The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Table in General
• Columns (families)
– Called families
– Elements in a family have similar chemical
and physical prop...
This is
column 1
the alkali
metals
Draw an arrow down column one.
The Table in General
• Rows (periods)
– Called periods
– First element in a period is a very reactive
solid metal
– Last e...
This is
Period 4
Draw an arrow across period four.
Alkali Metals
Alkali Metals
• Shade this column yellow.
• One electron in the valence shell
– Valence means the outer shell
• Soft, less...
Alkaline Earth Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
• Shade this column red
• Two electrons in the valance shell
• Harder, higher melting point, more
de...
Transition Elements
Transition Elements
• Shade all these elements purple.
Transition Elements
• Good conductors of heat and electricity
• Higher melting point than first two families
• Some are ha...
Rare Earth Elements
Rare Earth Elements
• Shade the elements light blue/teal.
• 1st
Row Lanthanide Series
– Soft, malleable, great conductors,...
Boron Family
Boron Family
• Shade all the elements Green.
• Three electrons in the valance shell
• Collection of "odd ducks"
– boron is...
Carbon Family
Carbon Family
• Shade all elements Dark Blue
• Four valence electrons
• Form organic compounds
– Organic means alive or li...
Nitrogen Family
Nitrogen Family
• Shade this family Brown.
• Five electrons in the valance shell
• Stable, do not combine easily
• Nitroge...
Oxygen Family
Oxygen Family
• Shade all elements in this family
Orange.
• 6 outer electrons
• Oxygen supports burning, is very
reactive,...
Halogen Family
Halogen Family
• Shade all elements in this family Pink
• Seven valence electrons.
• Most chemically reactive non-metals
•...
Noble Gas Family
Noble Gas Family
• Shade all elements in this family gray.
• Full valance shell, He 2 electrons Ne,
Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn all hav...
Who has no family?
Hydrogen (no family)
• Shade this element no color.
• One valance electron
• Highly reactive
• Highly combustible
• Colorl...
Who has no family?
Metalloids: Draw the step ladder &
Shade the metalloids with stripes.
Non-metals mark the non-metals
with dots.
Properties of a metal.
• Physical
– Superior electric and thermal conductivity
– High luster
– High density
– Malleable
– ...
Properties of a metal.
• Chemical
– Form positively charges ions
– Oxidize easily
– React with acid
– Some react with wate...
Properties of a non-metal
• Chemical
– Form negatively charged ions
• Physical
– Brittle when solid
– Most are solid and g...
Definition of a Metalloid
• An element which is like both a metal and
a non-metal in terms of malleability,
ductility, con...
• Vertical lines______________________________
• Horizontal rows____________________________
• Elements on the zigzag_____...
Read the Element
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
9
6
2
8
18
32
15
2
Example Element
1. Element: _______________
2. Symbol: ________________
3. Atomic mass: _____________
4. Atomic number:___...
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The periodic table

