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The Art of Woodworking Hand Tools


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Livro sobre Marcenaria com detalhes riquíssimos de ferramentas manuais

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The Art of Woodworking Hand Tools

  2. 2. TE H-
  3. 3. 6 INTRODUCTION 12 MEASURINGAND MARKING TOOLS 14 Tools for measuring and marking 16 Measwingand marking techniques HANDSAWS Handsaw inventory Handsaw blades Basic cuts Advanced cuts Handsaw joinery m rn 28 30 32 34 41 48 rn 54 CHISELSAND BORING TOOLS 56 A collection of chisels 58 Anatomyofachisel 59 Basic chiseling 66 Chisel joinery 70 A battery of tools for boring 72 Boring took I ' m SMOOTHINGAND SHAPING TOOLS Anatomies of two bench planes Planes Setting u Basic tecLaues Advanced tehniaues A selection of shaping tools Shaping wood Scraping techniques 110 STRIKING AND FASTENING TOOLS 1 12 A selection of hammers and mallets 114 Harnmers and mallets 1 18 A gallery of screwdrivers 120 Screwdrivers 122 124 126 137 CLAMPS A collection of damps Gluingup Securingwork 142 INDEX 144 ACIJO-
  4. 4. elly Mehler discusses the I' ." HAND TO0,LS EXPERIENCE- , of &meer. I got in c thetail end of a tndltional cabin&&ok 1 at & old vocational d e g e run by a m s e woodworker who had learnd his atr trade in his father's carriage shop. Each student was assigned a bench and a drawer' containing the basic hand tools: a plane, a backsaw, chisels, a small h m e , square, a m ra and a marking gauge. As we worked at the benches, the teacher and hs helperswalked i around the shop, offering assistance.Although there were some heavy machines in the shop, the predominant~tmospherea one of bench work O r first task w s to ws u a make a half-lap joint from a roughpiece of poplar usingonly the tools h m our drawer. We startedby p h n g m e face flat and from that face s q d an edge. Then we iih marked and planed to the fns thickness, cut the piece in halfsquady, and outlined et h One the joint. Nx, we sawed and chiseled tejoint, all the while checkingforwe felt we had a good joint, an instructor would inspect it from all sides& square, flatness, and f i t This drcise demanded intense concentrationa d i t prbvided the groundwork for my attitude toward woodworking. Attention to'dikail, a aqpect for handwork, and'ihe importance of good joinery provided firm cornerstones, Twentyyears later, as a professional f i n m i t u r d , I Istillthat it is important for me to maintain a balance between handwork and machine work. Beigg in business sets some of the limits. You may not want money to dictate how );ou work, but it is a major concern if you are going to work wood for a living. The @on of whether a particular process should be accomplishedby hand or rakes a number of questions Which method is more efficient?Which produmpetterwork-or makes a more valuable finished piece? -:if @ , + ~fxlFelthatdoKtlllsfOrsLarnpl<can ~ o n e b a t l + d E v m ~ * n e w & eration of jigs, the ma-fine hand-cut look cannat be achiev+ylk # t ipakhhe; nor is jigging much fasterwhen there are only a favjoints to do;Han+kqt dovetailswill alsoginapiece amuchgreater i n v e s t m e n t v & e , @ & ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d r O u g h board by hand doesn't usually add value. Itmq be r e ~ a ~ d m g perso ,but hand planing i d more efficient than using a thickna planer, nor are'the r&ults better. st There are many occasionswhen it is q u i c k to pick up a hand tool than to set up a machine for a simple operation. I usually cut tenon shoulderswith a handsaw and ih chisel rather than working wt a band savj or a table saw. But I taper table legs on the jointer, instead of bandsawing to a line and hand planing @legs h t h . Einding the right W'ceofhandandpowertooIsisahi~individualmatter,baladngthe 1early
  5. 5. Curtis Erpilding on . . A. i ' -MAKING % .
