Jack Rowley - Levels of exposure in mobile networks

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Jack Rowley - Levels of exposure in mobile networks

  1. 1. © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Levels of Exposure in Mobile Networks Jack Rowley, PhD, Senior Director Research & Sustainability GSM Association Forum “National Non-Ionizing Radiation, Health and Infrastructure Deployment”, Colombia August 2013
  2. 2. 1 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 More use of internet and more use indoors ITU, 2012; OFCOM, 2012 120x more data than feature phone 79% indoor usage
  3. 3. 2 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Phones need antenna sites Low power devices. Extend battery life. Less interference. Adaptive power control.
  4. 4. 3 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 The antenna transmits radio signals Signals directed outwards and not directly downwards.
  5. 5. 4 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Exposure reduces rapidly as distance increases Worker limit Public limit Small fraction of limit
  6. 6. 5 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Antennas not accessible Simplified evaluation.
  7. 7. 6 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Compliance boundaries Compliance Boundary Worker Compliance Boundary Public Assess zones. Manage access. Signage.
  8. 8. 7 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Environmental levels from mobile network antennas http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.13
  9. 9. 8 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Exposure similar for all countries Global average more than 5,500 times below limit values. Based on Rowley and Joyner, 2012 1000 100 10 1 0.1 0.00000001 0.0000001 0.00001 0.0001 0.010.001 0.01 Country (points) Microwattspersquarecentimetre
  10. 10. 9 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 0 Average urban, TV and radio Baby monitors (20 cm) Average urban, base stations WLAN access point (20 cm) DECTcordless phone (20 cm) Mobile network exposure levels similar to other radio sources Based on Valberg et al., 2007.
  11. 11. 10 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Time trends – 5 countries No significant change in RF exposure since introduction of 3G Based on Rowley and Joyner, 2012
  12. 12. 11 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Many types of antenna sites
  13. 13. 12 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Exposures similar from different site types Adapted from Figure 2 of Bornkessel et al, 2007 Rural Urban In-building system Rooftop, building below
  14. 14. 13 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Small daily variation in radio signal levels ICNIRP <<1% Joseph et al, BEMS, June 2010 Small variation due to traffic activity. Sample audit measurements to build trust. Benefits of continuous monitors should be independently evaluated.
  15. 15. 14 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Summary – mobile network exposure levels Typically far below international recommendations. All mobile technologies produce similar exposure. Similar to other sources of radio signals. Little change in exposure since the introduction of 3G.
  16. 16. 15 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Established Risk http://www.michellehenry.fr/tel.htm
  17. 17. 16 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Muchas Gracias Contact: Dr Jack Rowley Job title: Senior Director Research & Sustainability email address: jrowley@gsma.com Global: www.gsma.com/health Latin America www.gsma.com/latinamerica/ gsma-latin-america-es/salud- y-moviles
  18. 18. 17 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 More antennas does not mean more exposure Bornkessel, RF Exposure Measurement Campaigns - Between Pure Facts and Practical Risk Communication in Electromagnetic Field Exposure: Risk Communication in the context of Uncertainty, 2006. The number of visible base stations does not significantly influence RF exposure level. electricfieldstrengthin%oflimit
  19. 19. 18 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 RF exposure evaluation Near to antennas: – Compliance zones. – Access controls. Far from antennas: – Very low exposures. – Communication.
  20. 20. 19 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Mobile networks evolve in response to customer demand More base stations to provide: – More coverage. – More capacity. – Higher data rates. Potential public concern. Cisco
  21. 21. 20 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Evolution of mobile technologies Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2013 today
  22. 22. 21 © GSM Association 2013 J. Rowley, August 2013 Ground level: closer does not mean higher exposure Source: Adapted from Neubauer et al, Study on the Feasibility of Epidemiological Studies on Health Effects of Mobile Telephone Base Stations, ARC-IT—0124, March 2005. For example, at 100 m, the measured levels differ by more than 1,000 times. ICNIRP

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