Geluidbeleving in Rotterdamse parken: toepassing van soundscape benadering CGTL2011, Miriam Weber
END en stille gebieden (1) <ul><li>EU Directive 2002/49/EC [END] verplicht: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>art. 8,1(b) bevoegd geza...
END en stille gebieden (2) <ul><li>EU Directive 2002/49/EC [END] definities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>art. 3 (l):‘stil gebied...
END en stille gebieden (3)   <ul><li>Ca. 81 % lidstaten hebben stille stedelijke gebieden ‘benoemd’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. ...
END en stille gebieden (4) <ul><li>Veel gebruikte definities cf. END: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatief  stil gebied: in dele...
Rotterdam en QUA: aanpak (1) <ul><li>‘ Inverse’ geluidkaart </li></ul><ul><li>Benoemen stille gebieden door inwoners (jaar...
Rotterdam en QUA: aanpak (2) <ul><li>Permanente geluidmetingen </li></ul><ul><li>Veldonderzoek naar categorisatie geluid e...
Rotterdam en QUA: geluidbelastingkaart
 
Rotterdam en QUA: geselecteerde parken Sidelingepark WOW Zuiderpark
Rotterdam en QUA: geluidmetingen (1) <ul><li>Geluid indicatoren </li></ul><ul><li>Lday </li></ul><ul><li>LA95 </li></ul><u...
Rotterdam en QUA: geluidmetingen (2) 10,1 49,8 45,9 54,7 Zuiderpark 7,2 50,0 46,8 54,1 Wijkpark Oude Westen 3,7 57,9 55,0 ...
Rotterdam en QUA: veldonderzoek (1) <ul><li>Vragenlijst:  </li></ul><ul><li>Gebruik van park (activiteiten, bezoekfrequent...
Rotterdam en QUA: veldonderzoek (2)
Rotterdam en QUA: veldonderzoek (3) <ul><li>Doel is inzicht verkrijgen in:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context factoren </li></...
Taxonomie akoestische omgeving (A. Brown) Urban 1  Acoustic Environment Sounds generated by human activity/facility Voice&...
Rotterdam en QUA: analyse (1)
Rotterdam en QUA: analyse (2)
Rotterdam en QUA: analyse (3)
Conclusies (1): akoestische kwaliteit <ul><li>Voorstel geluidindicatoren en niveaus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lday  <≈ 55  dB...
Conclusies (2): visuele en akoestische kwaliteit <ul><li>Veilig gevoel  </li></ul><ul><li>Schoon en goed onderhouden  </li...
Conclusies (3): methodologie  <ul><li>Methoden van veldonderzoek: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vragenlijst ondersteunt holistisch...
Conclusies (4): Soundscape kwaliteiten
Verbetervoorstellen pilot parken (1) <ul><li>Toepassen groene geluidschermen of bushokjes die afschermende werking hebben ...
Verbetervoorstellen pilot parken (2) <ul><li>Toepassen groen geluidscherm achter zithoek in Sidelingepark </li></ul><ul><l...
Tot slot (1) <ul><li>Vervolgonderzoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natuurgebieden in provincie Zuid-Holland </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Tot slot (2)
Tot slot (3) <ul><li>Kennisontwikkeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistische analyse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veldonderzoe...
Voor vragen…… <ul><li>Miriam Weber MSc </li></ul><ul><li>Hoofd Bureau Geluid  </li></ul><ul><li>Expertisecentrum DCMR  </l...
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Cgtl 2011 Soundscape Onderzoek Rotterdam

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Presentatie Congres Geluid en Trillingen 2011 mbt soundscape onderzoek in parken in Rotterdam

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  • Three parks have been selected in order to assess the developed approach for analysing soundscape of urban parks. The Sidelingepark is a relatively small park of 2 ha in a residential area, which is highly impacted by noise from a highway at approximately 50 meter distance. The park is green with many trees and smaller bushes, and some spots with benches where residents frequently rest. Wijk park Oude Westen is a small green area of 1 ha in the city centre of Rotterdam, including a primary school and a private garden of the residents living in 3 stock buildings surrounding the park. The park is rectangular and its main entrance is from a busy road combined with a tramway. Zuiderpark is a large park of 225 ha with various functions and varying vegetation. The park is mainly used for sporting, cycling and walking and has large grass fields, sporting areas and biking routes.