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION Toshio Odate emresses HAND TOOLS J apanese craftsmen have a very special relationship with their tools. We believe each of our tools possesses a s o d For example, when we need to get around in our shops, we don't step over our tools; we prefer to walk around them instead. I learned these lessons as a young apprentice in Japan,when I carried my master's esrd toolbox for the first time. The box was made of pine, and m a u e about three feet long, one foot wide, and eight inches deep. Packed with steel tools, hardwood blocks, and several sharpeningstones, the box was heavy enough to crush my shoulder, a e pcially with our destination-+ customer's house-still mls away.When we arrived, ie after strugghg to keep up with my fast-walking master, I looked for a spot to put the toolbox down. Our customer, sensingthe pain in my shoulder, indicated the veranda. I set the box down carelessly-and n* o. I didn't think much of it; there was nothing breakable in the box. But my master turned and yelled at me. When I looked up, I could see that he was furious. Had our customer not been there, my master probably would have struck me. Such a scene reveals the intense experience of apprenticeshipsin Japan, and the setting in which I learned to respect my tools. For a shokunin- craftsman with skill, speed, and professional responsibility-tools are not just things. They have a sod. They can be an extension of the craftsman's body. Japanesecraftsmen form a bond with their tools, one that more closely resembles a personal relationship than one between a person and an inanimate object. In contrast with modem methods of mechanized fimiture production, working with hand tools allows you to takea personal approach to your work When you put your mind into your work fuuy-as hand tools pri you to d-you give your work emt ia human touch. Qualities like love, pride, concern, and simplicitywill show in the f n ished work itself as by-products of the woodworking process. There is something missing from modem furniture making. Much of it lacks warmth; it isn't personal. Fitting hundreds of inlays on a tabletop by means of a computer program may be quick, and it may be the "reasonable" way to get the job done. H w v r it shows nothing of the kind of fee& you i p r with the keen cutting edge oee, mat of a plane blade. I respect modern technology, but there has never been a greater need for hand tools as a key to express the nuances of human values. Toshio Odate buildsfinefirrniture in his workshop in Woodbury, Connecticut.He also teaches woodworking at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York. 11
  7. 7. a u I m u a m AND MARKING TOOLS E very woodworking project begins As you accumulate your tools, do with a single mark-a line describnot compromise on quality. Although ing the size and shape of the work's first there are genuine bargainsto be foundpiece. Inscribed accurately and followed high-quality tools at low prim-beware skillfully,*this measurement and others of cheap goods: Nothing robs thg* leathat follow will guide the woodcrafter =$om a project more nuidti& unerringly toward successful complem y edges, loose joints, and hard-totion of an object of beauty. But much is *rea &ark$& at stake: Inaccurate or erratic measure~ak;'@ptime to master the techments can doom a noble design to the niques ofprecise layout, for they-as kindling box well as the proper tools-will assure Fortunately, something close to peraccuracy. Some details may seem inconfection isattainable;centuries of experisequential,but theyare not. As explained ence have produced tools and techniques on page 26, the position of the bevel on A miter square confirms that a that produce reliable, accurate meathe ty blade of a cutting giuge can spell h surements. This chapter is a guide to bevel cut on the end of a board forms the difference between cutting a groove a 4 5 O angle with the face. With the those instruments and methods. effortlessly, and laboring,endlessly to v On the pages that follow you will find workpiece and square held up to the square its sides. light, there should be no gap visiblr.' a wide array of instruments describnl; Even using the bestlmeasuring and gauges of several kinds, protractors, marking tools and the most skilled knives, compasses, squares, lines, tapes, and rules. Although craftsmanship will not guarantee that you will &ays measure it is possible to work well with nothing more than a pencil and correctly. Eventually-and probably inevitably-ou may misruler, each specialized tool has a job that it does better than read your plans or miscalculate a dimension. For this reason any substitute. Some are considered indispensable. The major- most woodworkers take out a basic layout insurance policy: ity of woodworkers would probably include among these a "Measure twice and cut once." Double-drddng each qd.every carpenter's square, a try square, a combination square, a tape mark and measurement helpwnsure that you will c & your measure, and a cutting gauge. mistakes before the irreversible first cut. -e , ,, m 1 1 I 8 7 ? -: rn ;: I A trio oj marmng too15 works together to outline thepinsfar ,@ a dovetailjoint. Afier a cutting gauge wriba a sbulkr line aroutrd the end of the board, a dovetail s w r e sets the angle fir the pins on the board end. A combination square d m atends the pin marks to the sh& lines on bothjkes. . t* 13 - -.
