PowerPoint 4.3: The Organization of Living Things


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PowerPoint 4.3: The Organization of Living Things

  1. 1. The Organization of Living Things Chapter 4 Section 3
  2. 2. Key Concept <ul><li>As multicellular organisms develop, their cells differentiate (change & separate) and form levels of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Why it Matters : so Humans (we are multicellular) can have different kinds of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Unicellular Organisms <ul><li>“ uni-” = one </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Some algae, some protists , and some eukaryotes (yeasts), are unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Can still do everything they need to stay alive </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits over multicellular organisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need fewer resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can live in harsher conditions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Multicellular Organisms <ul><li>“ multi-” = more than one </li></ul><ul><li>Plants, animals , some protists, and most fungi are multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Start as a single cell  many cells  cells differentiate (change) into different types of cells  cells group together </li></ul>
  5. 5. Multicellular Characteristics <ul><li>Larger size = have less predators and have more options of things to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Longer life – organism will continue to live even if a single cell dies </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization – each type of cell has a specific job, making the organism more efficient </li></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Organization <ul><li>1 st Level: Cells </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Level: Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Level: Organs </li></ul><ul><li>4 th Level: Organ Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems </li></ul>
  7. 7. Level 1 : Cells <ul><li>Cells can be specialized (have a certain function) </li></ul><ul><li>Function = job </li></ul><ul><li>Function is related to the cell structure </li></ul><ul><li>Structure = how parts of the cell are put together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material it’s made from </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure of a brain cell is different from muscle cell </li></ul>
  8. 8. Level 2: Tissues <ul><li>Tissue = group of cells that work together to do a specific job </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Heart muscle tissue is made of heart muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>Animals have 4 types of tissue: nerve, muscle, connective, protective </li></ul><ul><li>Plants have 3 types of tissue : transport, protective, ground </li></ul>
  9. 9. Level 3: Organs <ul><li>Organ = structure that is made up of 2 or more tissues working together to get a specific job done </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Stomach – muscle tissue moves food, special tissues make chemicals to digest food, connective tissue holds stomach together, nervous tissue sends messages back and forth between the stomach and brain </li></ul>
  10. 10. Level 4: Organ Systems <ul><li>Organ system = group of organs working together to perform a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Each organ system has a specific job </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Digestive system is made of several organs including the stomach and intestines </li></ul>
  11. 11. Structure of Animals Cells -basic unit of an animal’s structure -become specialized _______________________________ Tissues -made of cells that work together to perform a specific function __________________________________________ Organs - made of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function ____________________________________________________ Organ Systems -made of organs that work together to perform a specific function _____________________________________________________________ Organisms