RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE KIZHI LECTURE 3 by Irena Lingard Course lectures East Midlands
Plan of talk <ul><li>1.Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nature of Island and Onega </li></ul><ul><li>3.History of the Region </li></ul><ul><li>4. Northern people thier culture </li></ul><ul><li>5. Nothern Traditional Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>6. Churches </li></ul><ul><li>7. Bell Tower and chapels </li></ul><ul><li>8. Icons and Legends </li></ul><ul><li>9. lincs and literature </li></ul>
Kizhi is the name of the isalnd and Museum -”Open Air Museum” It was announced the Historical reserve in 1945 and became Historical and architectural Reserve in 1953.Pogost means remote settlement with a church or cathedral in the heart of community. The River Cruise Tours from Saint Petersburg bring their guest here to learn about the Russian Life And the Hydrofoil Ferry boats from Petrozavodsk come regulary. Kizhi Pogost was declared to be a state reserve in 1945. It is now on the Heritage List of UNESCO.
<ul><li>KIZHI </li></ul><ul><li>62°04′01″ 35°13′26″ </li></ul><ul><li>Summer day 22 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Winter day 4 hours </li></ul><ul><li>The island itself is about 7 kilometres in length and from 100 metres to 1,5 kilometres in width. </li></ul><ul><li>ISLAND on the border of Russia and Karelia, name comes from Vepso-karelian language . </li></ul><ul><li>Is known from the 11 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Kizhi was populated up to the uprising at the beginning of the 18 century </li></ul>
There are over 50rivers running into ONEGA lake
<ul><li>There are no forests on the island, but only some trees . The trees host about 28 kinds of tree mushrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>There are over 180 bird species from 15 families come to breed or to rest. Such as swans, geese,ducks, lake... there are also birds who stay here over cold winters. </li></ul><ul><li>Among animals and amphibians, there are common lizard,frogs and toads, mice – the island is too small for larger animals which are abundant in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>But there is plenty fish in its waters... </li></ul><ul><li>, </li></ul>
<ul><li>Russian North was always known as land of very independant and freedom loving people. </li></ul><ul><li>There were no slaves here. And many people spoke languages of their neighbows : Norwegians, Sweds, and Karelo-Finns </li></ul><ul><li>It took longer to accept christianity and old myths and traditions integrated into new culture. </li></ul><ul><li>This was land where Believers found solitude and many people discovered harmony with Nature </li></ul><ul><li>, </li></ul>
People of Onega and Kizhi island. <ul><li>From historical point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Onega lake settlers left a lot of petroglyphs, that proves there were people her as far as 4th–2nd millennia BC. </li></ul><ul><li>First settlers were Finno Ugrian people as well as proto-slaves and proto-scandinavian. </li></ul><ul><li>Most villages had disappeared from the island by 1950s and now only a small rural settlement remains. </li></ul><ul><li>Pogost is an old administrative-territorial unit of Russia which appeared in 9th century. Later, the centres of these units were also called "pogosts". On the territory of the Russian North, pogosts existed till 18th century and usually included great number of villages. </li></ul>
HISTORY <ul><li>Over 40 000 people took part in uprising against cruelty of manager and asking to improve life conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives were sent to Tzarina. </li></ul><ul><li>After 2 years since rebellion started, troops were sent from S Petersburg. Many were sent to Siberia, some beaten to death and even more were taken to soldiers (25 years service) </li></ul>
4 Nothern traditional architecture <ul><li>The most common material in this Area was wood and clay. Brick making was known from the 10th century but main material was wood. When looking at works of neighbouring people you would notice similarity. Norwegians, Swedish and Finnish built houses and churches very similar in constraction and material. </li></ul><ul><li>There was specific as regional so national. But form as well as way of creating those structures was influenced by enviroment and needs of people who lived in that areas. </li></ul>
<ul><li>And here we meet with those enigmatic, elegant and beautiful monuments. </li></ul>Kizhi means -place for entertaiment. It was here that different tribes came to trade and pray. There are findings that tells us about those activities. Kizhi is one of the 1600 islands of the Onega lake.
Churches Kizhi Pogost, or Kizhi architectural ensemble is the largest construction on the island. It consists of two wooden churches, church of the Transfiguration and church of the Intercession, and a bell tower. The whole ensemble is surrounded by railing made of stone and wood. The church of the Transfiguration is 37 metres high, it has got 22 large domes covered with small aspen plates. This most well-known masterpiece of russian wooden architectural art was created in 1714 year. Around the Pogost itself, you will find the small church of the Resurrection of Lazarus built in 15th century or even earlier, the chapel of Archangel Michael, a windmill, a watermill, a smithy, other household buildings and four peasant houses including the largest and the most beautiful house of peasant Oshevnev. There are two reconstructed original villages on Kizhi. The village of Yamka is situated on the eastern shore of the island, about 3 kilometres away from Kizhi Pogost. The village of Vasilyevo stands on the opposite, western shore of the island, about 3,5 kilometres away from the Pogost. Both of the villages have got several houses, other typical wooden buildings and remarkable chapels situated nearby.