  9. 9. W m - m J GAND M.fQKrNG TOOLS
  10. 10. MEASURING AND MARKING TECHNIQUES begins measuring and marking. accuCraftsmanshipyou make Theproper racy of every line is only as with good as the previous one. Lines that are not quite straight or angles that veer off the mark invariably result in out-ofquare cuts and poorly fitting joints, The tools shown on pages 14and 15 are essential at many stages of a woodw o r k project, &om initial setup to the periodic checking that you should do to confirm the progress of your work The balance of this chapter describes some basic operationsand offersa fewtips and shortcuts for taking precise measurements and setting up your tools in awkward and uncommon situations. Although useful shortcuts do exist, take nothing for granted. Experience has taught that there is even a best tool and Oneqfhsimpkstma&bgpupsiE your own hr#rd W ~a p d h& h bewmpmrr thumbandindgx*, ~yorcrtffiddlehWaloJ~dfaff* ofaboardtorrearkas&aigbtEine.
  12. 12. MEASURING AND MARKING TOOLS W n g u p atpetemfwa w b r ~ u t Set the desired miter angle on a combination gauge, then lowen the adjustl ment handle on the SEW'Smiter gauge. Align one arm of the a m b i n a h gauge with the miter dot in W w table i n d swivel the rnb head to bring it flush against the &her ann. T i ~ t e the adjWn rnent handle on the @ugaM.To ckeck a 45" angle miter cnt$. a m b i n & h .-. , . ., ,-, lR(fi i . . . Adjusting a drill press to bore an angled hole Install a straight steel rod or a brad-point bit in the chuck of the drill press, then use a protractor to set the drilling angle you need on a sliding bevel (page 18). Loosen the table, butt the bevel's blade against the rod or bit and tilt the table up until it rests flush against the handle of the bevel (r@t). Tighten the table. (Because of the design of its shaft, a brad-point bit provides more flat surface to butt a bevel b l g d e ~ t h a n ~ a ~ l e r ~ & f
  13. 13. 'MEASURING AND IbUUKING TOOLS Wdag 8n angle Use a compass to divide an angle into two equal parts. With the legs of the tool a few inches apart, position the pivot point at the apex of the angle and swivel the compass to make a reference mark on each arm of the angle. (In the illusbatiin, the edge gf the panel senres as one arm of the angle.) Then make two more reference marks: This time, position the pivot point at the intersedim of one of the first two marks and the arm of the angle; repeat for the other arm of the angle. The new reference marks should cross between the a m of the angle (right). Bisect the angle by drawing a straight line from the apex of the angle to the intersection of the last two reference marks (inset). . -- .
  14. 14. I I ~ * M M € ~ 'I;he sbpmade compass s h at m right, consisting of an arm, an awl, and a pencil, will allow you to d b e a circle of vimdly any radius. Far the arm, cut a strip of lh-inch stoclt 2 inches wide anb at least 2 inches longer than the radius of the circle y wish to draw. Bme a hole BbOUf w 1inch ftom the end of the am, large enough to hold the shaft of the awl. Bore a seoond hole, wide enough t~ aceommod~e pencil, making the the distance betwen the h o k equal tD the radius @f circle. Fit the the anvl into one Role and a sharpened pencil igto the other, making sure the two extend from the bottom of the arm by the same amount. Use the compass as you would trammel points, holding the tip of the awl at the center of the circle and d a t i n g the pencil around it to scribe the circle.
