Ch 15 Industrial Revolution

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Ch 15 Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. Industry’s Golden Age GO BIG OR GO HOME
  2. 2. The Big 3 Entrepreneurs <ul><li>Andrew Carnegie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornelius Vanderbilt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rockefellar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Carnegie <ul><li>Scottish </li></ul><ul><li>Philanthropist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries and Scientific research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie Hall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carnegie Steel Industry </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1890s, his company was the largest and most profitable industrial enterprise in the world </li></ul>
  4. 4. STEEL INDUSTRY <ul><ul><li>Cheaper and stronger than iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used on railroads </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Vanderbilt <ul><li>The Commodore </li></ul><ul><li>Married Cousin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 kids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railroad Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Philanthropist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanderbilt University </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. RAILROAD INDUSTRY <ul><li>Enhanced trade and travel out west </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraph, Telephone etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around S.America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects in Utah </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Rockefellar <ul><li>he became the worlds richest man and the first US dollar billionaire </li></ul><ul><li>philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific research </li></ul><ul><li>Rockefeller was remembered for handing dimes to those he encountered in public </li></ul>
  8. 8. OIL INDUSTRY <ul><li>Burned in lamps for light </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Oil was convicted of monopolistic practices and broken up in 1911. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Communication <ul><li>Telegraph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morse Code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women were the operators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typewriter </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Paper </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thomas Edison <ul><li>Produced electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Phonograph </li></ul><ul><li>Light Bulb </li></ul><ul><li>First electrical plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric street cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting cities </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. LINKS <ul><li>http://www. nytimes .com/ref/business/20070715_GILDED_GRAPHIC.html </li></ul>
  12. 12. Economic Terms <ul><li>Laissez-faire : No government involvement in business </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism: Survival of the fittest </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietorship : Owned by individual/family </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership : Owned by 2 or more people </li></ul><ul><li>Corporation : Sell stock/ owned by stockholders </li></ul><ul><li>Trust : Group of companies </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly: Exclusive control of an industry </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic Terms (cont.) <ul><li>Vertical Integration: Control of companies that provided materials and services upon which the enterprises depended </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Integration : 1 company’s ownership of other companies involved in the same business. </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of Scale: Buying in bulk to lower production costs and increase profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Monopolies are illegal. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stock Market <ul><li>Stocks : Certificate of ownership of a company </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholder : Those who buy the shares </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Liability : Not responsible for company debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Dividends : percentage of corporation’s profit. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mass Marketing <ul><li>Brand Names and Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers, magazines, billboards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Department Store </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buys in bulk and sells at lower prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s domain to work and shop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ads targeted women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chain store: branches in many cities </li></ul>
  16. 17. Immigration <ul><li>Old Immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>- Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>New Immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Italians </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Poles </li></ul><ul><li>Czechs </li></ul><ul><li>Slovaks </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarians </li></ul><ul><li>Russians </li></ul>
  17. 18. Immigrant Communities <ul><li>Urban Life </li></ul><ul><li>Slums and Settlement Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Divided by nationalities </li></ul><ul><li>Low wage jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>-Middle class and wealthy residential areas </li></ul>
  18. 22. Urban Culture <ul><li>Public Education </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow Journalism - tabloids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tales of Huckleberry Finn </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Upper Class <ul><li>New money made in industries </li></ul><ul><li>Spent money freely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conspicuous Consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large extravagant houses </li></ul><ul><li>Large parties </li></ul><ul><li>Philanthropy : Charity </li></ul>
  20. 24. Middle Class <ul><li>Old: Doctors, lawyers, teachers, and small business owners </li></ul><ul><li>New: Managers, engineers, accountants, clerks, and salespeople </li></ul><ul><li>Old = male New = young females </li></ul><ul><li>Most women worked at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined reading and social clubs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 25. Lower Class <ul><li>Servants </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Rented out parts of their home </li></ul><ul><li>Tenements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw sewage and garbage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution from industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. Settlement Houses <ul><li>Community Service Centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hull House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started by Jane Addams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved impoverished situations </li></ul>
  23. 27. Politics <ul><li>Political Machine: appointments to government jobs to control elections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welcomed immigrants off the boats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to gain their votes by offering help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigration Restriction League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nativists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discriminated against immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy test on all immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul>
  24. 28. Nationality Jobs <ul><li>Italian/Polish = building trade </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern European = mines and steel mills </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadians = textile mills </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish men/women and Italian women = garment industry </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks and Chinese = laundries and restaurants </li></ul>
  25. 29. Leisure Time <ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basketball, boxing, football, and baseball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American Leagues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barnum and Baileys Circus </li></ul><ul><li>Amusement Parks </li></ul>
  26. 30. Workers <ul><li>Dirty Work </li></ul><ul><li>Long hours - 15 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Low wages </li></ul><ul><li>Worked for a set period </li></ul><ul><li>Factory/sweatshop jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Helped fuel the US economy </li></ul>
  27. 31. “Gospel of Wealth” <ul><li>Social Gospel = apply Christian principles to address social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Rich has an obligation to use for the common good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>This, then, is held to be the duty of the man of wealth: First, to set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; and, after doing so, to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer to produce the most beneficial results for the community t he man of wealth thus becoming the mere trustee and agent for his poorer brethren, bringing to their service his superior wisdom, experience and ability to administer, doing for them better than they would or could do for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>F rom &quot;Wealth,&quot; by Andrew Carnegie, North American Review (1889) </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>“ Law? Who cares about the law. Hain't I got the power?” </li></ul><ul><li>— Comment alleged to have been made by Cornelius Vanderbilt, when warned that he might be violating the law </li></ul>

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