP Panels) 40 Lt/m2 Stone(18mm Marble sheet) 10 Lt/m2 Wood (18 MM thick Ply wood) 15 Lt/m2 Criteria 2: Water consumption during the manufacturing process Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  27. 27. Criteria 3: Embodied energy Product Embodied Energy Glass(12 mm float glass) 600 Mj/m2 Aluminum(4 mm ACP Panels) 1375 Mj/m2 Stone(18mm Marble sheet) 80 Mj/m2 Wood (18 MM thick Ply wood) 120 Mj/m2 0 500 1000 1500 Embodied Energy (Mj/m2) Criteria 4: Climate condition based performance Product U-Value Glass(12 mm float glass) 2.1 W/m2 K Non-biodegradable 1.4 W/m2 K Stone(18mm Marble sheet) 1.5W/m2 K Wood (18 MM thick Ply wood) 0.28 W/m2 K 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 U-Value (W/m2 K ) 7. Research data collection & Analyses Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  28. 28. Criteria 6: Disposing materials Product Disposing method Glass(12 mm float glass) Non-biodegradable Non-biodegradable Non-biodegradable Stone(18mm Marble sheet) Biodegradable Wood (18 mm thick Ply wood) Biodegradable Criteria 5: Reutilization Product Reutilization Glass(12 mm float glass) 35 % per m2 Aluminum(4 mm ACP Panels) 0 % per m2 Stone(18mm Marble sheet) 75% per m2 Wood (18 MM thick Ply wood) 90% per m2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Reutilization (% per m2 ) 7. Research data collection & Analyses LCA Based Analyses: • Environmental Impact: As identified; Glass and aluminum are the highest impactful material with higher amount of water consumption & GHG emission. Also the stone is least impactful material • Energy Consumption: As identified; Aluminum is the highest energy consuming material; whereas stone is lowest energy consuming material. • Material Performance: As identified; wood has the best performance in terms of climate response and a reutilization criterion, glass is least performing material. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  29. 29. Criteria Indicators Glass Aluminu m Stone Wood Environmenta l Impact 1.GHG Emission 24 Kg Co2/m 2 55 Kg Co2/m2 4 Kg Co2/m2 12 Kg Co2/m2 2. Water consumption 90 Lt/m2 40 Lt/m2 10 Lt/m2 15 Lt/m2 Energy consumption 3. Embodied energy 600 Mj/m2 1375 Mj/m2 80 Mj/m2 120 Mj/m2 Material performance 4. Climate condition based thermal performance 2.1 W/m2 K 1.4 W/m2 K 1.5 W/m2 K 0.28 W/m2 K 5.Reutilization 35 % per m2 0 % per m2 75% per m2 90% per m2 6. Disposing materials Non- Biodegr adable Non- Biodegra dable Biodegrada ble Biodegra dable • As the comparative analyses suggest;  1. Aluminum is highly energy intensive materials and has higher GHG emissions, having the highest environmental impact aluminum facade system is considered most energy intensive façade material for Mumbai city. Due to the less recycle and reuse possibility aluminum facades are not considered sustainable & not recommended.  2. At the same time Glass is also poorly performing against weather conditions and has its own impacts upon environments, the only positive point is recycle & reuse factor.  3. Stone is considered less energy consuming material with lower embodied energy and minimum environmental impacts except a few of waste generation. At the same time the only drawback is poor thermal performance.  4. Wood is the material with lowest environmental impact and little high embodied energy compared to stone; the climate based performance is considerable with the great possibility of reuse factor. 7. Research data collection & Analyses Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  30. 30. 8. Proposed Strategies8.1. Alternative Façade solution (i) Building introduction: Commerz –II, Oberoi Garden City, Goregaon(E), Mumbai.  Design and Features:  It is a 30 storied high rise commercial tower., with glass frontage and separate drop off zones. Modern elevation with double glazed unitized glass façade system providing a great view of the lush green Aarey expanse. Centrally air conditioned building.  Received LEED Gold pre-certification (ii) Floor Plans Elevation & Views Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  31. 31. 