Top Ten Abolitionists

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  • Where is Elijah Lovejoy? He was one of the first (if not the first) abolitionists martyred for the cause.
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Top Ten Abolitionists

  1. 1. Top Ten Abolitionists
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The abolitionist movement started in the 1830s. The movement was motivated mostly by Christian precepts. In December 1833 William Lloyd Garrison, and Arthur and Lewis Tappen founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. This society was for people to join that did not want slavery to go on any longer, and because of the fugitive slave law in 1850 the underground railroad became a lot more active. Both women and men were allowed to be involved with the Anti-Slavery act. But, it was hard for women to be involved because they were treated very similar to African Americans. Northern abolitionists became more aggressive and southern abolitionists became quieter and more settle. Many women that were abolitionists ended up becoming women rights activists. Abolitionists worked very hard to stop slavery all over many states. </li></ul>
  3. 3. William Llyod (1805-1879)‏ (1805-1879)‏ (1805-1879)‏ <ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison- He born in 1805 in Massachusetts. William Garrison was a editor and he wrote poetry. William from the Anti-slavery Society in 1833 with another abolitionist. He soon made friends with Fredrick Douglass to help abolish American slavery. He also had help with John Brown, Wendell Phillips, and Senator Charles Summer. Garrison and other abolitionists continued to go pass the politics and the Fugitive Slave law to help slaves. William had a student whose name was Wendell Phillips. He taught about ratifying the 13th  Amendment in 1865. He died at home in 1879. </li></ul>
  4. 4. John Brown (1800-1859)‏ (1800-1859)‏ (1800-1859)‏ <ul><li>John Brown was born on May 9th 1800. He and twenty men attacked the armory at Harpers Ferry. People said that John Brown was the most militant abolitionist. He lead several raids against pro-slavery. He was very much against slavery and tried his hardest to prevent it whenever possible. Pretty much everyone against slavery looked up to him. He was their fighting hero. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)‏ (1817-1895)‏ (1817-1895)‏ <ul><li>Born a slave, Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey became one of the most famous abolitionists during the time of the Civil War. Frederick was born on February 7, 1817 in Tuckahoe, Maryland. At the age of eight he was shipped to Baltimore to work for one of his master’s relatives. Here, with the help of the mistress of the house, he educated himself; teaching himself how to read and write. In 1841 he finally fled from his master to New Bedford Massachusetts. He then changed his last name to Douglass to avoid anyone that would try to capture him. At the age of 24 Douglass joined the Abolition group led by William Llyod Garrison. He contributed to this group by discussing with the public not only his experiences as a slave, but also others’ experiences as a slave. In 1845 Douglass published his autobiography- Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Douglass was a conservative and believed in the principals of the Constitution very strictly hence why he fought for womens’ rights as well. He died at the age of 78 in Cedar Hills Washing ton D.C. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lydia Maria Child (1802-1880)‏ (1802-1880)‏ (1802-1880)‏ <ul><li>Lydia Maria Child was born on February 11, 1802 in Medford, Massachusetts. Lydia is the youngest of seven children all to the parents of Susannah Rand Francis and Convers Francis. Lydia attended local schools and Medford's First Parish. She was a novelist, editor, journalist, and scholar. Lydia is known for writing the Thanksgiving day poem “Over the river and through the woods.....” In 1814 her mother passed away and then five years later she took a teaching job in Gardinar, Maine. She then quit that job and went to Boston in 1822 to become a member of the Boston Society of the New Jerusalem. In 1824 she wrote a novel called Hobomok: A tail of early times, the first historical novel published in the United States. The novel was about a colonial New England girl who when her fiance died at sea, she turned to Native Americans for support. In 1828 she married David Child, he was a idealistic, a lawyer, and a journalist. In 1832 she wrote five volumes of the Ladies Family Library. From 1841 to 1843 she broke off form the movement but, stayed on in New York and continued to write. The same year (1843) she published Letters from New York. In 1860 she started Boston activism writing and made a freedom's book. She was then a founder of Massachusetts Women Suffrage Association. Then her career ended and David Child died in 1874. Lydia Maria Child ended up passing away on October 20, 1880. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Henry Ward Beecher (1814-1887)‏ (1814-1887)‏ (1814-1887)‏ <ul><li>Henry Ward Beecher was born on June 24th, 1813 in Litchfield, Connecticut. In 1847 Beecher moved to Brooklyn, New York, to become pastor of the newly formed Plymouth Church. He remained there for his the rest of his life. His speeches attracted 2,500 people every Sunday. Henry Ward Beecher  is a minister who supplied the abolitionists with sharp rifles when the Kansas Nebraska act was taking place. