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A-Level Sports Psychology

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  1. 1. Personality<br />A2 Psychology Lesson<br />Miss Bowe<br />
  2. 2. Aim and Objectives<br />Introduce and understand the different personality theories <br />By the end of the lesson you will be able to:<br />Define personality<br />Understand the difference between nature and nurture<br />Describe the different personality theories<br />Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell)<br />Social Learning Theories (Bandura)<br />Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger)<br />Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling<br />
  3. 3. Hollander‘Personality is a combination of all the characteristics that make a person unique’<br />Esyneck<br />‘Personality refers to those relatively stable and enduring aspects of an individuals behaviour.’<br />
  4. 4. Defining Personality…<br /><ul><li>the unique characteristics of an individual
  5. 5. how people relate to each other
  6. 6. how people act or reacttodeal with different situations</li></ul>Task write down 5 statements about you beginning with ‘I am …’<br />Example: I am … enthusiast<br />(5 minutes)<br />
  7. 7. Defining Personality<br />Do your answers describe up your personality?<br />If you’re not sure … ask your friends and family<br />Keep these answers with you through the lesson to see if any of the personality types we go through describe you!<br />Why do we study personality?<br />To see what makes people tick<br />To control arousal levels<br />To perform at an optimum level<br />
  8. 8. Nature vs Nurture<br />Are we born with our characteristics?<br />Can they be learnt or changed?<br />Trait theories believe personality is innate … in our genes<br />Social learning theories believe we learn how to act or react … from observing others<br />Interactionisttheories believe it is a bit of both<br />… we learn our behaviour from others … but we have our own traits<br />
  9. 9. TASK: Summarise the trait theory<br />If you had to explain to someone who doesn’t know anything about personality and PE as a subject …<br />How would you explain the trait (nature) theory?(3 minutes … bullet points/ a few sentences)<br />“Trait theories see personality as being innate (we are born with) and that it is stable and predictable in all situations.<br />This means we can predict how people will act and react”<br />
  10. 10. Trait Theorywhy we act the way we do<br />Traits are underlying, long lasting behaviours<br />Main ideas <br />People can’t help the way they act <br />We are all born with a number of traits (Cattellidentified 171 traits filtered down to 16).<br />Personality doesn’t change<br />Environment and the situation don’t effect personality<br />
  11. 11. Eysenck’s Trait Theory (1968)<br />Everyone can be placed anywhere along two dimensions:<br />Introversion– ExtroversionStable– Unstable<br />A third dimension was later added: Psychotic<br />Introverts<br />passive, quiet, and unsociable<br />Extroverts<br />sociable, outgoing and active<br />Emotional stability <br />calm, even-tempered.<br />Emotional instability<br />moody, anxious and rigid<br />
  12. 12. How would you describe an introvert<br />Introverts are:<br /> - more easily aroused than extroverts<br /> - more likely to obey orders<br /> - are liable to be restrained <br /> - prefer working alone<br />Extroverts prefer working in groups<br />
  13. 13. Trait Theories<br />Eysneck Personality Dimensions (Trait Approach)<br />My results …<br />Extroversion results were very high which suggests you are overly talkative, outgoing, sociable and interacting at the expense too often of developing your own individual interests and internally based identity.<br />Neuroticism results were moderately low which suggests you are relaxed, calm, secure, and optimistic.<br />Psychoticism results were very low which suggests you are overly kind natured, trusting, and helpful at the expense too often of your own individual development (martyr complex).<br />
  14. 14. My Personality Traits <br />
  15. 15. Cattell’s Trait Theory (1965)<br />According to Cattell, a hierarchy of personality traits <br />Sourcetraits at the top (most important)<br />behaviours that do vary and are most likely to be displayed.<br />Surface traits<br />behaviours displayed with different intensity and regularity<br />16 primary traits and developed a questionnaire(Cattell 16PF questionnaire) – see homework<br />
  16. 16. Trait Theories<br />Cattell 16 personality factors<br /><ul><li>Need more than 3 dimensions
  17. 17. 16 personality factors
  18. 18. Gives personality profile
  19. 19. Answers influenced by mood,</li></ul>motivation and situational factors <br />
  20. 20. Type A / Type B personalities<br />This theory is based upon how people deal with stress.<br />Sometimes called the Narrow Band Approach (Girdana et al, 1990)<br />Type A personalities include:<br /> - a strong desire to succeed <br /> - high levels of alertness <br /> - work at a fast pace<br /> - find it hard to delegate<br /> - need to be in control<br /> - experience high levels of stress.<br />