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The periodic table

  1. 1. The Periodic Table
  2. 2. The Periodic Table
  3. 3. The Table in General • Columns (families) – Called families – Elements in a family have similar chemical and physical properties – As you go from the top to the bottom of the column the elements get larger.
  4. 4. This is column 1 the alkali metals Draw an arrow down column one.
  5. 5. The Table in General • Rows (periods) – Called periods – First element in a period is a very reactive solid metal – Last element in a family is a very non-reactive gas – Elements get less reactive as you move right • Reactive means to lose electrons – Elements become less metallic as you move to the right
  6. 6. This is Period 4 Draw an arrow across period four.
  7. 7. Alkali Metals
  8. 8. Alkali Metals • Shade this column yellow. • One electron in the valence shell – Valence means the outer shell • Soft, less dense metals • Most reactive of all metals • React with water to form bases • Never found free, alone, in nature • Used to make soap, salt, baking soda
  9. 9. Alkaline Earth Metals
  10. 10. Alkaline Earth Metals • Shade this column red • Two electrons in the valance shell • Harder, higher melting point, more dense than Alkali metals (column 1) • Very reactive • Never found free in nature
  11. 11. Transition Elements
  12. 12. Transition Elements • Shade all these elements purple.
  13. 13. Transition Elements • Good conductors of heat and electricity • Higher melting point than first two families • Some are hard and brittle • Some combine with oxygen to form oxides • Form brightly colored compounds
  14. 14. Rare Earth Elements
  15. 15. Rare Earth Elements • Shade the elements light blue/teal. • 1st Row Lanthanide Series – Soft, malleable, great conductors, used to make alloys (mixed metals w/ metals or nonmetals) • 2nd Row Actinide Series – all but three are synthetic, manmade.
  16. 16. Boron Family
  17. 17. Boron Family • Shade all the elements Green. • Three electrons in the valance shell • Collection of "odd ducks" – boron is a metalloid – aluminum, gallium, indium and thallium are poor metals • Aluminum is the third most abundant element on earth.
  18. 18. Carbon Family
  19. 19. Carbon Family • Shade all elements Dark Blue • Four valence electrons • Form organic compounds – Organic means alive or living • Silicon is the second most abundant element on earth • Tin resists Oxidation and Corrosion • Lead is very dense and poisonous
  20. 20. Nitrogen Family
  21. 21. Nitrogen Family • Shade this family Brown. • Five electrons in the valance shell • Stable, do not combine easily • Nitrogen is the most abundant in earths atmosphere. Uses: Fertilizer, dyes, explosives Ex NH3 (Ammonia) • Phosphorus: Match tips • Arsenic: Rat Poison
  22. 22. Oxygen Family
  23. 23. Oxygen Family • Shade all elements in this family Orange. • 6 outer electrons • Oxygen supports burning, is very reactive, combines with many other elements • Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium: Brittle, combine easily with other elements
  24. 24. Halogen Family
  25. 25. Halogen Family • Shade all elements in this family Pink • Seven valence electrons. • Most chemically reactive non-metals • Never found free in nature • Low melting and boiling point • As gases they form diatomic elements ex. F2, Cl2
  26. 26. Noble Gas Family
  27. 27. Noble Gas Family • Shade all elements in this family gray. • Full valance shell, He 2 electrons Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn all have 8 electrons • Inert, do not combine with other elements • He- balloons, Ne- signs, Ar- fill in windows, Xe- photographic lamps, Rn- Treats cancer
  28. 28. Who has no family?
  29. 29. Hydrogen (no family) • Shade this element no color. • One valance electron • Highly reactive • Highly combustible • Colorless odorless gas at room temperature
  30. 30. Who has no family?
  31. 31. Metalloids: Draw the step ladder & Shade the metalloids with stripes.
  32. 32. Non-metals mark the non-metals with dots.
  33. 33. Properties of a metal. • Physical – Superior electric and thermal conductivity – High luster – High density – Malleable – Alkali and Alkaline earth metals are reactive, low density, low hardness, low melting point
  34. 34. Properties of a metal. • Chemical – Form positively charges ions – Oxidize easily – React with acid – Some react with water to form a base
  35. 35. Properties of a non-metal • Chemical – Form negatively charged ions • Physical – Brittle when solid – Most are solid and gas (Bromine is a liquid) – Not thermally or electrically conductive – Lower melting points and boiling points than metals
  36. 36. Definition of a Metalloid • An element which is like both a metal and a non-metal in terms of malleability, ductility, conductivity and luster
  37. 37. • Vertical lines______________________________ • Horizontal rows____________________________ • Elements on the zigzag______________________ • Elements on the top right____________________ • 1 valance electron reactive family______________ • 2 valance electron reactive family______________ • 3-12 families ______________________________ • Elements that form salts_____________________ • Elements that do not react___________________ • Elements that are pulled out from the Periodic table___________________________________ • Element that is all alone_____________________ Families total of 11 Periods total of 7 Metalloids Non-Metals Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Elements Halogens Nobel Gas or Inert Gases Rare Earth elements Hydrogen
  38. 38. Read the Element 77 Ir Iridium 192.217 9 6 2 8 18 32 15 2
  39. 39. Example Element 1. Element: _______________ 2. Symbol: ________________ 3. Atomic mass: _____________ 4. Atomic number:______________ 5. Family: _____________________ 6. Period: ____________ 7. Number of total electrons: _________ 8. Number of valance electrons: _______ Iridium Ir 192.271 77 Transition Element # 9 6 77 2

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