When it was found that some reservation land contained gold or other valuable resources, the land was taken away.
Language is another area in which prejudice can be found.For example: “Indian Giver” and “Give it back to the Indians”Also found in the education system, where school counselors tend to direct Native American Indian students into technical areas and away from college.
A war chief and council members were usually chosen from among the elders in a tribe.Native American Indians are represented in city, state, and federal governments, but at a lower rate than proportional to the U.S. population. Native American Indians have little power over their own lives until the 1960s. (Red Power Movement)
Children are given a great deal of freedom and are allowed to explore and be independent quite early in their lives. They believe that a child should be allowed to make mistakes and to learn the natural consequences of misbehavior. Children have no fixed schedules for eating or sleeping.
In fact, they are so common that they are sometimes thought to be a normal part of the courtship period.When a birth does occur out of wedlock, the tribal community is very protective of the mother, even to the point of finding a husband for her, whether it is the biological father or not.
They believed that almost every act of life is regulated and determined by religion. God: is positive, benevolent, and part of daily living for Native American Indians.Self: is part of nature where people learn about their own nature from nature itself.Others: interpersonal relationships, value of sharing and generosity.World: everything lives according to the same process. These men are believed to have special powers not possessed by others.
They also believed that after death, their spirits live on or are reborn into new babies. Accepting beliefs is understood from the viewpoint of their culture, which accepts all religions as part of the universe or Indian Hoop of Life.
Clan: consists of a “group” of families or households which traces its descent through the head of the house from a common ancestor. Such as: Punishment, adoption, and marriage. The traditional family lifestyle focuses on cultural activities such as feasts, religions, and powwows.
In addition, Native American Indians view a firm handshake as aggressive and disrespectful.View talking about one’s accomplishments as being ill-mannered.
Bicultural: Wealth, Formal Education and Recreation. They only pursue wealth as a mean to escape white domination. Traditional: they use their “Indian-ness” to avoid Whites and the White lifestyle.Marginal: they accept the dominant culture and employed a internal exchange system; involving goods, rights, obligations, and emotional support.
Native American Indians by MJAC
Poverty & Economic Concerns
History of Oppression
Language & the Arts
Racism & Prejudice
Family Structure & Dynamics
Cultural Values & Attitudes
Native Americans Indians throughout America
found themselves virtually stripped of their cultural
identities and relegated to land unwanted by Whites.
Believed: Native Americans Indians migrated from
Asia over a land bridge at the Bering Strait during a
recent ice age, sometime about 20,000 to 27,000 years
Amerind or Amerindian has been used to designate
the 2.5 million nomadic people who lived in the
Americas before the arrival of the Europeans.
Historically, the name Indian was used, followed by
American Indian, and more recently, Native
American and Native American Indian.
Constitute less than 1%
of the U.S. population,
numbering 1.9 million
nearly 65% from 1980
dispersed group speaks
150 tribal languages in
recognized & 365 state
groups (BIA, 1988).
Navajos of Arizona
Navajos of New Mexico
Chumash of California
Modocs of Oklahoma
(fewer than 100)
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) (1998) defines a
Native American Indian as a person who is a
registered or enrolled member of a federally
recognized tribe or whose blood quantum is one
fourth or more Indian, genealogically derived, and
who can legally demonstrate that fact to the BIA.
BIA makes Native American Indians the only
LEGALLY defined ethnic group living in the U.S.
Despite the assault by the overarching dominant U.S.
culture on Native American Indian life, many Native
American Indians have not become acculturated.
The clash of cultures has caused many Native
American Indians to experience a general lack of
self-confidence and a sense of helplessness.
The dominant culture has forced Native American
Indians to become intimate with the concept of poverty.
Suffers in: Employment, Education, Income, and Health.
Unemployment, poverty, and lack of education are all
symptoms of the cultural alienation that Native American
Indians experience when trying to live in a dominant
Poverty & Economic
Native American Indians have a long history of
oppression at the hands of European settlers.
Early 1524, Indians were seized by European settlers
and sold as slaves in the West Indies; in additionally,
expected to adhere to European standards of
conduct, cultural values.
Continual of Oppression: Native American Indians
was given land that was believed to be useless.
History of Oppression
Rich heritage in NONVERBAL Language, such as using:
body language, eye movement, silence, and tone of voice.
300 Tribal languages.
The Cherokee were the only tribe to develop written
Holistic lifestyle is reflected in their arts, such as: tradition
of music, dance, and crafts. (Religious Values)
Language & the Arts
The Loss of Native American Indians’ citizenship
rights of voting.
Bearing arms under the 1835 North Carolina state
Relocation of Native American Indians under the
Indian Removal Act of 1830.
Racism & Prejudice
Most Tribes ruled by Chiefs with matriarchal lines of
The Red Power movement: put more power into the
hands of Native American Indians, through three (3)
organizations: the National Indian Youth Council,
the National Congress of American Indians, and the
American Indian Movement.
Children are reared by the extended family, clan or
tribe, with grandparents and other elders usually
responsible for teaching children.
Rarely discipline unless real danger exist.
Indian parents are generally permissive in their
Sex is treated as a part of the natural process of life.
Facts surrounding sexual intercourse are understood
at an early age.
Premarital sexual experiences are common in most
No stigma attached to child(ren) born out of
Religion is the UNIVERSE.
Four (4) valued objects: God, Self, Others, and
Medicine men or Shamans are religious men,
considered priests for the tribes.
Dance, Art, and Ceremonial festivals are linked to
Native Americans Indians believe in many gods or
spirits, usually with one chief god or Great Spirit.
Worship: Sun, Wind, Water, Fire, Thunder, and
Lightning, as well as Animals.
Some Native American Indians accepted and
adopted Christianity along with their own beliefs.
Traditional Family form = Extended Family
Clan = Basic Family Unit
Female: traditionally responsible for and performed
the duties necessary to preserve the “Social
Elders: responsible for educating children and the
leadership in the tribe.
Family Structure &
Strong Present-time Orientation.
Time Consciousness defined by socially, rather than by
Respect for age and for elders.
Preference for cooperation over competition.
Ethical concern for the natural world.
Cultural Values &
Three (3) reactions to White-dominated society:
Bicultural, Traditional, and Marginal.
Bicultural: emulate White pursuits.
Traditional: distrust Whites in the dominant culture.
Marginal: did not attempt to compete with the
Thank you very
Locke, D., (1998). Increasing
Multicultural Understanding. 2ed.
pp.59-77. Native American
Indians: SAGE Publications.