Endocrine system pt 2

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Endocrine system pt 2

  1. 1. The Endocrine System Part 2 <br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  2. 2. Thyroid Gland<br /><ul><li>Found at the base of the throat
  3. 3. Consists of two lobes and a connecting isthmus
  4. 4. Produces two hormones
  5. 5. Thyroid hormone
  6. 6. Calcitonin</li></ul>Slide 9.23a<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  7. 7. Thyroid Gland<br />Figure 9.6<br />Slide 9.23b<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  8. 8. Thyroid Hormone<br /><ul><li>Major metabolic hormone
  9. 9. Composed of two active iodine-containing hormones
  10. 10. Thyroxine (T4) – secreted by thyroid follicles
  11. 11. Triiodothyronine (T3) – conversion of T4 at target tissues</li></ul>Slide 9.24<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  12. 12. Calcitonin<br /><ul><li>Decreases blood calcium levels by causing its deposition on bone
  13. 13. Antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
  14. 14. Produced by C (parafollicular) cells</li></ul>Figure 9.9<br />Slide 9.25<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  15. 15. Parathyroid Glands<br /><ul><li>Tiny masses on the posterior of the thyroid
  16. 16. Secrete parathyroid hormone
  17. 17. Stimulate osterclasts to remove calcium from bone
  18. 18. Stimulate the kidneys and intestine to absorb more calcium
  19. 19. Raise calcium levels in the blood</li></ul>Slide 9.26<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  20. 20. Adrenal Glands<br /><ul><li>Two glands
  21. 21. Cortex – outer glandular region in three layers
  22. 22. Medulla – inner neural tissue region
  23. 23. Sits on top of the kidneys</li></ul>Slide 9.27<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  24. 24. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex<br /><ul><li>Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone)
  25. 25. Produced in outer adrenal cortex
  26. 26. Regulate mineral content in blood, water, and electrolyte balance
  27. 27. Target organ is the kidney
  28. 28. Production stimulated by renin and aldosterone
  29. 29. Production inhibited by atrial natriuretic peptide</li></ul>Slide 9.28a<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  30. 30. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex<br />Figure 9.10<br />Slide 9.28b<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  31. 31. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex<br /><ul><li>Glucocorticoids (including cortisone and cortisol)
  32. 32. Produced in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex
  33. 33. Promote normal cell metabolism
  34. 34. Help resist long-term stressors
  35. 35. Released in response to increased blood levels of ACTH</li></ul>Slide 9.29a<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  36. 36. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex<br /><ul><li>Sex hormones
  37. 37. Produced in the inner layer of the adrenal cortex
  38. 38. Androgens (male) and some estrogen (female)</li></ul>Slide 9.29b<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  39. 39. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla<br /><ul><li>Produces two similar hormones (catecholamines)
  40. 40. Epinephrine
  41. 41. Norepinephrine
  42. 42. These hormones prepare the body to deal with short-term stress</li></ul>Slide 9.30<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  43. 43. Roles of the Hypothalamus and Adrenal Glands in the Stress Response<br />Figure 9.12<br />Slide 9.31<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  44. 44. Pancreatic Islets<br /><ul><li>The pancreas is a mixed gland
  45. 45. The islets of the pancreas produce hormones
  46. 46. Insulin – allows glucose to cross plasma membranes into cells from beta cells
  47. 47. Glucagon – allows glucose to enter the blood from alpha cells
  48. 48. These hormones are antagonists that maintain blood sugar homeostasis</li></ul>Slide 9.32a<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  49. 49. Pancreatic Islets<br />Figure 9.13<br />Slide 9.32b<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  50. 50. Pancreatic Hormones and Blood Sugar<br />Figure 9.14<br />Slide 9.33<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  51. 51. Pineal Gland<br /><ul><li>Found on the third ventricle of the brain
  52. 52. Secretes melatonin
  53. 53. Helps establish the body’s wake and sleep cycles
  54. 54. May have other as-yet-unsubstantiated functions</li></ul>Slide 9.34<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  55. 55. Thymus<br /><ul><li>Located posterior to the sternum
  56. 56. Largest in infants and children
  57. 57. Produces thymosin
  58. 58. Matures some types of white blood cells
  59. 59. Important in developing the immune system</li></ul>Slide 9.35<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  60. 60. Hormones of the Ovaries<br /><ul><li>Estrogens
  61. 61. Produced by Graafian follicles or the placenta
  62. 62. Stimulates the development of secondary female characteristics
  63. 63. Matures female reproductive organs
  64. 64. Helps prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg
  65. 65. Helps maintain pregnancy
  66. 66. Prepares the breasts to produce milk</li></ul>Slide 9.36<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  67. 67. Hormones of the Ovaries<br /><ul><li>Progesterone
  68. 68. Produced by the corpus luteum
  69. 69. Acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle
  70. 70. Helps in the implantation of an embryo in the uterus</li></ul>Slide 9.37<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  71. 71. Hormones of the Testes<br /><ul><li>Interstitial cells of testes are hormone-producing
  72. 72. Produce several androgens
  73. 73. Testosterone is the most important androgen
  74. 74. Responsible for adult male secondary sex characteristics
  75. 75. Promotes growth and maturation of male reproductive system
  76. 76. Required for sperm cell production</li></ul>Slide 9.38<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  77. 77. Other Hormone-Producing Tissues and Organs<br /><ul><li>Parts of the small intestine
  78. 78. Parts of the stomach
  79. 79. Kidneys
  80. 80. Heart
  81. 81. Many other areas have scattered endocrine cells</li></ul>Slide 9.39<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  82. 82. Endocrine Function of the Placenta<br /><ul><li>Produces hormones that maintain the pregnancy
  83. 83. Some hormones play a part in the delivery of the baby
  84. 84. Produces HCG in addition to estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones</li></ul>Slide 9.40<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />
  85. 85. Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System<br /><ul><li>Most endocrine organs operate smoothly until old age
  86. 86. Menopause is brought about by lack of efficiency of the ovaries
  87. 87. Problems associated with reduced estrogen are common
  88. 88. Growth hormone production declines with age
  89. 89. Many endocrine glands decrease output with age</li></ul>Slide 9.41<br />Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings<br />

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