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L16 2 a.12 management

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Glaciation lessons for Edexcel A level Geography (2016 spec)

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L16 2 a.12 management

  1. 1. What do these two figures show? Suggest how climate change could affect this area. (6 marks)
  2. 2. Diminishing water supplies • Around 95% of Himalayan glaciers are in retreat, e.g. the Khumbu Glacier has retreated over 5km since 1953. • As these glaciers shrink their annual meltwater which feeds large rivers will decrease. • Rivers in Asia, such as the Mekong, Yangtze and Ganges are all fed by Himalayan glacial meltwater. The loss of a steady supply will impact the population powerhouses of India and China. • Both emerging superpowers these countries have huge demands for water for development of both people‘s quality of life and their economies. (e.g. China has 20% of the world's population, and 7% of its fresh water. As pressure mounts, officials are pushing conservation reforms such as reforestation and water taxes – and diverting water from the south to the north. As demand is growing, supply is shrinking). • Knock on effects of this could include; crop failure, famine, drought, seasonal increases in meltwater could cause GLOFs
  3. 3. Key idea 2A.12 Managing glacial landscapes
  4. 4. Task 1- Approaches to management a) Using pages 101 and 102, add notes to the figure provided. Business as usual Sustainable exploitation Sustainable management Comprehensive conservation Total protection Do nothing
  5. 5. What type of management would this be classed as?
  6. 6. WASHINGTON — Donald Trump pledged Thursday to push aggressively for more oil drilling if he becomes president, including on federal lands in Alaska. In an energy-focused speech in North Dakota, the Republican candidate spoke of "shared prosperity" from energy revenues, promising to use them to repair the nation's crumbling infrastructure and saying he would declare "American energy dominance" a "strategic and economic policy goal." "President Obama has aggressively blocked oil production, and … every single move he's made is to block the production of oil and natural gas. He's taken huge percentages of the Alaska petroleum — and you take the reserve; he's taken it off the table. He's taken it completely off the table," Trump said. That's not entirely the case. The Obama administration has granted permits to ConocoPhillips Alaska Inc. to drill in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska in what is known as the Greater Mooses Tooth unit on the North Slope. Trump perhaps meant to cite the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which has long been off limits to drilling — a situation Obama unsuccessfully asked Congress to make permanent. Opening the refuge would first take an act of Congress, which a president could then sign or veto.
  7. 7. Task 2: How can management be sustainable? Sustainable Management Social EnvironmentalEconomic Add the phrases below to the right categories: • Good jobs • No pollution • Good working conditions • Cultural and religious awareness • Renewable • Security • Fair wage • Community • Infrastructure • Restoration or conservation • Health and wellbeing If all of these are met an approach can be considered sustainable.
  8. 8. Task 3: Examples Legislative frameworks (strategies to protect and conserve glaciated landscapes) can either be mandatory legislations (hard strategies- strict rules and punishments) or frameworks and agreements (soft approaches). The hard strategies tend to be more successful than the latter. These are developed at a number of scales, mainly international and national. Do you know of any already?
  9. 9. International (1): Antarctica https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lZ zPDWcsmFw • When was it started? • What is its role? • What is it known as being?
  10. 10. International (2) The Arctic Similar in ways to Antarctica, BUT… • It’s surrounded by powerful countries • It’s not just ice (extensive areas of tundra) • It has people- over 4 million people live there – 1/3 being indigenous groups with traditional ways of life (cultural values to protect) • Eight countries have territory within the Arctic Circle, they work together through the Arctic Council (set up in 1996 and strengthened in 2003 by the Polar Code which enables countries to enforce stricter regulations (-mandatory legislations)) • Other key players = UNCLOS (UN convention for the law of the Sea) and NGO Greenpeace What impact is climate change having? • More territorial tensions as melting ice mean new sea routes open up enabling easier exploitation of mineral deposits. Protecting the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hey_WIAFVA
  11. 11. National (1) Alaska • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z19rGB_DVs8 • 2 - 3:50 • In 1980 President Carter signed the Alaska National Interests Lands Conservation Act which set aside 104 million acres of federal land as national wildlife refuges, national parks and other areas for conservation. • Alaska has 16 refuges, which makes up 85% of the combined national acreage. “Alaska and the Obama Administration have had an extremely contentious relationship over oil and gas production and exploration within the state both onshore and off. Within the realm of OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) only the Chukchi, Beaufort and Cook Inlet areas representing less than a third of all Alaskan waters are offered for exploration. Within those areas large swaths have been set off limits by the BOEM (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management) for debatable environmental reasons.”
