Molecular biology

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Molecular biology

  1. 1. Molecular Biology Th e Ba s i c s
  2. 2. Atoms Smallest unit of an element still exhibiting qualities of that element
  3. 3. Neutrons are located in the nucleus • Electrons travel around nucleus in orbital shells ubatomic Particles An atom has three Positively parts charged Protons (p+) Neutrally charged Neutrons (n0) Negatively charged Electrons (e)
  4. 4. Atomic Structure • Electrons fill shells in ascending order with a maximum number of electrons in each shell • The 1st shell has a maximum of 2 electrons, the 2nd has a maximum of 8, the 3rd has a maximum of 18 • The outermost shell of an atom is called the valence shell and
  5. 5. Molecules Molecules are two or more bonded atoms • Covalent bonds have shared electrons o Non-polar o Polar • Hydrogen bonds • Ionic bonds
  6. 6. Non-polar Covalent Bonds equally • Molecules share electrons and evenly
  7. 7. Polar Covalent Bonds Electrons shared slightly unevenly between atoms • Electrons spend more time traveling around one atom creating a negative charge on one side and a positive charge on the other
  8. 8. Hydrogen When polar molecules Bonds contain hydrogen atoms, the opposite charges attract nearby molecules
  9. 9. with few valence electron will give one to an atom with many valence electrons Ionic Bonds A charged atom, or ion, is created from the p+/eimbalance The opposite charges attract and form a strong
  10. 10. Metallic Bonds Metal atoms in formalized structure share electrons throughout entire molecule • Leads to high conductivity of electricity
  11. 11. Periodic Table Elements are arranged by a variety of properties

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