Native American Indians by MJAC


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Native American Indians overview.

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  • When it was found that some reservation land contained gold or other valuable resources, the land was taken away.
  • Language is another area in which prejudice can be found.For example: “Indian Giver” and “Give it back to the Indians”Also found in the education system, where school counselors tend to direct Native American Indian students into technical areas and away from college.
  • A war chief and council members were usually chosen from among the elders in a tribe.Native American Indians are represented in city, state, and federal governments, but at a lower rate than proportional to the U.S. population. Native American Indians have little power over their own lives until the 1960s. (Red Power Movement)
  • Children are given a great deal of freedom and are allowed to explore and be independent quite early in their lives. They believe that a child should be allowed to make mistakes and to learn the natural consequences of misbehavior. Children have no fixed schedules for eating or sleeping.
  • In fact, they are so common that they are sometimes thought to be a normal part of the courtship period.When a birth does occur out of wedlock, the tribal community is very protective of the mother, even to the point of finding a husband for her, whether it is the biological father or not.
  • They believed that almost every act of life is regulated and determined by religion. God: is positive, benevolent, and part of daily living for Native American Indians.Self: is part of nature where people learn about their own nature from nature itself.Others: interpersonal relationships, value of sharing and generosity.World: everything lives according to the same process. These men are believed to have special powers not possessed by others.
  • They also believed that after death, their spirits live on or are reborn into new babies. Accepting beliefs is understood from the viewpoint of their culture, which accepts all religions as part of the universe or Indian Hoop of Life.
  • Clan: consists of a “group” of families or households which traces its descent through the head of the house from a common ancestor. Such as: Punishment, adoption, and marriage. The traditional family lifestyle focuses on cultural activities such as feasts, religions, and powwows.
  • In addition, Native American Indians view a firm handshake as aggressive and disrespectful.View talking about one’s accomplishments as being ill-mannered.
  • Bicultural: Wealth, Formal Education and Recreation. They only pursue wealth as a mean to escape white domination. Traditional: they use their “Indian-ness” to avoid Whites and the White lifestyle.Marginal: they accept the dominant culture and employed a internal exchange system; involving goods, rights, obligations, and emotional support.
  • Native American Indians by MJAC

    1. 1. Miracle-Josette Creighton
    2. 2.   History  Definition  Acculturation  Poverty & Economic Concerns  History of Oppression  Language & the Arts  Racism & Prejudice  Sociopolitical Factors  Child-Rearing Practices  Sexual Intercourse  Religious Practices  Family Structure & Dynamics  Cultural Values & Attitudes  Implications Native American Indians
    3. 3.   Native Americans Indians throughout America found themselves virtually stripped of their cultural identities and relegated to land unwanted by Whites.  Believed: Native Americans Indians migrated from Asia over a land bridge at the Bering Strait during a recent ice age, sometime about 20,000 to 27,000 years ago. History
    4. 4.   Amerind or Amerindian has been used to designate the 2.5 million nomadic people who lived in the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans.  Historically, the name Indian was used, followed by American Indian, and more recently, Native American and Native American Indian. History
    5. 5.  History  Constitute less than 1% of the U.S. population, numbering 1.9 million in 1990.  Population increased nearly 65% from 1980 to 1990.  Geographically dispersed group speaks 150 tribal languages in 505 federally recognized & 365 state recognized tribal groups (BIA, 1988).
    6. 6.  History Largest Tribe  Navajos of Arizona  Navajos of New Mexico  (approximately 160,000) Smallest Tribe  Chumash of California  Modocs of Oklahoma  (fewer than 100)
    7. 7.   The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) (1998) defines a Native American Indian as a person who is a registered or enrolled member of a federally recognized tribe or whose blood quantum is one fourth or more Indian, genealogically derived, and who can legally demonstrate that fact to the BIA.  BIA makes Native American Indians the only LEGALLY defined ethnic group living in the U.S. Definition
    8. 8.   Despite the assault by the overarching dominant U.S. culture on Native American Indian life, many Native American Indians have not become acculturated.  The clash of cultures has caused many Native American Indians to experience a general lack of self-confidence and a sense of helplessness. Acculturation 10/17/2012
    9. 9.   The dominant culture has forced Native American Indians to become intimate with the concept of poverty.  Suffers in: Employment, Education, Income, and Health.  Unemployment, poverty, and lack of education are all symptoms of the cultural alienation that Native American Indians experience when trying to live in a dominant culture. Poverty & Economic Concerns
    10. 10.   Native American Indians have a long history of oppression at the hands of European settlers.  Early 1524, Indians were seized by European settlers and sold as slaves in the West Indies; in additionally, expected to adhere to European standards of conduct, cultural values.  Continual of Oppression: Native American Indians was given land that was believed to be useless. History of Oppression
    11. 11.   Rich heritage in NONVERBAL Language, such as using: body language, eye movement, silence, and tone of voice.  300 Tribal languages.  The Cherokee were the only tribe to develop written language.  Holistic lifestyle is reflected in their arts, such as: tradition of music, dance, and crafts. (Religious Values) Language & the Arts 10/17/2012
    12. 12.   Manifest Destiny  The Loss of Native American Indians’ citizenship rights of voting.  Bearing arms under the 1835 North Carolina state constitution.  Relocation of Native American Indians under the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Racism & Prejudice
    13. 13.   Most Tribes ruled by Chiefs with matriarchal lines of succession.  The Red Power movement: put more power into the hands of Native American Indians, through three (3) organizations: the National Indian Youth Council, the National Congress of American Indians, and the American Indian Movement. Sociopolitical Factors
    14. 14.   Children are reared by the extended family, clan or tribe, with grandparents and other elders usually responsible for teaching children.  Rarely discipline unless real danger exist.  Indian parents are generally permissive in their training. Child-Rearing Practices
    15. 15.   Sex is treated as a part of the natural process of life.  Facts surrounding sexual intercourse are understood at an early age.  Premarital sexual experiences are common in most Indian villages.  No stigma attached to child(ren) born out of wedlock. Sexual Intercourse
    16. 16.   Religion is the UNIVERSE.  Four (4) valued objects: God, Self, Others, and World.  Medicine men or Shamans are religious men, considered priests for the tribes.  Dance, Art, and Ceremonial festivals are linked to religious beliefs. Religious Practices
    17. 17.   Native Americans Indians believe in many gods or spirits, usually with one chief god or Great Spirit.  Worship: Sun, Wind, Water, Fire, Thunder, and Lightning, as well as Animals.  Some Native American Indians accepted and adopted Christianity along with their own beliefs. Religious Practices
    18. 18.   Traditional Family form = Extended Family  Clan = Basic Family Unit  Female: traditionally responsible for and performed the duties necessary to preserve the “Social Organization”.  Elders: responsible for educating children and the leadership in the tribe. Family Structure & Dynamics 10/17/2012
    19. 19.   Strong Present-time Orientation.  Time Consciousness defined by socially, rather than by the clock.  Respect for age and for elders.  Preference for cooperation over competition.  Ethical concern for the natural world. Cultural Values & Attitudes
    20. 20.   Three (3) reactions to White-dominated society: Bicultural, Traditional, and Marginal.  Bicultural: emulate White pursuits.  Traditional: distrust Whites in the dominant culture.  Marginal: did not attempt to compete with the dominant culture. Implications
    21. 21. Thank you very much!!! References Locke, D., (1998). Increasing Multicultural Understanding. 2ed. pp.59-77. Native American Indians: SAGE Publications. Miracle-Josette Creighton