INSTITUTIONS AND AUDIENCES FILM INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING
AIMS• To understand the focus for KEY TERMS the Audience and Audience Institutions section of your Institution Exam Production Subsidiary• To understand the structure Distribution of a Media Triangle Marketing Exhibition• To understand the different sectors of the film industry Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration
THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and AudiencesCandidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of production,distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well asthe nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. Inaddition, candidates should be familiar with:•the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;•the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;•the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution,marketing and exchange;•the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;•the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;•the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) byinternational or global institutions;•the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patternsand trends of audience behaviour.This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies basedupon one of the specified media areas.
Film Four• Trainspotting• Looking for Eric• Slumdog Millionaire
MEDIA TRIANGLES What they have produced Media Text TargetInstitution AudienceWho has produced Who it is produced the media text for.
THE FILM PROCESS There are three distinct areas of the film industry.Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution.PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION EXHIBITIONWhat would you expect to happen at each stage?
IDEA (Pre-production) FILMING (production) (in/out of sets) EDITING (post-production)PRODUCTION MARKETING DISTRIBUTE TO CINEMA (prints)DISTRIBUTION EXHIBITED (sown in) CINEMA DISTRIBUTE TO DVD/SHOPS EXCHANGE (TV, online (itunes,),EXHIBITION downloading ( netflix) piracy etc)
• Production involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the PRODUCTION COMPANY• This includes all pre-production, production & post- production processes.• Before that the writer/director/producer must find finance for a film – which may come from one or Figment Films is the many production companies (a co-production) production company who made Trainspotting. Channel 4 (film 4) financed the film
•Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/homerelease and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the filmMARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of anew release•A distributor may:-Be a part of the same parent company as the production company-Have a long term arrangement with a production company andprovide financial assistance for many of their productions-Provide financial assistance for a single film by a productioncompany Miramax distributed-Acquire a film after it has completed production Trainspotting and bought the rights for•A film will likely have different distributors for: $750,000 – in your case-Releases in different countries study look carefully at how it was marketed-Cinema Release and distributed.-Home-Video Release
• Exhibition is divided into two sections:- Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film FilmFour made its reputation with films- Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is such as Trainspotting selling the film for a copy in 1996, which made £23m at the box office• A film’s success is often decided on the amount of money but cost only £2.4m it makes during it’s cinema release. This is known as the and was the highest Box Office Takings grossing British film in 1996.• However, it was far Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable and more successful on varied source for distributors to increase profits. DVD, spawning numerous versions andWHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK special editions OF? Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION Often a single parent company will own multiple companies in the film industry. HORIZONTAL This is divided into two types of ownership: The parent company owns multiple companies at the same stage of the film industry. A smallerPRODUCTION PRODUCTION PRODUCTION company, owned by the parent is a subsidiary. VERTICALDISTRIBUTION The parent company For example Warner Brosalso owns: For example Walt Disney owns multiple companies across owns: •Miramax Films different stages of the •Warner Bros Studios (Production) film industry. EXHIBITION •Hollywood Pictures •Warner Bros (Distribution) •Pixar Animation •Used to own Warner Bros Cinemas What are the in the UK (Exhibition) advantages for a parent company of each type of ownership?
RECAPWhat do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry?• Production• Subsidiary• Distribution• Marketing• Exhibition• Horizontal Integration• Vertical Integration