Delay Tolerant Disaster
Communication with the
One Laptop Per Child XO
Daniel Iland, Don Voita, and Elizabeth Belding
Univ...
What happens to network
connectivity during a crisis?
http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/03/strong-earthquake-hits-mexico.html
What happened to network
connectivity during Sandy?
Hurricane
Sandy's
Landfall
Loss of Power == Loss of Connectivity
Source: USA Today
Cellular and Wi-Fi networks typically provide
blanket Internet connectivity
o (almost) always on Internet
o available (alm...
UCSB's blanket connectivity:
10+ cellular towers, 360+ Wi-Fi APs
UCSB's connectivity islands
(without power or fiber)
The Problem
How can we enable communication in
a disaster area when network infrastructure
is limited, unreliable or unava...
How can a few locations with
Internet access impact a large area?
Our Solution
Delay-Tolerant, peer-to-peer applications
spread information using Wi-Fi
Goals for Connectivity in a Crisis
•Maximize information spread through the
networks of mobile devices in a disaster area
...
What did we build?
•An Activity for One Laptop Per Child laptops
oUsers can share messages without infrastructure
oEach de...
The One Laptop Per Child Project
•2.5 million OLPC XOs in the field worldwide
•Open source platform with existing mesh and...
One Laptop Per Child XO Laptops
communicate without infrastructure
Our example use case: Ushahidi
Ushahidi reports from Haiti
Disaster victims may have difficulty
using Ushahidi after a disaster
• Submitting to Ushahidi requires Internet or cellula...
Morrow, Nathan, et al. "Independent evaluation of the Ushahidi Haiti project."Development Information Systems Internationa...
Goals for this work
•Enable users of One Laptop Per Child laptops to
easily share messages with each other
•Enable OLPCs t...
Simple Delay-Tolerant Routing
•Epidemic Routing1
oTransmit to any device that comes into range
o"Store and Forward" approa...
What happens when an Internet
connection is found?
1. Upload all uncured messages to Ushahidi
2. Download and stores new c...
How do OLPCs
exchange information?
Evaluation and Future Work
• Analysis of OLPC ad-hoc networking
• Future focus on Android devices and
wireless routers
• O...
XMPP/Clique overhead that maintains connections between
OLPCs dominates the network!
OLPC ad-hoc networking: high overhead...
Target Platform: Android Devices
• 750 million+ Android devices in use worldwide
o 250 million activated from September 20...
Two Internet connections support
40,000+ message authors
Two Internet connections support
40,000+ message recipients
Questions?
Daniel Iland
University of California, Santa Barbara
iland@cs.ucsb.edu
What causes a battery to drain
quickly?
Carroll, Aaron, and Gernot Heiser. "An analysis of
power consumption in a smartpho...
One Laptop Per Child XO Laptop
Power Consumption
An OLPC distributing messages An OLPC receiving and forwarding
messages
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO

138 views

Published on

Presentation of Daniel Patrick Iland, Don Voita and Elizabeth Belding on the topic "Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO" at ISCRAM2013

