(20100201 ut)r-parity and-cosmological_constraints

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(20100201 ut)r-parity and-cosmological_constraints

  1. 1. SUSY without R-Parity:Cosmological Constraints 岩本 祥 [Sho Iwamoto] 2010/02/01 Thesis Oral Examinations @ UT/Komabaalong my magisterial thesis “Supersymmetry without R-parity: Its Phenomenology” (R-parityの保存を課さない超対称理論の現象論的側面)
  2. 2. Outline [Review] 1. SUSY without R-Parity 2. Cosmological Constraints 3. Our Result (1. LFV) 4. Our Result (2. RpV) 5. Conclusion[Our Work] The “Our Work” is… M. Endo, K. Hamaguchi and Sho Iwamoto Cosmological Constraints on R-parity violation arXiv: 0912.0585 [hep-ph] (2009) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <2>
  3. 3. 1. SUSY without R-parityWe usually impose the R-parity on the MSSM.But we have other choices than the R-parity, and it‟s also important. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <3>
  4. 4. Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM L-conservation R-parity conservation B-conservation -MSSM Also possible & important.MSSM with R-parity -MSSM Dark Matter!! MSSM without R-parity [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <4>
  5. 5. SUSY without R-parity Standard Model  Very successful model  One unnaturalness “Hierarchy problem”Extra dimension Others… Various Extensions… Supersymmetry MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <5>
  6. 6. SUSY without R-parityStandard Model Supersymmetry MSSM  “Hierarchy problem” Solved  Proton decay problem[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <6>
  7. 7. Proton decay @ MSSMMSSM Superpotential:Both and → proton decay [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <7>
  8. 8. Proton decay @ MSSM Both and invoke decay of proton.→ 3 choices to avoid this problem!Usual choice because…. To forbid & with R-parity etc. To impose B-conservation with Baryon-parity etc. To impose L-conservation with Lepton-parity etc. with the assumption that [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <8>
  9. 9. Why R-parity? ( s : spin )R-parity conservation → NO B- and L-violating events (proton decay etc.) We‟ve never observed! Since the LSP cannot decay! [Lightest Supersymmetric Particle] → A candidate for the Dark Matter! <9>
  10. 10. Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM R-parity conservationMSSM with R-parity Dark Matter!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <10>
  11. 11. Without R-parityWe have 3 choices. To forbid B- & L-violation with R-parity etc. To impose B-conservation with Baryon-parity etc. To impose L-conservation with Lepton-parity etc. (and to assume .) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <11>
  12. 12. Without R-parityThat is, MSSM with R-parity → -MSSM → -MSSM → [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <12>
  13. 13. Without R-parityThat is, We can install MSSM with R-parity → New RpV interactions! -MSSM → (R-parity violating) -MSSM → [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <13>
  14. 14. Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM L-conservation R-parity conservation B-conservation -MSSM Also possible & important.MSSM with R-parity -MSSM Dark Matter!! MSSM without R-parity [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <14>
  15. 15. Why Important? •What‟s the Dark Matter? ? •Is SUSY the truth? SUSY detection in LHC is important.R-parity is Conserved (missing transverse momentum) → LSP yields Large → Used as a signalThen if not? → We have to study! <15>
  16. 16. Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM L-conservation R-parity conservation B-conservation -MSSM Also possible & important.MSSM with R-parity -MSSM Dark Matter!! MSSM without R-parity [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <16>
  17. 17. What I studied WhatI studied (with Hamaguchi, Endo) = A detailed analysis of cosmological constraints on these RpV couplings. much more stringent than from collider experiments. <17>
  18. 18. 2. Cosmological ConstraintsThe violation of R-parity may spoil the current Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <18>
  19. 19. Baryon asymmetry of the Universe Current university:There’s Baryon, and no anti-baryon. Baryon [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <19>
  20. 20. Wash-out with B-viol.However, if we have interaction, in the early universe.And if frequently enough, → achieve Equilibrium :→ must be small enough! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <20>
  21. 21. (Bouquet and Salati, 1987) Wash-out with B-viol. That is, if LARGE , then “WASH-OUT” occurs!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <21>
  22. 22. Kuzmin, Rubakov and Shaposhnikov, 1985 Campbell, Davidson, Ellis and Olive, 1992 Wash-out with L-viol. This story does not end here. The L-violation also washes-out the Baryon asymmetry in the presence of the Sphaleron!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <22>
