Media language


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Media language

  1. 1. Media Language
  2. 2. What is it? • -the way in which a text is constructed to create meaning for audiences. • All about MEANING!!! • Very similar to AS TV drama exam: you looked at technical codes and how they operate, which media language analysis. This exam is similar. – Film/TV = CAM SAM, MES, E, S = create meaning – Print = fonts, layouts, images, text/words = create meaning • Meanings are generally a synopic (summaries) round up of other options covered such as narrative/genre/representation etc • Important to understand the science of signs (semiotics)
  3. 3. Theorists/theories? Theorist Their theory explained Barthes Denotation / connotation – all about meaning of signs! Saussure Semiotics – the science of signs, how meaning is constructed through language and codes (signifier and signified) Derrida Audience deconstruct a text within contexts of it’s logos* (*logos = symbols/signs) -therefore texts don’t have a single meaning but many meanings, many interpretations (polysemic) based on these contexts and how audience receives them Peirce There are different types of signs which should be treated differently Indexical Iconic Symbolic Arbitrary Marshall McLuhen “The medium is the message” -the medium (form) itself conveys more meanings than the content Kuleshov Could be applied as well (as it’s how editing creates meaning)
  4. 4. Revision book • -pg 12/13 • -pg 32/33 • -semiotics pg 38/39
  5. 5. Pg 12/13 • Active institutional view – Meaning of text from institution from audience – institution is active and audience is passive • Negotiated view – Meaning constructed by text – Institution encodes meaning, audience interprets as they will (because of other factors) – Therefore meaning is negotiated • Active audience view – Meaning recreated by audience, institution is passive as it has no control over how audience creates meaning from text See questions on page 13 to help prepare *this is similar to hall’s theory about encoding/decoding (audience theory)
  6. 6. Barthes • You know about denotation/connotation • i.e. • Denotation = RED (on valentine’s card) • Connotation = love/passion • Denotation = RED (in horror film) • Connotation = blood/murder/danger
  7. 7. Derrida • Audience deconstruct a text within contexts of it’s logos* (*logos = symbols/signs) -therefore texts don’t have a single meaning but many meanings, many interpretations (polysemic) based on these contexts and how audience receives them • (such as knowledge of related texts or social contexts) • Example: Slasher horror films • The ‘sign’ of a blond bound female victim is not just one sign: – Female – Blond – attractive/feminine – Victim (of a male? Because of her irresponsible behaviour? Etc) – Bound: it happens often to victims to keep them captive (torture/rape/not escpaing etc) – Conventional stereotype • there are many ‘signs’ above which we have gained from experience/exposure of other horror films and our own interpretations, therefore they all have many meanings.
  8. 8. Pg 38/39 semiotics • Syntactical level – Basic level of analysis – Denotations – Immediate impressions – i.e. colours, objects, structures • Representational level – The meanings – Connotations – i.e. high angle shows dominance, filter to make you ‘pretty’ in a selfie • Symbolic level – Hidden meanings or connotations of ideologies and institutions – Context must be considered (cultural context) – Consider target audience and purpose – i.e. #1 - a modern woman is attractive in 20th century because of her…… – Whilst at one point, pale skin and rounder figures were adored because it was a sign of wealth – i.e. #2 – the meaning of the term ‘selfie’ or a picture of a selfie – what does it mean? Why does this term exist?
  9. 9. Saussure • Meaning of texts by deconstructing meanings • System of signs or science of signs • SIGNS: – SIGNIFIED: the thing being represented – SIGNIFIER: the concept being represented • Signs are polysemic, carry lots of signifieds from one sign (i.e. character holding a knife in horror poster – many meanings)
  10. 10. Here it is again…. • SIGNS: – SIGNIFIED: the thing being represented – SIGNIFIER: the concept being represented
  11. 11. Some signs (signified/signifier)
  12. 12. More signs (signified/signifier)
  13. 13. Peirce • Suggested there were different types of signs and they should be treated differently • INDEXICAL SIGNS – Closely related to concept they signify – i.e. Tin of catfood signifies the catfood inside • ICONIC SIGNS – Like ‘signified’ (the thing/object) – i.e. photograph – it is person but separated from them • SYMBOLIC SIGNS – Not obvious relationship with signified – i.e. a dove is symbol for peace • ARBITRARY SIGNS – Signs in which meanings can change – Language is often arbitrary – No clear connection between signified and signifier – i.e. ‘minging’ or ‘bling’ carry connotations with particular groups, yet meaningless on their own
  14. 14. McLuhen (50’s) • His famous quote was ‘The medium is the message’ • “The medium is the message” as a phrase sums up a much deeper communication theory, which is that the medium through which we choose to communicate holds as much, if not more, value than the message itself. • Spectators have specific expectations of any media form – Music videos = non linear narrative, montage, singer performance, lack of cause/effect….etc. – Documentaries = ? – Print adverts = ? – Comic strips = ? – Website = ? • Audience expectations of these forms generate the meaning more than content themselves • MEANING FROM FORM, NOT CONTENT! • i.e. think of meaning from a film. When you watch the film in cinema vs at home the meanings change (but these are linear experience as you watch story unfold). Likewise, going onto film website and seeing trailer or your iphone – messages change because of the FORMS. (these are non linear experiences, seeing different parts of narrative and perhaps audience to reach conclusions) •
  15. 15. Kuleshov • You know about… narrative presentation! • Remember, it’s about how EDITING creates meanings – Images (assembly of images) – Rhythm (the sense of time, when?) – Pace (how fast/slow over time)
  16. 16. Revision notes – A2? Theorist/theory Coursework ex 1 1 Part in your work Coursework ex 2 1 Part in your work Coursework ex 3 1 Part in your work Barthes If you can  Saussure Remember….. Reinforced? Challenged? Pierce Kuleshov? McLuhen