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Assignment 11 film billing & title analysis


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Assignment 11 film billing & title analysis

  1. 1. Assignment 11: Film Billing & Title Analysis L/O: -to know the historical context of film titles and credits -to know how film titles are structures and applied in films -to be able to apply these rules/ideas to your opening sequences
  2. 2. Key Terms • • • • • • • Film title Film credit Billing Opening sequence Title sequence Opening credits Closing credits • Possessory/possessive Credits • Cold open / teaser • Top billing • Last billing
  3. 3. Key Terms DEFINITIONS Film Title Film Credit Billing (Top & Last) Title of film Name and/or role of person worked on film The process of placing titles and credits in a film Opening Sequence Title Sequence Opening Credits Closing Credits The opening credits of a film in which the title and credits are separate from the film itself The credits and the beginning of the film The credits and the end of the film (Coldopen/Teaser) The opening of a film More modern films that set a scene in the opening which creates enigma (like a trailer) is called cold open or teaser. Example = 4-3-21 opening Ex James Bond Top = most important Last = least important ?v=4uaYiWu7uZs&safe=active
  4. 4. Think of how titles and credits have changed over time safe=active Now there are: -music -CGI -text animation -images/footage etc -separate narratives from the film -symbolism and enigma -used to just be text on blank screen!
  5. 5. Definition (wiki) • In a motion picture, television program, or video game, the opening credits are shown at the very beginning and list the most important members of the production. • They are now usually shown as text superimposed on a blank screen or static pictures, or sometimes on top of action in the show. • There may or may not be accompanying music. • Where opening credits are built into a separate sequence of their own, the correct term is title sequence (such as the familiar James Bond and Pink Panther title sequences).
  6. 6. HISTORY • In 1900/20’s big film studios didn’t want actors names to be at beginning as they felt it would create the ‘star’ culture that existed in Broadway. This would cause the stars to expect big salaries. Also, the stars who were in films didn’t want their names at beginning as it wasn’t really the thing to do (as it were more popular to be a big Broadway star) • In the 1950’s the film industry changed and studio’s/directors/stars decided on if their names were billed. • American films also tended to list the names of the actors before the names of the directors, screenwriters, etc. (before the crew and film makers were more important than actors) • After the 60’s the big stars started demanding that their names be put at the beginning of the film for recognition. Billing demands even extended to publicity materials (i.e. posters, trailers, billboards), down to the height of the letters and the position of names. Big actors have top billing and small actors have last billing. • Up until the 1970s, closing credits for films usually listed only a some of cast members with their roles identified, or even simply just said "The End” – Example: ‘Oliver in 1968’ had nearly all the titles of cast and crew at beginning = 3.5 minutes long! • Opening credits since the early 1980s, if present at all, identify the major actors and crew, while the closing credits list an extensive cast and production crew. • Generally, the billing order signifies the importance (1st = most important, last = least important) • By the 90’s a lot of films completely omit (leave out) the title and credits until the end (for different styles of opening sequences) such as Avatar, Star Wars, Dark Knight trilogy
  7. 7. SOLVIET (Russian) INFLUENCE • Most Soviet films presented all film-related information in the opening credits, rather than at the closing which consist of just a "THE END“ • A typical Soviet opening credits sequence starts with a – – – – – film company's logo (Mosfilm, Lenfilm, etc.) the film's title followed by the director the film's chief administrator-in-charge, the production director then the cast, usually in actor-and-role format for main actors, in an alphabetical cluster – The final credit screen identified the studio corresponding to the logo at the beginning, and the year of the film's production.
  8. 8. Recent trends • Many major American films have done away with opening credits, not even displaying the film title until beginning of closing credits – Van Helsing in 2004 – Batman Begins in 2005 • George Lucas is credited with popularizing this with his Star Wars films which display only the film's title at the start. • His decision to omit (leave out) opening credits in his films Star Wars (1977) and The Empire Strikes Back (1980) led him to resign from the Directors Guild of America after being fined $250,000 for not crediting the director during the opening title sequence. • However, Hollywood had been releasing films without opening credits for many years before Lucas came along, most notably Citizen Kane, West Side Story, and The Godfather.
  9. 9. EVOLUTION (WIK) • Some opening credits are presented over the opening sequences of a film, rather than in a separate title sequence. • In some films/TV shows, the title and opening credits may be preceded by a "cold open," or teaser (brief scene), that helps to set the stage for the episode or film 4321 Scream 4 Is a ‘teaser’ as it previews a section later in the film It cuts off suddenly to create enigma, in which the film will answer the ultimate question as to why she jumped off bridge Next slide…. jw&safe=active No credits!!! But has a good reason…. -trilogy (actors/companies and previous films already known -way to sell a film which people see as ‘typical horror/slasher”
  10. 10. Scream 4 opening Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 -typical convention with slight modern twists (facebook/texting) -similar to first opening sequence -audience sees that part 1 is a like a parody of scream 1 – -however the convention of ‘unpredictable killer’ is then a parody -they discuss stereotypical conventions of horror films - The chase/kill sequence reinforces conventions but also challenges them!