Kizhi architecture <ul><li>Церкви The first written document mentioning existance of Kizhi Churches goes back to The Note Book “Pistcova “ book 1563 года , it mentiones the previos description of churches dated 1496.We know that thanks to the conditions of the Island it was possible to preserve most of the wooden structure so long. Hence, Fire, caused by Flash during thunder burnt some of the Churches. </li></ul>
T he Church of the Intercession held from October 1 until Easter. It was first built in 1694 as a single-dome structure, then reconstructed in 1720–1749 It stands 32 meters tall with a 26×8 meter perimeter. There are nine domes, one larger in the center, surrounded by eight smaller ones. . The original iconostasis was replaced at the end of the 19th century and is lost; it was rebuilt in the 1950s to the original style.
<ul><li>Main reconstruction was done btween 1720 1749 </li></ul>
The Church of the Transfiguration 1764 <ul><li>It is summer church with 22 domes. 37m tall. </li></ul><ul><li>The 30 metres high Bell tower standing near the two churches was created in the late 19th century. The Transfiguration church is closed for tourists until the end of the restoration works in 2014. </li></ul>
<ul><li>«Разметали в стороны свои крылья стрельчатые 'бочки', словно кокошники русских красавиц. А на гребнях - стройные барабаны и луковичные купола с крестами, покрытые чешуей серебристого лемеха. В северные белые ночи они светятся над островом Кижи загадочным почти фосфорическим блеском; на закате, когда солнце медленно и величаво опускается в воды озера, они полыхают тревожным багрянцем. То голубеют, отражая небесную твердь, то тусклые, свинцовые, то замшелые, зеленые или бурые, как земля. Один ярус, другой, третий, четвертый... Все выше и выше и в самое небо врезалась верхняя глава, венчающая эту грандиозную 37 - метровую пирамиду». </li></ul>
<ul><li>Строитель Преображенской церкви, закончив работу, бросил свой топор в Онежское озеро и сказал: «Поставил эту церковь мастер Нестор , не было, нет и не будет такой». </li></ul>
<ul><li>Major changes happened between 1818 and 1824 . Houses were covered in wood and domes hidden under tin. The oriniginal look of churches and houses returned in 70s of 19 th century, but some churches were painted by oil. </li></ul>
Belltower <ul><li>The original bell-tower rapidly deteriorated and was re-built in 1862 and further reconstructed in 1874 and 1900. The tower stands 30 meters tall with a 6×6 meter perimeter. Materials : pine, spruce and aspen </li></ul>
<ul><li>1862 People built the new Bell tower as the old one became old and dangerouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Bell towers were very important buildings : they call people to gether to the church, warned them if enemy was coming, alarmed if there was fire,flood etc. </li></ul>
<ul><li>New Belltower was made in the very autentic style, according to the old traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Chaims work is a service of a spiritual and social importance, so it was never changed to computerised work </li></ul>
Windmills Windmills brought from Vorony island
Farm House House of Orshnev betwen 18 and 19 c,
Peasant House <ul><li>Most houses were made so that people can survive cold and snow winters, could keep their livestock in warm. Houses had 2 sometimes 3 bedroom on the 1 st floor, </li></ul><ul><li>Animals and their food, some of the preserves etc were kept on the ground floor. </li></ul><ul><li>System of heating and high bazement made it possible to survive 5 months inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Suana was built close to the house, so people kept clean and there women gave birth </li></ul>
Часовня Михаила Архангела Часовня Трех Святителей Часовня Праскеевы Пятницы и Варлаама Хутынского
Церкви Церковь Воскрешения Лазаря из Муромского монастыря Церковь Спаса Нерукотворного
Заключение <ul><li>Изначально на Кижах был построен Церковный комплекс, а уже в наше время было решено создать на Кижах музей деревянного зодчества "Русское Заонежье". Поэтому с окрестных островов свезли различные старинные деревянные строения и создали целую деревню. Что еще интересно, это не мертвый музей. Здесь разыгрывается целый спектакль, музейные работники одеты в старинную одежду и занимаются различными работами: кто-то косит траву, кто-то ткет ткань на старинном станке, кто-то вышивает, есть и кузнецы, и плотники. Такое ощущение, что в деревне живут люди. </li></ul>
<ul><li>www.karelia.pycc.ru/13/1863_1.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www . kizhi . karelia . ru / specialist / pub / library / kizhi _40/02_ centr . htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.tour-planeta.ru/info/439.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.trip-guide.ru/page_326.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.rusarch.ru/gushina1.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://kizhi.karelia.ru/specialist/pub/library/kizhi_vestnik/kizhi_vestnik6/03_buildings/vestnik6_11.htm </li></ul><ul><li>В презентации были использованы фотографии </li></ul><ul><li>Анатолия Буковского </li></ul><ul><li>Дмитрия Казакова </li></ul><ul><li>Е. Гаврилова </li></ul><ul><li>Презентацию подготовила ученица 10-б класса </li></ul><ul><li>Коротич Екатерина </li></ul>Список литературы