ASSIGNMENT 10: FILM BILLING L/O: -TO KNOW THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF FILM TITLES AND CREDITS-TO KNOW HOW FILM TITLES ARE STRUCTURES AND APPLIED IN FILMS -TO BE ABLE TO APPLY THESE RULES/IDEAS TO YOUR OPENING SEQUENCES
KEY TERMS• Film title• Film credit• Billing• Opening sequence• Title sequence• Opening credits• Closing credits• Possessory/possessive Credits• Cold open / teaser• Top billing• Last billing
KEY TERMS DEFINITIONSFilm Film Billing Opening Title Opening ClosingTitle Credit Sequence Sequence Credits Credits (Top & Last) (Cold- open/Teaser)Title of film Name and/or The The opening of a The opening The credits and The credits role of person process of film credits of a film in the beginning of and the worked on placing which the title and the film end of the film titles and credits are film credits in More modern films separate from the a film that set a scene in film itself the opening which creates enigma (like a trailer) is called Ex James Bond cold open or teaser. Example = 4-3-2-1 opening Top = most important Last = least http://www.youtube.com/w important atch?v=4uaYiWu7uZs&safe= active
THINK OF HOW TITLES AND CREDITS HAVE CHANGED OVER TIMEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pww -used to just be text on blank screen!xklLotJ8&safe=active http://www.artofthetitle.com/title/the- girl-with-the-dragon-tattoo/ Now there are: -music -CGI -text animation -images/footage etc -separate narratives from the film -symbolism and enigma
DEFINITION (WIKI)• In a motion picture, television program, or video game, the opening credits are shown at the very beginning and list the most important members of the production.• They are now usually shown as text superimposed on a blank screen or static pictures, or sometimes on top of action in the show.• There may or may not be accompanying music.• Where opening credits are built into a separate sequence of their own, the correct term is title sequence (such as the familiar James Bond and Pink Panther title sequences).
HISTORY• In 1900/20‟s big film studios didn‟t want actors names to be at beginning as they felt it would create the „star‟ culture that existed in Broadway. This would cause the stars to expect big salaries. Also, the stars who were in films didn‟t want their names at beginning as it wasn‟t really the thing to do (as it were more popular to be a big Broadway star)• In the 1950‟s the film industry changed and studio‟s/directors/stars decided on if their names were billed.• American films also tended to list the names of the actors before the names of the directors, screenwriters, etc. (before the crew and film makers were more important than actors)• After the 60‟s the big stars started demanding that their names be put at the beginning of the film for recognition. Billing demands even extended to publicity materials (i.e. posters, trailers, billboards), down to the height of the letters and the position of names. Big actors have top billing and small actors have last billing.• Up until the 1970s, closing credits for films usually listed only a some of cast members with their roles identified, or even simply just said "The End” • Example: „Oliver in 1968‟ had nearly all the titles of cast and crew at beginning = 3.5 minutes long!• Opening credits since the early 1980s, if present at all, identify the major actors and crew, while the closing credits list an extensive cast and production crew.• Generally, the billing order signifies the importance (1st = most important, last = least important)• By the 90‟s a lot of films completely omit (leave out) the title and credits until the end (for different styles of opening sequences) such as Avatar, Star Wars, Dark Knight trilogy
SOLVIET (RUSSIAN) INFLUENCE• Most Soviet films presented all film-related information in the opening credits, rather than at the closing which consist of just a "THE END“• A typical Soviet opening credits sequence starts with a • film companys logo (Mosfilm, Lenfilm, etc.) • the films title • followed by the director • the films chief administrator-in-charge, the production director • then the cast, usually in actor-and-role format for main actors, in an alphabetical cluster • The final credit screen identified the studio corresponding to the logo at the beginning, and the year of the films production.
RECENT TRENDS• Many major American films have done away with opening credits, not even displaying the film title until beginning of closing credits • Van Helsing in 2004 • Batman Begins in 2005• George Lucas is credited with popularizing this with his Star Wars films which display only the films title at the start.• His decision to omit (leave out) opening credits in his films Star Wars (1977) and The Empire Strikes Back (1980) led him to resign from the Directors Guild of America after being fined $250,000 for not crediting the director during the opening title sequence.• However, Hollywood had been releasing films without opening credits for many years before Lucas came along, most notably Citizen Kane, West Side Story, and The Godfather.
EVOLUTION (WIK) • Some opening credits are presented over the opening sequences of a film, rather than in a separate title sequence. • In some films/TV shows, the title and opening credits may be preceded by a "cold open," or teaser (brief scene), that helps to set the stage for the episode or film4321 Scream 4Is a „teaser‟ as it previews a section later in Next slide….the filmIt cuts off suddenly to create enigma, inwhich the film will answer the ultimate http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLquestion as to why she jumped off bridge rAbsppcjw&safe=active No credits!!! But has a good reason…. -trilogy (actors/companies and previous films already known -way to sell a film which people see as ‘typical horror/slasher”
SCREAM 4 OPENINGPart 1 Part 2 Part 3-typical convention with slight -audience sees that part 1 is a like -they discuss stereotypicalmodern twists (facebook/texting) a parody of scream 1 – conventions of horror films-similar to first opening sequence -however the convention of - The chase/kill sequence reinforces „unpredictable killer‟ is then a conventions but also challenges parody them!