  • During 3 weeks noise levels and noise spectra have been measured at one selected spot in the three parks. Although the EU Environmental Noise Directive uses Lden as noise indicator, soundscape research proved that other indicators are needed in describing sounds as perceived by humans. Therefore we decided to assess the sounds, or rather noise levels, using additional acoustic indicators, such as Lday, LA95, LA50 and the difference between LA10 and LA90. LA95 and LA90 are known as descriptors for background noise or the most prominent noise levels. LA50 has been used in soundscape research as an indicator corresponding well with the perception of the acoustic quality by humans.. LA10-LA90 is a good descriptor of the variance in noise levels; a large difference between both levels means a high variance in sound levels.
  • In Sidelingepark relatively high overall noise levels are found, as well as a limited variance in noise levels. The proximity of the highway, with constant traffic flows, is explanatory for these findings. Wijkpark Oude Westen and Zuiderpark have similar levels for Lday, LA95 and LA50, but the variance differs significantly. The higher value in the Zuiderpark might be the effect of the infrequent event-like sounds from the metroline passing near the park above ground level.
  • In spring this year in total 150 visitors of the three parks have been surveyed on the perception of the visual and acoustical aspects of the respective parks. A questionnaire has been developed, based upon an earlier version as used in studies in Turin and Paris. The questionnaire contained open and closed questions on sounds heard, the perception of these sounds and on sound sources.
  • In assessing the field survey data we applied the categorisation of sounds as proposed by Berglund, Nilsson and Axelsson, that is nature sounds, human sounds and mechanical sounds. The latter category in this sheet has been futher divided in the subcategories traffic sounds, air conditioning and other mechanical sounds. The presented results underline the preliminary conclusions on the measured noise levels and expert characterisation of the urban parks, for example when we look at the high scores at nature sounds in the Zuiderpark and on traffic sounds in the Sidelingepark.
  • The assessment of the urban parks revealed some interesting results. The Sidelingepark having the highest overall noise levels and lowest score on overall evaluation of the park, scores highest on the evaluation of the acoustic environment as well as the pleasantness of the sounds present and heard in the park. Further research is needed to define the explanatory factor, that even might be a non-acoustic factor such as visual quality, the fit of the park with the specific use of the park for example in the availability of sufficient, well kept walking lanes and benches.
  • Based upon the data collected and assessed for the three parks in Rotterdam the following conclusions regarding the acoustic quality can be drawn. LA50 seems to be a good indicator for the perception of the acoustic quality of the urban park. Although a larger database of parks in Rotterdam and in due time other specific areas in larger European cities is needed, some noise levels expressed in Lday and LA50 are proposed as preliminary trigger values for subsequent actions in Rotterdam. LA50 seems to correspond well with holistic description of sounds Applicable in comparative studies, no absolute sound levels derived
  • The pilot in Rotterdam has been evaluated on several topics regarding the methodology and the instruments used. The aim is to further improve and in due time standardise the tools for soundscape research at municipal level targeted at urban parks. Regarding the questionnaire used the overall conclusion is that it seems to provide sufficient, relevant data for characterising the visitors’ perception of the soundscape and other values of the area. A rather strong disadvantage is the processing time and the knowledge of statistical and social processing techniques that is sparsely available at local administrations. Standardisation as worked on by a newly established ISO sub working group might support this development in future. In addition, the evaluation learned that the order of issues addressed in the questionnaire, might need changing. In the follow-up research we suggest to start assessing the perception of the acoustic environment through questions on description of the sounds heard based upon the perception quality protocol from the Swedish research. Then the interviewee will be asked to recall the sound sources heard, the sounds and sound sources that annoy him, and the sound sources that are perceived as pleasant. The second part of the questionnaire will assess overall environmental quality including visual aspects. As such we assume that visual input will be less dominant in the assessment of the soundscape. A cross analysis of both sequences of questioning is planned for next year.