8. Proposed Strategies Façade Elevation Façade Sytem- 1: Double glazed unitized facade Façade System- 2: ACP Sheet Cladding South façade 6125 Sq.mt. 200 Sq.mt. East façade 4550 Sq.mt. 100 Sq.mt. North façade 6125 Sq.mt. 200 Sq.mt. West facade 4550 Sq.mt. 100 Sq.mt. Façade Elevation Façade System GHG Emission from building façade (Kg Co2) Embodied Energy from building façade(Mj) Water Consumption of building façade(Liter) 1. South façade Façade System-1 147,000 3,675,000 551,250 Façade System-2 11,000 275,000 8,000 2. East façade Façade System-1 109,200 2,730,000 409,500 Façade System-2 5,500 137,500 4,000 3. North façade Façade System-1 147,000 3,675,000 551,250 Façade System-2 11,000 275,000 8,000 4. West facade Façade System-1 109,200 2,730,000 409,500 Façade System-2 5,500 137,500 4,000 Total Façade Area 545,400 13,635,000 1,945,500 Façade System-1: Double glazed unitized façade GHG Emissions from manufacturing process (Kg Co2/m2): 24 Kg Co2/m2 Embodied Energy façade(Mj/m2): 600 Mj/m2 Water Consumption during manufacturing process (Liter/m2): 90 Lt/m2 Façade System-2: ACP Sheet Cladding GHG Emissions from manufacturing process (Kg Co2/m2): 55 Kg Co2/m2 Embodied Energy façade(Mj/m2): 1375 Mj/m2 Water Consumption during manufacturing process (Liter/m2): 40 Lt/m2 (iii) Energy efficiency & Impact assessment Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  32. 32. (iv) Proposed Alternative Strategies  Strategy-1: Reducing use of Glass on the wall/solid surfaces; limit the glass usage for the vision cone and integrating daylight into spaces.  Strategy-2: Replace Aluminum panels with efficient material claddings such as dry stone claddings. (v) Applying Alternative Façade Strategies: 8. Proposed Strategies Façade Elevation Façade Sytem- 1 Double glazed unitized façade Façade System- 2 Dry Stone Cladding South façade 4805 Sq.mt. 1520 Sq.mt. East façade 3680 Sq.mt. 970 Sq.mt. North façade 4805 Sq.mt. 1520 Sq.mt. West facade 3680 Sq.mt. 970 Sq.mt. Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  33. 33. Façade Elevation Façade System GHG Emission from building façade (Kg Co2) Embodied Energy from building façade(Mj) 3.Water Consumptio n of building façade(Liter) 1. Sout h façade Façade System-1 115,320 2,883,000 432,450 Façade System-2 6,080 121,600 15,200 2. East façade Façade System-1 88,320 2,208,000 331,200 Façade System-2 3,880 77,600 9,700 3. Nort h façade Façade System-1 115,320 2,883,000 432,450 Façade System-2 6,080 121,600 15,200 4. Wes t facade Façade System-1 88,320 2,208,000 331,200 Façade System-2 3,880 77,600 9,700 Total Façade Area 427,200 10,580,400 1,577,100 (vi) Energy efficiency & Impact assessment for proposed strategy Façade System-1: Double glazed unitized façade GHG Emissions from manufacturing process (Kg Co2/m2): 24 Kg Co2/m2 Embodied Energy façade(Mj/m2): 600 Mj/m2 Water Consumption during manufacturing process (Liter/m2): 90 Lt/m2 Façade System-2: Dry Stone Cladding GHG Emissions from manufacturing process (Kg Co2/m2): 4 Kg Co2/m2 Embodied Energy façade(Mj/m2): 10 Mj/m2 Water Consumption during manufacturing process (Liter/m2): 18 Lt/m2 8. Proposed Strategies Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  34. 34. GHG Emission from building façade (Kg Co2) Embodied Energy of building façade(Mj) Water Consumption of building façade(Liter) Existing 5,45,400 13,635,000 1,945,500 Proposed 4,27,200 10,580,400 1,577,100 Difference 21% 22% 18.9% GHG Emission from building façade (Kg Co2) Embodied Energy of building façade(Mj) Water Consumption of building façade(Liter) Comparative Analyses Existing Proposed Conclusion •The comparative analyses shows that replacing a few areas of building façade can bring up to 20% reduction in impact, resource and energy consumption. •Thus using energy efficient material in the building facades can help reduce the load of environmental impact and energy consumption. (vii) Comparative Analysis Suggested alternative materials: • 1. Bamboo laminated composite: • Specification: Bamboo plant, wood Bamboo mat, waste wood chips, polymeric resin, Application: Flooring, walling and partitions. Benefits: Light weight, durable, energy efficient, Easy installation. Embodied energy: Low to Moderate • 2. Ultra thin honeycomb lightweight stone panels • Specification: 3-4mm thick stone veneer (marble, granite or limestone) adhered to Aluminum Honeycomb sheet. Application: Wall Cladding, interiors. Benefits: Non- fragile, light weight, Soundproof, heat insulation, fireproof, humidity proof, and anti- decay. Embodied energy: Moderate to high 8. Proposed Strategies Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  35. 35. 