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4.2: Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell

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  1. 1. Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell
  2. 2. Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are made up of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of cell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Prokaryotic <ul><li>One -celled </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>DNA looks like a twisted rubber band </li></ul><ul><li>No membrane-covered organelles </li></ul><ul><li>All have a cell wall outside the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Bacteria </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Larger </li></ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Have membrane-covered organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Some (ex: plants) have a cell wall </li></ul>Eukaryotic Plant Animal
  5. 5. Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells <ul><li>Animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Typical” Animal Cell
  7. 7. “ Typical” Plant Cell
  8. 8. Cell Parts Organelles
  9. 9. Organelles <ul><li>“ little organs” </li></ul><ul><li>Have specific jobs that help keep the cell alive </li></ul><ul><li>Like the organs in your body have specific jobs to help keep you alive </li></ul>
  10. 10. Surrounding the Cell
  11. 11. Cell Wall <ul><li>Stiff outer layer that supports & protects the cell </li></ul><ul><li>All plant cells have a cell wall that is made of a sugar called “ cellulose ” </li></ul><ul><li>( All prokaryotic cells, like bacteria, also have cell walls) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells do not have cell walls </li></ul>←
  12. 12. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Surrounds & protects the cell ( inside of the cell wall on plants, fungi, and prokaryotes) </li></ul><ul><li>Every cell has a cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Made of proteins and lipids that control the move- ment of materials in & out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Allows nutrients and water in </li></ul><ul><li>Lets waste go out </li></ul>
  13. 13. Inside the Cell
  14. 14. Proteins <ul><li>Control the chemical reactions in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Provide cells with structure </li></ul><ul><li>The messages of how to make proteins are given by the DNA </li></ul>Not THIS kind of protein!
  15. 15. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>A web of proteins inside the cell that anchors the organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a skeleton & a muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the cell keep its shape </li></ul><ul><li>Also helps other cells, like bacteria, move </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nucleus <ul><li>Only in eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Large & in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Contains genetic material - DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Directs cell activities </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by two membranes which allow materials to go in and out </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ribosomes <ul><li>Smallest organelles in cell </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell contains thousands </li></ul><ul><li>Makes protein </li></ul><ul><li>Found floating around inside cell </li></ul><ul><li>Or attached to membranes or organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike most organelles, ribosomes are not covered by a membrane </li></ul>->
  18. 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Membranes with many folds </li></ul><ul><li>Makes lipids & proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the cell’s delivery system : folds have passageways = move materials around cell </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER: no ribosomes, makes lipids , breaks down materials that can harm the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER: ribosomes attached, makes proteins to be delivered to other parts of the cell </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Mitochondria <ul><li>Main power source of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Make energy by breaking down sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is stored in molecule called ATP </li></ul><ul><li>The cell uses the ATP to do work </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own DNA that is different from the cell’s DNA </li></ul>
  20. 20. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Usually found in plant and algae cells </li></ul><ul><li>Contain green chlorophyll (traps the energy of sunlight to make sugar  make food) </li></ul><ul><li>Where photosynthesis takes place (Sun + CO2 + H2O  O2 + sugar) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vesicles <ul><li>A small envelope that surrounds material to be moved from one part of a cell to another </li></ul><ul><li>Made from the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Or from the Golgi complex . . . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Golgi Complex <ul><li>Packages & delivers materials within and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>The “ Post Office ” of the cell </li></ul>
  23. 23. The “Post Office” <ul><li>The ER delivers materials to the Golgi complex </li></ul><ul><li>The Golgi complex can change these so that they can do different jobs </li></ul><ul><li>They’re enclosed in pieces of the Golgi’s membrane </li></ul><ul><li>The membrane pinches off to make vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>The vesicles move the materials to other parts of the cell or out of the cell </li></ul>
  24. 24. Lysosomes <ul><li>Responsible for digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy worn-out or damaged organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect cell from harmful products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Material is enclosed in a vesicle </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosome bumps into vesicle and pours enzymes into it (breaks down what’s inside of it) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Vacuoles <ul><li>A type of vesicle </li></ul><ul><li>Also help with digestion (like Lysosomes) </li></ul><ul><li>In plants: large vacuole in center store water , which helps plants keep their shape (plants wilt when vacoules lose water) </li></ul>