  12. 12. Homework • Read and make notes on page 104 • ‘Global Systems for Conservation’ and ‘Futures’ Then answer this question: Evaluate the success of existing management schemes in helping to protect and conserve cold environments. 18 marks
  13. 13. ‘The negative impact of human activity on glacial landscapes will increase in future.’ To what extent do you agree with this view? AO1 – Knowledge and understanding of the conditions in glaciated landscapes. Knowledge of measures is most likely to be related to management of human activity and managing glacial retreat. Knowledge and understanding of human responses to change. AO2 – Application of knowledge and understanding of the conditions in glaciated landscapes and how these create barriers to habitation/ occupation. Application also sees the link between the barriers to occupation and the management approaches. Should come to a view in relation to the question. Notes for answers: AO1 • Ablation and accumulation – historical patterns of ice advance and retreat and alternative possible futures (depending upon approach taken). Some may refer to increased likelihood of glacial retreat in upland valley glaciers as a result of the impact of human activity. • Warm and cold based glaciers: characteristics and development. This depends upon the use of supporting exemplication, but may feature according to geographical location. • Geomorphological processes – weathering: frost action, nivation; ice movement: internal deformation, rotational, compressional, extensional and basal sliding; erosion: plucking, abrasion; transportation and deposition. This element may feature in relation to the focus of the question i.e. that some of the detrimental processes may accelerate in a warmer climate, changing the landscapes in a negative fashion. • The global distribution of cold environments. Some links may be made to the differential impacts in different parts of the world, depending upon latitude, altitude and continentality. • Physical characteristics of cold environments. Climate, soils and vegetation (and their interaction). Some may consider the negative impact of human activity upon ecosystems in glacial environments. • Concept of environmental fragility. Human impacts on fragile cold environments over time and at a variety of scales. Recent and prospective impact of climate change. • Management of cold environments at present and in alternative possible futures. This element may feature in those responses which challenge the assertion in the question i.e. that management may mitigate against the negative impacts of human activity in glacial environments. Case study of a glaciated landscape to illustrate and analyse how it presents challenges and opportunities for human occupation and development and evaluate human responses of resilience, mitigation and adaptation. AO2 Responses may consider upland landscapes which are currently affected by glaciation or previously glaciated. Either approach is legitimate and will affect the direction of the response. • Analysis – Expect to see reference to a range of human activities which have had a detrimental impact upon upland present or past glaciated landscapes. • There should be evaluation of the extent to which these activities are sustainable or are leading to decline in environmental quality. Human activities may include agricultural practice, tourism, transport, mining, electricity generation. For example some may refer to HEP schemes in upland glaciated valleys which have led to substantial flooding and loss of land. • Analysis – The impact of climate change is likely to feature as a major factor leading to ablation of valley glaciers. The associated issues of flooding and increased erosion are also likely to feature. This is likely to consider the impact of shorter winters, increased snowmelt, reduced accumulation in winter and so on. Others may consider management in the context of the knock on effects of climate change upon the tourist industry. • Evaluation – Management depends upon the choice of case study or supporting material. Responses may consider management of the impact of climate change and its impact upon currently glaciated areas. Others may consider much broader issues associated with the climate change agreements and the effectiveness of such initiatives on glaciated landscapes. Responses are likely to consider adaptations and modifications of human activity in response to a changing climate. There should also be an evaluation of the success or otherwise of the management of this human activity. Concepts of sustainability are again likely to feature. Evaluation is likely to consider both on-going challenges and opportunities in managing these environments.
  14. 14. • http://www.grida.no/video/default.aspx?id=6604 • Changes in Sea Ice Affect Marine Ecosystems and Livelihoods

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