TITLE ONLY BILLING• Nevertheless, "title-only" billing became an established form for summer blockbusters in 1989: • Ghostbusters II • Lethal Weapon 2 • The Abyss following the practice. • Clint Eastwood has omitted opening credits (except for the title) in every film that he has directed since1980. • Other films to only show title:• 2001: The Mummy Returns• 2004: Teachers Pet• 2005: Batman Begins• 2006: Hostel• 2007: Hostel: Part 2• 2008: The Dark Knight• 2009: Avatar• 2010: How to Train Your Dragon• 2010: Inception• 2012: The Dark Knight Rises
RULES/REGULATIONS/EXCEPTIONS • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billing_(filmmaking) • There are MANY complicated rules but they must be followed. Read through the above website for understanding of these rules. You must consider this when you make your opening sequence. • There are considerations of fame, role, length of time in film etc. • Basically the stars all want top billing! • Sometimes actors have to fight/argue their way with studios (sometimes they want to be first and sometimes studios want the more sellable and famous stars first) Example 1: • Miami vice = was supposed to be Colin Ferrell for top billing but after Jamie Foxx won academy award he wanted to be top (first name). He got it even though his role is not as long as Colin‟s! Colin received top bill in closing credits. (agreement made) Example 2 • Seven = Kevin Spacey‟s name not in opening credits as it would give away his identity as the killer…..he is in end credits of course Example 3 • Hannibal = Gary Oldman had extensive make-up done for his role and didn‟t want his name in credits!!! (He didn‟t want the fame like most stars)
COURSEWORK• A good portion of the task of making an opening sequence is how you apply titles/credits• You MUST show titles and credits• Weaker pieces of C/W tend to just have the title at the end on a black screen which is not even common in contemporary films!
GENRE• Keep genre in mind when looking at film‟s titles and credits!• (Remember the PURPOSE of the film/opening)
TASK ASSIGNMENT 10: FILM BILLING• Create a PowerPoint that shows your understanding of film titles/credits• Slide 1: title page• Slide 2: Model example from class: (take a picture of your full list worksheet)• Slide 3: Chosen film (name of film, genre, film cover• Part 4: Picture of full list of titles• Part 5: Multiple slides of screen grabs of titles, annotate their meaning and annotate why in this order• Part 6: Chosen film 2 (that is different from 1) and repeat part 3, 4, 5,• Part 7: Compare the differences between them and discuss why they are different
FILM CHOICE• Any opening sequence or title sequence from a film on artofthetitle.com• MUST HAVE TITLES AND CREDITS!!!!! (no teasers like scream 4) RED = complete a title only sequence (example = signs) YELLOW = complete a regular opening sequence with simple background footage (example = crash) GREEN = complete a regular opening sequence with narrative/story (example = juno)• Can‟t do…. (not repeated films from assignment 9) • Dawn of the dead • Gattaca • U Turn • To Kill a Mockingbird • Cabin in the woods • Red lights
JUNO OPENING DETAILS Style & Length of Type of font Colour of font Animation of Placement of purpose of opening text text opening -opening sequence -title sequence -teaser 2:26 Sans serif (like a Multiple – yellow, Like an amateur All over the screen amateur drawing) orange, pinks drawing (wiggling) in various placesStyle: (depending on the-standard opening visualssequence&-animated titlesequence _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?_______________Purpose: Short and sweet Teen theme Not serious, comedy No significance establishments. Cheerful colours appeal-establish indiestyle, character andsetting
START OF OPENINGThe film starts as a standard opening sequence which is normal footage which establishes: • the main character • and the setting
STYLE OF OPENING• The film then transitions into animation which more is similar to a title sequence style.
CREDIT 1• Time: .12• Possessory• Distributing company Typical to have distribution company as first credit as they invested the money have ownership of film
CREDIT 2• Time: .17• Possessory• Production company Next it is the production company as they have a large role as they produced the film, they have control over where film was filmed sets, filming, editing etc.)
CREDIT 3• Time: .21• Crew• Director Director has 1st credit as their role is quite important in this film (above the actors as they come after)
TITLE 4• Time: .28• Title of the film The main actress Ellen Page is placed in the shot as she is quite The title of film has the biggest size and important the animation flashes in order it gets the most attention and is very noticeable.
CREDIT 4 • Time: .35 • Cast • Main actor gets top billing (first credit)
CREDIT 5, 6, 7, 8 CREDIT 5 CREDIT 6 CREDIT 7 CREDIT 8Time: .40 Time: .44 Time: .52 Time: .58Cast Cast Cast CastMain Actor 2 Supporting Actor 1 Supporting Actor 2 Actor