  23. 23. Manton, 1983; Klinkhamer and Manton, 1984; ‟t Hooft, 1976 Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov, 1985; Ringwald, 1988 SphaleronIn the early universe → the sphaleron process is frequent. (by thermal effects) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <23>
  24. 24. Manton, 1983; Klinkhamer and Manton, 1984; ‟t Hooft, 1976 Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov, 1985; Ringwald, 1988 SphaleronIn the early universe → the sphaleron process is frequent. (by thermal effects) Sphaleron converts Baryon Anti-lepton [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <24>
  25. 25. Sphaleron’s Effect  If Baryon is short… sphaleron works right to left. sphaleron(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <25>
  26. 26. Sphaleron’s Effect  If Baryon is short… sphaleron works right to left.(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <26>
  27. 27. Sphaleron’s Effect  Also when (anti-)Lepton is short, sphaleron does left to right. sphaleron (anti-lepton)(baryon) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <27>
  28. 28. Sphaleron’s Effect  Also when (anti-)Lepton is short, sphaleron does left to right.(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <28>
  29. 29. Wash-out with B-viol.  Thus, actually the previous is(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <29>
  30. 30. Wash-out with B-viol.  Thus, actually the previous sphaleron is(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <30>
  31. 31. Wash-out with B-viol.  Thus, actually the previous is “WASH-OUT!!”(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <31>
  32. 32. Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, if large before EWPT,(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <32>
  33. 33. Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, if large before EWPT, sphaleron (anti-lepton)(baryon) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <33>
  34. 34. Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, if large before EWPT, “WASH-OUT” occurs!!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <34>
  35. 35. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol.  But NOTE ONE IMPORTANT POINT!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <35>
  36. 36. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol.  But NOTE ONE IMPORTANT POINT!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <36>
  37. 37. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol. If the Lepton Flavor is not violated [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <37>
  38. 38. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol. And if at least one of is not violated, [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <38>
  39. 39. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <39>
  40. 40. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <40>
  41. 41. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <41>
  42. 42. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <42>
  43. 43. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. Baryon SURVIVES!!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <43>
  44. 44. Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. Now B and L are balanced, and thus no more process. Baryon SURVIVES!!! sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <44>
  45. 45. Endo, Hamaguchi, and IWAMOTO, 2009 Wash-out with L-viol.But remember!The Standard Model The MSSM [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <45>
  46. 46. Endo, Hamaguchi, and IWAMOTO, 2009 Wash-out with L-viol.But remember! ( tiny ) Lepton Flavor ViolationThe Standard Model The MSSM [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <46>
  47. 47. Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, Only One L-violation would…(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <47>
  48. 48. Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, Only One L-violation would… sphaleron (anti-lepton)(baryon) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <48>
  49. 49. Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, Only One L-violation would… Do “WASH-OUT” !!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <49>
  50. 50. Now We Know When → L-viol. invades Baryon Assymetry. Especially Lepton Flavor Mixing & One L-viol. → Baryon Wash-Out [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <50>
  51. 51. Now We KnowIf ? How Large LFV needs? all flavors are mixed→ All L-violation must ? How SMALL? be small enough. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <51>
  52. 52. Now We KnowIf ? How Large LFV needs? all flavors are mixed These are our study!→ All L-violation must ? How SMALL? be small enough. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <52>
  53. 53. 3. Our Result: Lepton Flavor Violation To mix the Lepton Flavors, how large mixing interaction do we need?? [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <53>
  54. 54. MethodsSet up: MSSM; before EWPT; Ignoring R-parity violating at first; ↑ ↑ Not diagonal Diagonalize (Flavor viol.) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <54>