  • In order to improve both visual as well as auditive qualities green barriers are suggested for the Wijkpark Oude Westen, enclosing the small park at the northern part close to the road. The
  • In order to improve both visual as well as auditive qualities green barriers are suggested for the Wijkpark Oude Westen, enclosing the small park at the northern part close to the road. The
  • Cgtl 2011 Soundscape Onderzoek Rotterdam

    1. 1. Geluidbeleving in Rotterdamse parken: toepassing van soundscape benadering CGTL2011, Miriam Weber
    2. 2. END en stille gebieden (1) <ul><li>EU Directive 2002/49/EC [END] verplicht: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>art. 8,1(b) bevoegd gezag (d.w.z. gemeente en provincie) moet gebieden waar geluidkwaliteit goed is beschermen </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. END en stille gebieden (2) <ul><li>EU Directive 2002/49/EC [END] definities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>art. 3 (l):‘stil gebied in een agglomeratie’ is een gebied als afgebakend door de bevoegde instantie, bijvoorbeeld een gebied dat niet is blootgesteld aan lawaai met een waarde van Lden of een andere passende geluidbelastingsindicator die groter is dan een door de lidstaat vastgelegde waarde ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>art. 3 (m): ‘stil gebied op het platteland’ is een gebied, als afgebakend door de bevoegde instantie, dat niet blootstaat aan lawaai van verkeer, industrie of recreatie </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. END en stille gebieden (3) <ul><li>Ca. 81 % lidstaten hebben stille stedelijke gebieden ‘benoemd’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 10 % NLse agglomeratiegemeenten hebben stille gebieden in de stad benoemd in actieplan, maar </li></ul><ul><li>Minder dan 10 % heeft acties ter bescherming van deze gebieden benoemd </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 90% lidstaten stelt stille gebieden bepaald te hebben adhv geluidindicatoren </li></ul><ul><li>Bron: Evaluation of END implementation; Milieu, TNO & RPA (2009) </li></ul>
    5. 5. END en stille gebieden (4) <ul><li>Veel gebruikte definities cf. END: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatief stil gebied: in delen van gebied is geluidbelasting lager dan < 55 dB Lden, of 20 dB Lden lager dan in directe omgeving… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stil gebied op platteland: stiltegebied cf PMV/Wm of natuurgebied, EHS of Natura 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dan wel toepassing van soundscape benadering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gewenst versus ongewenst geluid, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menselijk geluid, natuurgeluid versus mechanisch geluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andere categorisering obv ‘beleving gebruiker/bezoeker’ </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Rotterdam en QUA: aanpak (1) <ul><li>‘ Inverse’ geluidkaart </li></ul><ul><li>Benoemen stille gebieden door inwoners (jaarlijkse Omnibusenquete) </li></ul><ul><li>Selectie van pilot gebieden </li></ul>
    7. 7. Rotterdam en QUA: aanpak (2) <ul><li>Permanente geluidmetingen </li></ul><ul><li>Veldonderzoek naar categorisatie geluid en karakteristieken van park </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse kansen en bedreigingen </li></ul><ul><li>Aanbevelingen per park en vervolg stille gebieden in Rotterdam(s beleid) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Rotterdam en QUA: geluidbelastingkaart
    9. 10. Rotterdam en QUA: geselecteerde parken Sidelingepark WOW Zuiderpark
    10. 11. Rotterdam en QUA: geluidmetingen (1) <ul><li>Geluid indicatoren </li></ul><ul><li>Lday </li></ul><ul><li>LA95 </li></ul><ul><li>LA50 </li></ul><ul><li>LA10-LA90 </li></ul>
    11. 12. Rotterdam en QUA: geluidmetingen (2) 10,1 49,8 45,9 54,7 Zuiderpark 7,2 50,0 46,8 54,1 Wijkpark Oude Westen 3,7 57,9 55,0 58,5 Sidelingepark dB dB(A) dB(A) dB(A) L A10 -L A90 L A50 L A95 L day
    12. 13. Rotterdam en QUA: veldonderzoek (1) <ul><li>Vragenlijst: </li></ul><ul><li>Gebruik van park (activiteiten, bezoekfrequentie, dag in week, tijdstip, duur van bezoek enz ) </li></ul><ul><li>Beschrijving (visueel en auditief) van park (open vraag) en waardering (5-punt schaal) </li></ul><ul><li>Persoonlijke gegevens incl geslacht, leeftijd, opleiding, adres, geluidhinder thuis </li></ul>
    13. 14. Rotterdam en QUA: veldonderzoek (2)