  15. 15. rn m 'MEASURING AND MAR.KINGTOOLc , Measuring circumference To determine the circumference of a cylindrical or circular workpiece, wrap a length of measuring tape around its girth and hold it taut so that two sections of the tape are side-by-side on the surface (above). Choose two marks that line up--for example, the 2- and 9lh-inch marks. The difference between the two will give you the circumference-in this case, 7% inches. I 5 ' I -t, . -. . . ... ,'!;-iL: . . I
  16. 16. M E A S W G AND h4AJWNG J'OYaLS L
  17. 17. CHECKING FOR S U E ~~. clamp The two m 8 ( 5h8Uld a bethemat. ~ W , t h a ~ i s w t of square. TQc o r e t pp&E&m, h install aRajblrer bar stamp aro~lss the longer of the two diagmls. Tighten the clamp a FWtr at a Mme, nwwring as you p until W38 twa diagonals Use a try sqmm to cheek &&her a wrfamPWrlPlsa Wangek~vPiPh an adiainingsM. Wiih l wo&#iece and b the q m k l d up to the light, hold u b&W. Thwe should 27
  18. 18. HANDSAW INVENTORY m A 15-~mh-loty hamisaw &s&ncsd t o In a lc k &s M i d & G&FW WIW1 " m m ~ t l o n * t n a r t ~ m ~ t h b . ~ W - , ~ e ~ l l t3tlfkd 114th w eolld ti-1 rn or bra- spine, a r+gU lr haws atmiglkt, accurate cu;M for m / & ~ ,tanone and o t k pracfacJoints; avalIaMQI lo-,f2-, m d 14-Inch Icngfie wbh n D m15Wpwhwh m m m .f' Dovetail eaw A small backsaw for dovetails and other finejoinery; features a blade length of 8 or 1 inches with 1 t o 1 0 4 9 teeth per inch; some dovetail saws look like shortened versions of the backsaw shown above -- - . , # E , m - m m Typically 1 inches long; smaller compass 2 saws are known as keyhole saws . - .- -
  19. 19. m m m rn m Fbhsuotsr' A wwim of Gh@ dowsbil ite o% f& handle can k fiI@ f a eIthsr md, allowing %;hb blade f a tout flussh MM WRW From cMer M e a Aprutjbm their di&a&w upumna J a m SIEWS d#erjktin dreir W m - w kwutltqwm byncttingmthe**h*ph,&
  20. 20. HANDSAW BLADES A 11 saw blades are essentially alike, fl consisting o f a row o f sh& teeth that sever wood fibers and dear the resulting debris out o f the cut, or kerf. But blades intended for different uses deviate markedly i their details. n A ripsaw blade has widely spaced teeth-five to seven teeth per inch (TP1)--designed to tear rapidly along the grain.To speed the work andprevent binding, rip teeth have a pronounced "set," that is, they are bent alternately to each side o f the blade's center line. The d t i n g edge, &ugh relativelyrough, can easily be planed smooth. A c r o x u t saw, o n the other hand, must make precise cuts,usually only a few inches long. Its teeth are closely s p a d - e i g h t to 12 TPI--and possess barely any set; although they cut slowly, little cleanup is necessary. O course. no s w cutswell ifits teeth f a are not &ed and set properly. For these tasks &6e done i n the most although the shop (see h), saws with very h e teeth, like dovetails and tenon saws, are best left to professionals. SllARPEH SAW TEETH 1 JWng U mh u t Mount the saw teefh-up in a vise with a' wood pad on either side of the blade for protection. Install a flat mill bastard file in a commercial saw jointer. Holding the jointer flush against one side of the blade, pass the file baek and forth along the tips of the teeth (N'@t).The file will flatten the tips of any high teeth slightly; a few passes should be enough t file all o the teeth to the same height. A CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WANDSAW TEETH Four types of taeth Handsaw teeth are shaped according to the type of cutting they will do. The leading edges of ripsaw teeth are almost vertical and filed straight across to enable them to slash aggressively through wood. Crosscut saw teeth have sloped leading edges that are beveled, which allow them to cut cleanly across the grain. Japanese saw teeth cut on the pull stroke. They are relatively tall and narrow, and feature a bevel across the top of the cutting points. Unlike Western-style saw teeth, Japanese teeth have very little set and produce a narrow kerf. Combinatiun, or dual-purpose, teeth slope forward and backward at the same angle, and are beveled on both edges. Although they rip more slowly than a ripsaw, and produce crosscuts that are rougher than a specialized crosscutting saw, combination saws do both jobs.