  55. 55. Methods We consider the time evolution ofLepton number density in i-th generation By LFV,Boltzmann Equation: Dilution, due to number density the expansion of the universe. time Hubble parameter [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <55>
  56. 56. Methods We consider only the decay of Higgsino and the antiparticles‟ process.Approximations: Ignoring the mass of Higgs bosons. All particles obey Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. (instead of Bose/Fermi distrib.) Shutting Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) [Thesis Oral off the sphaleron at T=100GeV. <56>
  57. 57. Result <57>
  58. 58. Conclusion → MIXED All Flavors are MIXED ↓ All L-viol. must be small. <58>
  59. 59. 4. Our Result: R-parity Violation Now Lepton flavors are mixed. Then how about the constraints on RpV couplings? [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <59>
  60. 60. MethodsSet up: MSSM; before EWPT; Lepton flavors are mixed. R-parity violated.Method: The same.→ We examined the time-evolution of (in number density). [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <60>
  61. 61. Result <61>
  62. 62. Result <62>
  63. 63. Conclusion From similar analysis: (For all i, j, k) <63>
  64. 64. Note We can avoid this “wash-out” with to create current B-asymm. HERE <64>
  65. 65. 5. Conclusion Now we have a good tool to study LHC phenomenology of RpV-MSSM. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <65>
  66. 66. Wash-out by B-viol. → Wash-out !! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <66>
  67. 67. Lepton Flavor Violation → MIXED All Flavors are MIXED ↓ All L-viol. must be small. <67>
  68. 68. Wash-out by L-viol. If all Flavors are MIXED, → Wash-out !! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <68>
  69. 69. Application (LHC) Stringent RpV-constraint → LSP is a bit “long-lived.”Example: ( -LSP) → Decay Length (cf. tau-lepton: ) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <69>
  70. 70. Application (LHC) Stringent RpV-constraint → LSP is a bit “long-lived.”Example: ( -LSP) To be a good signal of RpV-MSSM? → Decay Length → Future works! (of my following years.) (cf. tau-lepton: ) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <70>
  71. 71. That‟s all.Thank you for listening.[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <71>
  72. 72. Appendices Hierarchy Problem Rate of Proton Decay Collider Constraints Sphaleron The Other Results [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <72>
  73. 73. A. Hierarchy Problem [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <73>
  74. 74. Hierarchy Problem In Standard Model with Higgs, [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <74>
  75. 75. Hierarchy Problem[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <75>
  76. 76. Hierarchy Problem In MSSM (or other SUSY models), [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <76>
  77. 77. Hierarchy Problem And its superpartner goes round! Cancelled![Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <77>
  78. 78. B. Rate of Proton Decay [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <78>
  79. 79. Proton decay @ MSSMMSSM Superpotential contains: L violating B violatingViolation of both B and L invoke decay of proton as… [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <79>
  80. 80. Proton decay @ MSSM[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <80>
  81. 81. Rate of Proton Decay ( i, j, k for generations.) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <81>
  82. 82. C. Collider ConstraintsThe RpV interactions are constrained by several experimental facts. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <82>
  83. 83. Constraints The RpV parameters → experimental constraintsAnd the constraints are important to study RpV-MSSM. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <83>
  84. 84. Constraints Example:Standard Model RpV-MSSM [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <84>
  85. 85. Constraints Example:Standard Model RpV-MSSM Additional Contribution! ( 2010/02/01 ) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto <85>
  86. 86. D. Sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <86>
  87. 87. SphaleronSphaleron (a „wobbly‟ process) is a non-perturbative solution of the Standard Model (SM).Roughly speaking, [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <87>
  88. 88. SphaleronFor example:Note! Sphaleron processes: → Converts !!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <88>
  89. 89. SphaleronFor example:Note! Sphaleron processes: → Converts !!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <89>
  90. 90. Sphaleron The sphaleron process:  Generally→ EXTREMELY rare  Thermal effect → enhanced The effect is present when (Before the electroweak phase transition.) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <90>
  91. 91. E. The Other Results [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <91>
  92. 92. Result <92>
  93. 93. Result <93>

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