What do these two figures show?
Suggest how climate change could affect
this area. (6 marks)
Diminishing water supplies
• Around 95% of Himalayan glaciers are in retreat, e.g. the Khumbu
Glacier has retreated over 5km since 1953.
• As these glaciers shrink their annual meltwater which feeds large
rivers will decrease.
• Rivers in Asia, such as the Mekong, Yangtze and Ganges are all fed by
Himalayan glacial meltwater. The loss of a steady supply will impact
the population powerhouses of India and China.
• Both emerging superpowers these countries have huge demands for
water for development of both people‘s quality of life and their
economies. (e.g. China has 20% of the world's population, and 7% of its
fresh water. As pressure mounts, officials are pushing conservation
reforms such as reforestation and water taxes – and diverting water
from the south to the north. As demand is growing, supply is
• Knock on effects of this could include; crop failure, famine, drought,
seasonal increases in meltwater could cause GLOFs
Task 1- Approaches to management
a) Using pages 101 and 102, add notes to the figure provided.
What type of
would this be
WASHINGTON — Donald Trump pledged Thursday to push aggressively for more oil drilling if he
becomes president, including on federal lands in Alaska.
In an energy-focused speech in North Dakota, the Republican candidate spoke of "shared
prosperity" from energy revenues, promising to use them to repair the nation's crumbling
infrastructure and saying he would declare "American energy dominance" a "strategic and
economic policy goal."
"President Obama has aggressively blocked oil production, and … every single move he's made is to
block the production of oil and natural gas. He's taken huge percentages of the Alaska petroleum —
and you take the reserve; he's taken it off the table. He's taken it completely off the table," Trump
That's not entirely the case. The Obama administration has granted permits to ConocoPhillips
Alaska Inc. to drill in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska in what is known as the Greater
Mooses Tooth unit on the North Slope.
Trump perhaps meant to cite the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which has long been off limits to
drilling — a situation Obama unsuccessfully asked Congress to make permanent. Opening the
refuge would first take an act of Congress, which a president could then sign or veto.
Task 2: How can management be sustainable?
Add the phrases below to the right
• Good jobs
• No pollution
• Good working conditions
• Cultural and religious awareness
• Fair wage
• Restoration or conservation
• Health and wellbeing
If all of these are met an approach
can be considered sustainable.
Task 3: Examples
Legislative frameworks (strategies to protect and conserve
glaciated landscapes) can either be mandatory legislations
(hard strategies- strict rules and punishments) or
frameworks and agreements (soft approaches).
The hard strategies tend to be more successful than the latter.
These are developed at a number of scales, mainly international and
Do you know of any already?
• When was it started?
• What is its role?
• What is it known as being?
International (2) The Arctic
Similar in ways to Antarctica, BUT…
• It’s surrounded by powerful countries
• It’s not just ice (extensive areas of tundra)
• It has people- over 4 million people live there – 1/3 being
indigenous groups with traditional ways of life (cultural
values to protect)
• Eight countries have territory within the Arctic Circle, they
work together through the Arctic Council (set up in 1996
and strengthened in 2003 by the Polar Code which enables
countries to enforce stricter regulations (-mandatory
• Other key players = UNCLOS (UN convention for the law of
the Sea) and NGO Greenpeace
What impact is climate change having?
• More territorial tensions as melting ice mean new sea routes
open up enabling easier exploitation of mineral deposits.
Protecting the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
National (1) Alaska
• 2 - 3:50
• In 1980 President Carter signed the Alaska National
Interests Lands Conservation Act which set aside 104
million acres of federal land as national wildlife refuges,
national parks and other areas for conservation.
• Alaska has 16 refuges, which makes up 85% of the combined
“Alaska and the Obama Administration have had an extremely
contentious relationship over oil and gas production and
exploration within the state both onshore and off. Within the
realm of OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) only the Chukchi,
Beaufort and Cook Inlet areas representing less than a third
of all Alaskan waters are offered for exploration. Within
those areas large swaths have been set off limits by the
BOEM (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management) for debatable
• Read and make notes on page 104
• ‘Global Systems for Conservation’ and ‘Futures’
Then answer this question:
Evaluate the success of existing management schemes in
helping to protect and conserve cold environments. 18 marks
‘The negative impact of human activity on glacial landscapes
will increase in future.’ To what extent do you agree with this
AO1 – Knowledge and understanding of the conditions in glaciated landscapes. Knowledge of measures is most likely to be related to management of human activity and
managing glacial retreat. Knowledge and understanding of human responses to change.
AO2 – Application of knowledge and understanding of the conditions in glaciated landscapes and how these create barriers to habitation/ occupation. Application also sees
the link between the barriers to occupation and the management approaches. Should come to a view in relation to the question.
Notes for answers:
AO1 • Ablation and accumulation – historical patterns of ice advance and retreat and alternative possible futures (depending upon approach taken). Some may refer to
increased likelihood of glacial retreat in upland valley glaciers as a result of the impact of human activity.
• Warm and cold based glaciers: characteristics and development. This depends upon the use of supporting exemplication, but may feature according to geographical location.
• Geomorphological processes – weathering: frost action, nivation; ice movement: internal deformation, rotational, compressional, extensional and basal sliding; erosion:
plucking, abrasion; transportation and deposition. This element may feature in relation to the focus of the question i.e. that some of the detrimental processes may
accelerate in a warmer climate, changing the landscapes in a negative fashion. • The global distribution of cold environments. Some links may be made to the differential
impacts in different parts of the world, depending upon latitude, altitude and continentality. • Physical characteristics of cold environments. Climate, soils and vegetation (and
their interaction). Some may consider the negative impact of human activity upon ecosystems in glacial environments. • Concept of environmental fragility. Human impacts on
fragile cold environments over time and at a variety of scales. Recent and prospective impact of climate change. • Management of cold environments at present and in
alternative possible futures. This element may feature in those responses which challenge the assertion in the question i.e. that management may mitigate against the
negative impacts of human activity in glacial environments. Case study of a glaciated landscape to illustrate and analyse how it presents challenges and opportunities for
human occupation and development and evaluate human responses of resilience, mitigation and adaptation.
AO2 Responses may consider upland landscapes which are currently affected by glaciation or previously glaciated. Either approach is legitimate and will affect the direction
of the response. • Analysis – Expect to see reference to a range of human activities which have had a detrimental impact upon upland present or past glaciated landscapes. •
There should be evaluation of the extent to which these activities are sustainable or are leading to decline in environmental quality. Human activities may include agricultural
practice, tourism, transport, mining, electricity generation. For example some may refer to HEP schemes in upland glaciated valleys which have led to substantial flooding and
loss of land. • Analysis – The impact of climate change is likely to feature as a major factor leading to ablation of valley glaciers. The associated issues of flooding and
increased erosion are also likely to feature. This is likely to consider the impact of shorter winters, increased snowmelt, reduced accumulation in winter and so on. Others
may consider management in the context of the knock on effects of climate change upon the tourist industry. • Evaluation – Management depends upon the choice of case
study or supporting material. Responses may consider management of the impact of climate change and its impact upon currently glaciated areas. Others may consider much
broader issues associated with the climate change agreements and the effectiveness of such initiatives on glaciated landscapes. Responses are likely to consider adaptations
and modifications of human activity in response to a changing climate. There should also be an evaluation of the success or otherwise of the management of this human
activity. Concepts of sustainability are again likely to feature. Evaluation is likely to consider both on-going challenges and opportunities in managing these environments.
• Changes in Sea Ice Affect Marine Ecosystems and