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO

  1. 1. Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO Daniel Iland, Don Voita, and Elizabeth Belding University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Computer Science {iland, don, ebelding}@cs.ucsb.edu
  2. 2. What happens to network connectivity during a crisis?
  3. 3. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/03/strong-earthquake-hits-mexico.html
  4. 4. What happened to network connectivity during Sandy? Hurricane Sandy's Landfall
  5. 5. Loss of Power == Loss of Connectivity
  6. 6. Source: USA Today
  7. 7. Cellular and Wi-Fi networks typically provide blanket Internet connectivity o (almost) always on Internet o available (almost) everywhere In a disaster, users can only take advantage of connectivity islands o A functional Wi-Fi or cellular base station o Preparedness: Locations with backup power and networking options  Satellite, packet radio, white space connections, etc. How is Internet connectivity different in a crisis?
  8. 8. UCSB's blanket connectivity: 10+ cellular towers, 360+ Wi-Fi APs
  9. 9. UCSB's connectivity islands (without power or fiber)
  10. 10. The Problem How can we enable communication in a disaster area when network infrastructure is limited, unreliable or unavailable?
  11. 11. How can a few locations with Internet access impact a large area?
  12. 12. Our Solution Delay-Tolerant, peer-to-peer applications spread information using Wi-Fi
  13. 13. Goals for Connectivity in a Crisis •Maximize information spread through the networks of mobile devices in a disaster area •Take advantage of infrastructure oBut do not rely on it •Be available before, during, and after a crisis o'Viral installation' from user to user •Minimal configuration and interaction required
  14. 14. What did we build? •An Activity for One Laptop Per Child laptops oUsers can share messages without infrastructure oEach device uploads messages automatically if Internet access is available •An Ushahidi Plugin oDrop-in plugin that extends Ushahidi API to handle submissions from OLPCs and generate cures
  15. 15. The One Laptop Per Child Project •2.5 million OLPC XOs in the field worldwide •Open source platform with existing mesh and ad-hoc network capabilities •Solar and manual charging available
  16. 16. One Laptop Per Child XO Laptops communicate without infrastructure
  17. 17. Our example use case: Ushahidi
  18. 18. Ushahidi reports from Haiti
  19. 19. Disaster victims may have difficulty using Ushahidi after a disaster • Submitting to Ushahidi requires Internet or cellular connectivity • An Ushahidi instance may not exist before the crisis • Users will not have the URL, the SMS number, etc. • Configuration information is required • Texting +44 762 480 2524 is non-obvious • 'Shortcode' may not yet be available • User interaction is required • Each message must be submitted individually
  20. 20. Morrow, Nathan, et al. "Independent evaluation of the Ushahidi Haiti project."Development Information Systems International 8 (2011).
  21. 21. Goals for this work •Enable users of One Laptop Per Child laptops to easily share messages with each other •Enable OLPCs to automatically upload messages to Ushahidi •Use cures generated by the Ushahidi server to maximize network efficiency and provide delivery confirmation. 1. Vahdat, A., & Becker, D. (2000). Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks (p. 18)
  22. 22. Simple Delay-Tolerant Routing •Epidemic Routing1 oTransmit to any device that comes into range o"Store and Forward" approach oProvides maximum delivery probability •Epidemic Routing with cure generated on delivery. oMarks message as received (with time of receipt) oCures cascade through the network opportunistically  Just like messages oPrevent unnecessary duplication and retransmission 1. Vahdat, A., & Becker, D. (2000). Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks (p. 18)
  23. 23. What happens when an Internet connection is found? 1. Upload all uncured messages to Ushahidi 2. Download and stores new cures 3. Download and store new messages 4. Redistribute new messages and cures throughout the area, using Wi-Fi Satellite Internet ConnectionWi-Fi Wi-Fi Physical Movement
  24. 24. How do OLPCs exchange information?
  25. 25. Evaluation and Future Work • Analysis of OLPC ad-hoc networking • Future focus on Android devices and wireless routers • Other Delay-Tolerant applications o Twitter o Facebook o Google Person Finder o etc.
  26. 26. XMPP/Clique overhead that maintains connections between OLPCs dominates the network! OLPC ad-hoc networking: high overhead 500 Messages PercentageofPacketsorBytes
  27. 27. Target Platform: Android Devices • 750 million+ Android devices in use worldwide o 250 million activated from September 2012-March 2013 • 4+ projects that enable ad-hoc or mesh o Serval o Commotion o SPAN o Android IBSS
  28. 28. Two Internet connections support 40,000+ message authors
  29. 29. Two Internet connections support 40,000+ message recipients
  30. 30. Questions? Daniel Iland University of California, Santa Barbara iland@cs.ucsb.edu
  31. 31. What causes a battery to drain quickly? Carroll, Aaron, and Gernot Heiser. "An analysis of power consumption in a smartphone." Proceedings of the 2010 USENIX conference on USENIX annual technical conference. 2010.
  32. 32. One Laptop Per Child XO Laptop Power Consumption An OLPC distributing messages An OLPC receiving and forwarding messages

×