  21. 21. Type A / Type B personalities<br />Type B personalities include:<br /> - be more relaxed<br /> - delegate easily<br /> - be less competitive<br /> - be tolerant<br /> - experience lower levels of stress<br />
  22. 22. Social Learning Theory<br />Main theorist was Albert Bandura (1977)<br />He argued:<br /> - People behave differently in different situations<br /> - Personality is learned<br />- There are different ways of learning personality:<br />How would you explain the social learning theory?<br />Give examples (3 minutes)<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>Observational Learning Learning of behaviours by simply watching others.Also known as modelling
  24. 24. Vicarious ConditioningLearning of a response by watching someone else. The learning is particularly influenced by whether the observed person receives reinforcement (rewarded) or punishment</li></ul>Social Learning Theory<br />
  25. 25. Bandura’s Model of Observational Learning<br />The model has 4 stages:<br />AttentionProcesses what to look for in the model’s performance<br />2) Retention Processes<br /> how to remember the model’s performance<br />3) Motor Reproductionhow to copy the model’s performance<br />4) Motivational Processes<br /> the reason why a person would want to copy the model’s performance<br />
  26. 26. Interactionist Theory of Personality<br />Interactionists believe <br /> B= f (P,E) <br />What does this mean?<br />Behaviour as a function of personality traits and environmental conditions<br />This can be seen as a combination of the best bits of Trait Theory and Social Learning Theory<br />
  27. 27. Interactionist Theory<br />The Situation<br />traitsdetermine behaviour<br />but can be modified by situations<br />traits<br />situations<br />behaviour<br />Lewin<br />behaviour is a function of both the person or personality (P) and the environment (E)<br />B = f(P,E)<br /> Behaviour<br />
  28. 28. Measuring Personality<br />INTERVIEWS<br />before or after the event<br />not directly related to performance<br />open ended and flexible<br />transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed<br />difficult to quantify accurately<br />may be influenced by the interviewer<br />
  29. 29. Measuring Personality<br />QUESTIONNAIRES<br /><ul><li>before or after the event
  30. 30. not directly related to performance
  31. 31. rigidly and systematically set out
  32. 32. transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed
  33. 33. able to quantify accurately
  34. 34. would not be influenced by another
  35. 35. can be used to assess specific traits</li></li></ul><li>Measuring Personality<br />OBSERVATION<br /><ul><li>made during an actual event
  36. 36. directly related to performance
  37. 37. varies according to the competitive nature of the event
  38. 38. difficult to quantify accurately
  39. 39. may be influenced by the observer’s views and attitudes</li></li></ul><li>Profile of Mood States (POMS)<br />MOODS<br />are an important aspect of personality which may influence sports performance<br />tension<br />depression<br />anger<br />vigour<br />fatigue<br />confusion<br />
  40. 40. Profile of Mood States (POMS)<br />Elite sportspeople <br />show LOW<br /><ul><li>tension
  41. 41. depression
  42. 42. fatigue
  43. 43. confusion</li></ul> and HIGH vigour<br />Unsuccessful sportspeopleshow HIGH<br /><ul><li>tension
  44. 44. depression
  45. 45. fatigue
  46. 46. confusion</li></ul> and LOW vigour<br />
  47. 47. Three main theories:How are personalities formed?<br />Trait Theory<br />personality is heredity and is passed onthrough genetics<br />(2) Social Learning Theory<br />personality is learned through environmental influences<br />Interactionist Theory<br />personality is a combination of genetic and environmental influences.<br />
  48. 48. Trait Theories<br />Type A or Type B Personalities<br /><ul><li>Type A personality, means that you are a fast-paced individual who is always on the run.
  49. 49. More easily stressed, who does not accept failure easily, and expects the most in others.
  50. 50. Type B personality is exactly the opposite of a Type A.
  51. 51. More reserved and calm, not easily bothered by small problems in life.</li></li></ul><li>Social Learning Theory<br />The main difference between trait theory and social learning theory is the importance of the environment<br />Will people act or react differently in different situations?<br />
  52. 52. What have we learnt about today?<br />You should now be able to …<br />Define personality<br />Understand the difference between nature and nurture<br />Describe the different personality theories<br />Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell)<br />Social Learning Theories (Bandura)<br />Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger)<br />Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling<br />