  11. 11. Title only billing • Nevertheless, "title-only" billing became an established form for summer blockbusters in 1989: – – – – Clint Eastwood has omitted opening credits (except for the title) in every film that he has directed since1980. – • • • • • • • • • • Ghostbusters II Lethal Weapon 2 The Abyss following the practice. Other films to only show title: 2001: The Mummy Returns 2004: Teacher's Pet 2005: Batman Begins 2006: Hostel 2007: Hostel: Part 2 2008: The Dark Knight 2009: Avatar 2010: How to Train Your Dragon 2010: Inception 2012: The Dark Knight Rises
  12. 12. Rules/REGULATIONS/exceptions • • There are MANY complicated rules but they must be followed. Read through the above website for understanding of these rules. You must consider this when you make your opening sequence. • There are considerations of fame, role, length of time in film etc. • Basically the stars all want top billing! • Sometimes actors have to fight/argue their way with studios (sometimes they want to be first and sometimes studios want the more sellable and famous stars first) • • • Example 1: Miami vice = was supposed to be Colin Ferrell for top billing but after Jamie Foxx won academy award he wanted to be top (first name). He got it even though his role is not as long as Colin’s! Colin received top bill in closing credits. (agreement made) Example 2 Seven = Kevin Spacey’s name not in opening credits as it would give away his identity as the killer…..he is in end credits of course Example 3 Hannibal = Gary Oldman had extensive make-up done for his role and didn’t want his name in credits!!! (He didn’t want the fame like most stars)
  13. 13. Coursework • A good portion of the task of making an opening sequence is how you apply titles/credits • You MUST show titles and credits • Weaker pieces of C/W tend to just have the title at the end on a black screen which is not even common in contemporary films!
  14. 14. Wiki • s
  15. 15. Genre • Keep genre in mind when looking at film’s titles and credits! • (Remember the PURPOSE of the film/opening)
  16. 16. TASK Assignment 11: Film BILLING • Create a PowerPoint that shows your understanding of film titles/credits • Slide 1: title page • Slide 2: Model example from class: (take a picture of your full list worksheet) • Slide 3: Chosen film (name of film, genre, film cover • Part 4: Picture of full list of titles • Part 5: Multiple slides of screen grabs of titles, annotate their meaning and annotate why in this order • Part 6: Chosen film 2 (that is different from 1) and repeat part 3, 4, 5, • Part 7: Compare the differences between them and discuss why they are different
  17. 17. Film choice – in your genre! • Any opening sequence or title sequence from a film – – – – – • DVD Netflix Artofthetitle Youtube is limited!!!! MUST HAVE TITLES AND CREDITS!!!!! (no teasers like scream 4) RED = YELLOW = GREEN = • complete a title only sequence (example = signs) complete a regular opening sequence with simple background footage (example = crash) complete a regular opening sequence with narrative/story (example = juno) Can’t do…. (this films will be linked for another task) – – – – – – Dawn of the dead Gattaca U Turn To Kill a Mockingbird Cabin in the woods Red lights
  18. 18. Juno
  19. 19. Juno opening details Style & purpose of opening Length of opening Type of font Colour of font Animation of text Placement of text -opening sequence -title sequence -teaser 2:26 Sans serif (like a amateur drawing) Multiple – yellow, orange, pinks _______________ _______________ Why? Why? _______________ Short and sweet establishments. Teen theme Like an amateur drawing (wiggling) All over the screen in various places (depending on the visuals _______________ _______________ Why? Why? Not serious, comedy appeal No significance Style: -standard opening sequence & -animated title sequence _______________ Purpose: -establish indie style, character and setting Why? Cheerful colours
  20. 20. Juno Full list of titles
  21. 21. Start of opening The film starts as a standard opening sequence which is normal footage which establishes: • the main character • and the setting
  22. 22. Style of opening • The film then transitions into animation which more is similar to a title sequence style.
  23. 23. CREDIT 1 • Time: .12 • Possessory • Distributing company Typical to have distribution company as first credit as they invested the money have ownership of film
  24. 24. CREDIT 2 • Time: .17 • Possessory • Production company Next it is the production company as they have a large role as they produced the film, they have control over where film was filmed sets, filming, editing etc.)
  25. 25. CREDIT 3 • Time: .21 • Crew • Director Director has 1st credit as their role is quite important in this film (above the actors as they come after)
  26. 26. TITLE 4 • Time: .28 • Title of the film The main actress Ellen Page is placed in the shot as she is quite important The title of film has the biggest size and the animation flashes in order it gets the most attention and is very noticeable.
  27. 27. Credit 4 • Time: .35 • Cast • Main actor gets top billing (first credit)
  28. 28. Credit 5, 6, 7, 8 CREDIT 5 CREDIT 6 CREDIT 7 CREDIT 8 Time: .40 Time: .44 Time: .52 Time: .58 Cast Cast Cast Cast Main Actor 2 Supporting Actor 1 Supporting Actor 2 Actor
  29. 29. Assignment 11: Film BILLING Name 1 Name 2 Name 3 Name 4
  30. 30. Model from class Take photo on iPad and put place here (handwritten)
  31. 31. Genre: ____________ FILM: ____________
  32. 32. Chosen Film (Genre: ________)
  33. 33. Full LIST OF TITLE & CREDITS
  34. 34. CREDITS
  35. 35. TITLE OF FILM
  36. 36. CREDITS
  37. 37. Repeat with Film 2
  38. 38. Comparison Film 1 & Film 2 ORDER OF CREDITS Film 1 Film 2
  39. 39. Comparison Film 1 & Film 2 FILM TITLE Film 1 Film 2