8.2. Façade design considerations for optimum day light  General Considerations for Study model. • Working model area: 9 sq.mt. Office Building with exterior facades facing North & West sides. • Façade types: 1. Glazed surface-Façade (Glass with appropriate property for optimum day light), 2. Opaque surface-Façade (Plastered Brick wall). • Sky conditions: Considered the average annual low illumination for day lit hours: 10000LUX. • Minimum Illumination required at the work surface: 300-500 LUX. • Height of working surface: 0.8 mt. • Sky Conditions: Clear. • Time of daylight calculation: 10:00 am. • No Reflective surfaces considered. 8. Proposed Strategies CASE-1 •Façade Area : 1. Glazed façade- 0 sqmt. 2. Opaque Façade- 36 sqmt. •Illumination range at the working surface at 0.8 mt height: 00 LUX to 00 LUX
  36. 36. 8. Proposed Strategies CASE-2 •Façade Area : 1. Glazed façade- 18 sqmt. 2. Opaque Façade- 18 sqmt. •Illumination range at the working surface at 0.8 mt height: 1400 LUX to 4000 LUX . CASE-3 Façade Area : 1. Glazed façade- 7.2 sqmt. 2. Opaque Façade- 28.8 sqmt. Illumination range at the working surface at 0.8 mt height: 540 LUX to 9000 LUX. Minimum Illumination (LUX) Comfort level Glazed facade area to Opaque area ratio (%) Embodied Energy of Entire Façade (MJ) Cost (INR) CASE-1 0 Less than comfortable 0 4500 46800 CASE-2 1400 More than comfortable 100 10800 126000 CASE-3 540 Comfortable 40 7020 78480 Comparative Analyses Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  37. 37. Daylight Stimulation of selected Study Building •General Building Design Features, Commerz –II, Oberoi Garden City, Goregaon(E), Mumbai. •Office Type: Computer based working systems. •Clear Floor Height: 4 mt. •Minimum Illumination required at the work surface: 300 LUX. •Considerations for daylight stimulations •Sky conditions: Considered the annual average low illumination for day lit hours: 10000 LUX. •Height of working surface: 0.8 mt. •Time of daylight calculation: 10:00 am. •No Reflective surfaces considered. •Types glazed façade: Double glazed with aluminum framing. •Type of opaque façade: Brick walls with plaster. •Types of Floors & ceiling: Concrete slab. •The lowest range of illumination is 760 Lux, which is enough. Thus there is a scope to reduce glazed areas without compromising optimal daylights. •Since the property of glass is not considered, a suitable design strategy can be suggested with the design of optimum glazed area to receive daylight, internal paints & reflectors. Appropriate glass property with required VLT values and filming. 8. Proposed Strategies Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  38. 38.  Conclusion • Using the excess amount of glass can create discomfort illumination level such as glare, and the same can cost extra as well consume more energy. • As suggested 40% glazed area of façade can be efficient, cost effective and sufficient to bring in enough light as compared with 100% glass facades. 8.3 Further Suggestions & Conclusion • The study suggests that using efficient material can benefit the building achieve efficient façade design with lesser impact. • At the city level if same strategy followed can benefit the environment and impacts at larger context. • The study also suggest upon using materials which are certified or labeled for its environmental performance. • The methodology of research gives guideline for further study in the direction of environmental impact study of various building materials to make informed choice on selecting appropriate materials. • At larger perspective, introducing policies and guidelines on material usage pattern which can help controlling various energy and environmental issues at country level, can benefit to achieve a sustainable future. • At present there are no initiatives taken by government body of India to promote green building materials, green building rating systems promote them on the market point of view which also do not succeed because of the limited awareness. • Awareness and access to proper information are most important factors in the process, thus more research and study are required in the same direction. 8. Proposed Strategies Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis
  39. 39. Thank You… Environmental Impact Of Building Materials –Ar. Mitisha Parajapati, M.Arch, Research Thesis

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