    14. 15. Rotterdam en QUA: veldonderzoek (3) <ul><li>Doel is inzicht verkrijgen in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context factoren </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locatie en fysieke parameters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persoonlijke kenmerken zoals reden bezoek, activiteit, geluidbelasting thuis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Akoestische kwaliteit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waarneembare geluiden en geluidbronnen </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Taxonomie akoestische omgeving (A. Brown) Urban 1 Acoustic Environment Sounds generated by human activity/facility Voice& Instrument Social/communal Non-amplified Amplified 4 Motorised Transport Electro-mechanical: -stationary -mobile Human movement Other Human 6
    16. 17. Rotterdam en QUA: analyse (1)
    17. 18. Rotterdam en QUA: analyse (2)
    18. 19. Rotterdam en QUA: analyse (3)
    19. 20. Conclusies (1): akoestische kwaliteit <ul><li>Voorstel geluidindicatoren en niveaus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lday <≈ 55 dB(A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LA95 <≈ 45 dB(A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LA50 <≈ 50 dB(A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LA10 – LA90 <≈ 7 dB(A) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hoorbaar, gewenste geluiden: natuur geluiden (vogels en bladeren/bomen) en mensgeluiden </li></ul><ul><li>Afwezigheid van geluid van verkeer (algemeen) en scooters </li></ul>
    20. 21. Conclusies (2): visuele en akoestische kwaliteit <ul><li>Veilig gevoel </li></ul><ul><li>Schoon en goed onderhouden </li></ul><ul><li>Groen, natuurlijk </li></ul><ul><li>Water elementen </li></ul><ul><li>Andere mensen, maar wel mogelijkheid contact te mijden </li></ul>
    21. 22. Conclusies (3): methodologie <ul><li>Methoden van veldonderzoek: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vragenlijst ondersteunt holistische, discourse analyse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soundscape kwaliteiten/termen (Zweeds protocol) moeten via discourse analyse juist vertaald worden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observaties in aanvulling op veldonderzoek gewenst </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Conclusies (4): Soundscape kwaliteiten
    23. 24. Verbetervoorstellen pilot parken (1) <ul><li>Toepassen groene geluidschermen of bushokjes die afschermende werking hebben bij ingang Wijkpark Oude Westen </li></ul>
    24. 25. Verbetervoorstellen pilot parken (2) <ul><li>Toepassen groen geluidscherm achter zithoek in Sidelingepark </li></ul><ul><li>Aansluiten bij burgerparticipatie projecten in onderhoud en verbetering van park (‘groene hofjes’ Overschie) </li></ul>
    25. 26. Tot slot (1) <ul><li>Vervolgonderzoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natuurgebieden in provincie Zuid-Holland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIFE+ project QUADMAP met Bilbao, BruitParif, Florence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIVM SOR TASTE onderzoek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wetenschappelijk onderzoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO werkgroep TC43/SC1/WG54 mbt standaardisatie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COST Action Soundscape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publicaties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings Stockholm 2010, FA2011, IN2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artikel Mart l’Ami in blad Geluid </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Tot slot (2)
    27. 28. Tot slot (3) <ul><li>Kennisontwikkeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistische analyse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veldonderzoek/surveying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soundscape methodologie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontwikkeling, verbetering apparatuur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitieve sensorsystemen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uitbreiding huidig bestand meetapparatuur </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Voor vragen…… <ul><li>Miriam Weber MSc </li></ul><ul><li>Hoofd Bureau Geluid </li></ul><ul><li>Expertisecentrum DCMR </li></ul><ul><li>miriam.weber @ dcmr.nl </li></ul>

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