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)‏ (1797-1883)‏ (1797-1883)‏ <ul><li>She was born into slavery in 1797. She was born in Ulster County New York and her name was Isabella Barnfree. She was freed in 1827 and that was when she decided to change her name to Sojourner Truth. She changed her name because at that time Sojourner meant &quot;traveler&quot;. She was also a preacher. People called her &quot;the lords colored preacher&quot; and thats what she became known as. They say she is the most passionate and earliest abolitionist. Even Martin Luther King used some of her quotes in his speeches. She was once a slave. When she was a teenager in the 1820's she escaped from her owner after being treated horribly and sold away from her family. When her owner was upset or mad he would beat her with a pile of sticks or other bad weapons for no reason at all. When she was freed she spent almost all of her time with slaves talking to them and giving them hope. She would tell them stories from her past and stories of how she use to live and how she became free. Once she told a group of slaves a story about how people she knew were kept in dirty pens like cows. When she got beaten or whipped she would not scream because she believed that if she screamed it would only give her owners satisfaction, so she never screamed. Sojourner Truth said that once she faced a Heckler when she was saying her speeches and the Heckler said that he did not care for her anti-slavery talk more than he cared for a flea. She responded by saying &quot;Perhaps not but I'll definitely keep you scratching!&quot; The Heckler had nothing to say and walked away peacefully. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Harriet Tubman (1820-1913)‏ (1820-1913)‏ (1820-1913)‏ <ul><li>Harriet Tubman played a huge role in the Abolition Momvement. Born in Bucktown Maryland, Harriet escaped to Philadelphia in 1849 through a series of houses, tunnels, and roads formed by abolitionists. In Philadelphia she joined an Abolitionist group. After the Fugitive Slave Law was passed she joined the Underground Railroad. Harriet helped close to 300 slaves escape, and became one of the most famous leaders of the Underground Railroad ever known. Although she was never caught, there was a $40,000 reward for her capture. She was involved in a military campaign and helped rescue 756 slaves; not only that but she was also involved in the Womens’ Rights Movement. She died on March 10, 1913 at age 93/ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Wendell Phillips (1811-1884)‏ (1811-1884)‏ (1811-1884)‏ <ul><li>Wendell Phillips was born on November 29, 1811. Wendell went to college at Harvard Law School in Massachusetts. He then, opened a law office in Boston in 1834. He was a orator and a reformer. A orator was a person who gave speeches at many different areas about the same topic. He became famous when he became a supporter of abolition. In 1835 he decided to write pamphlets on on slavery. In 1837 he gave a speech called &quot;The Address for the murder of Elijah P. Lovejoy&quot; (an antislavery leader in Illinois). This address became one of the most famous speeches in history. Then, in 1837 he gave up law and joined William Lloyd Garrison's group of abolitionists. While he was in this group he decided to criticize the Administration of President Abraham Lincoln. Once the Civil War ended he held together the American Anti-Slavery Society until the Fifteenth Amendment passed. The Fifteenth Amendment made it illegal to deny the vote on the basis of race. He then became interested in improving conditions for laborers. In 1870 he was nominated by the Prohibition and Labor Reform for governor of Massachusetts, and won almost fifteen percent of the votes. Some of Wendell Phillips best known speeches are: &quot;The Burial of John Brown,&quot; &quot;Toussaint L'Ouverture,&quot; and &quot;The Lost Arts.&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Garrett Smith (1797-1874)‏ (1797-1874)‏ (1797-1874)‏ <ul><li>He was born New york and lived near Peteboro. He married an abolitionist named Elizabeth Stanton, and they had a daughter named Elizabeth Smith. Gerrit was a business man and supported nonviolence throughout his life. He was financial supporter of John Brown. Gerrit Smith and Abraham Lincoln were in the Emancipation Proclamation together. There is a place called the &quot;Gerrit Smith Estate&quot; and it is a national historic landmark. Smith tried to become president. He ran in 1848. After that he donated thousands of dollars to liberia and help made the first schools to accept Africans before dying he became the president of the New York Antislavery Society. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896)‏ (1811-1896)‏ (1811-1896)‏ <ul><li>Harriet Beecher Stowe was born on June 14, 1811 in Litchfield, Connecticut. Her father was a Presbyterian Minister. She was educated at Hartford Female Seminary. From 1832 to 1850 she lived in Cincinnati, Ohio. Then, in 1836 she married Calvin Stow. She is said to of become famous overnight in a visit to England, the abolitionists of England welcomed her with open arms. She is known for writing a novel called Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1851. He also wrote The Minister's Wooing in 1859, The Pearl of Orr's Island in 1862, and Old Town Folks in 1869, and many more. </li></ul>

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