  21. 21. 3m m - 2 athe^ Ig M n With thesaw4Y in thevise, adjustrrsawarttothecarsnrs slimtqm trb@ulslrZite @t T S t h Maele. P ~ at the tip, or Mof the saw, , handle tilts! damt slightly ~tPlefSrsttaat)lWatisbsnttother~~~ 6houldnrPeldnfmpmdic aFRlilrndW~kWgck. ttrs~tQoe8theBoo6h WOrkfran~~tottM I&wwE. W k pw way tow& the handle, setting JI teeth s in one directiwl. ThQI1 t W & P Whmm* t m W ~ th-&arasbarvttPth3~.~ntwnthesarvoreundinW remainingteeth. vim a d repeat the qmuthn to set t b remaining teeth. I I I AlOlWTlWQH6FORWl'EETH T hjig shown at right is as effetiiva as a cmercial saw jointer for leveling the tec$k of P haadsaw, yet you can make it from just three w scraps: a top and W two sides. Saw the pieces to the dimens i m suggested in the illustration, then cutagraoveinthebottornfaceaftheksp piece wide andd&ep emwgh to hold a flat mi4 bastard tile BRRI the top wners of the two side p ito fit the saw teeth. Screw the side pieces to the top, spacing them far enough apart to clear the saw blade, but dose enough to keep the file perpendicular to the bide as you joint the teeth. To use the jig, slide a file into the groove in the top piece add pass it along the saw teeth as y p would with B e m ~ m i a l jointer. nw. I-
  22. 22. BASIC CUTS awing wood quickly and accurately Sby hand depends on the proper setup, posture, and angle. Always sawing support a workpiece adequately,either on sawhorses or some other stable surfke,andkeepitinplacewithdampsor a vise, Never attempt to steady a workpiece with your free band. Set up your work at a comfortable height that allowsyou to maintain your ~ceWhilesawing.HohdthesawW in line with your arm and shoulder. As shown below,-the correct sawing angle varies with the type of cut. The saw is held c l d to the vertical for rip cuts, and mewhat l m r for crosscutting. Anevenloweranglewillyieldthefinest cut, As illustrated in the photo at right, to hnishoff an interior cut,you have to hold the saw with the blade at a 90" angle to the surface. If, in spite of your preparations, the s w drifts off the cutting line, twist the a blade slightly on the push stroke to straightenit out. If the blade sticks during the cut, you m y need to reset or file a 2: hr-em the teeth (page3) As a s o t t r measure, you can rub a little paste wax or paraftin on the blade (not the teeth) or use a kerf splitter to keep the blade 5. from sticking (page 3) Remove any w x buildup with steel wool and mina eral spirits. W e you measure and mark a cut, hn remember that the kerfwill be up to '/a inch wide. Be sure to m k your cut on ae the waste side of the cutting line.
  23. 23. HANDSAWS wllgs~wrwkllb Clamp the workpiece to sarrrhwses. ' - ikkI Qr h&rPmddfor editter piece and 3/4-inch utvwood the fm 3411skodd@rq gIWthd &me pbcee %&her. To L i e the d&cd s&rtthe~art, lnwrt ths edntar h t h e kerf a $hen I I To start the cut, with the saw blade to the waste side of the cvtting line and s t your thumb m to the e t blade. Pull the blade stowly toward you, keeping it flush w i n a t your thumb (abme). Repeat a few tirnes until the kerf is d q e @ t hold m o the blade,2hen inow your thumb out of the way and continue the cut. Saw with slow, steady strob using the full length of the Made; mpwition the workpiece on the sawhorses as necessary.
  24. 24. Ripping a short board Secure the workpiece vertically in a vke with the cutting line extending from the vise; this will keep the workpiece from rattling and the saw blade from binding. Start the cut normafly, using your free hand to steady the piece once the blade is completely in the kerf. To minimize tearout, straighten the blade until it is nearly perpendicular to the face as you near the end of the cut. CROSSCUTTING Cutting a board to length Clamp the workpiece to sawhorses. Start the operation as 5, you would a rip cut (page 3 ) then lower the saw to an angle of about 45" once the kerf is deep enough. Saw slowly and steadily with the full length of the blade. To prevent the waste piece from tearing the wood as you complete the cut, support the waste with your free hand while raising the angle of the blade until it is almost vertical. Crosscutting a wide panel Set the panel on a work surface with the cutting line extending off the table. To help you keep the saw blade vertical and prevent it from veering off-line during the cut, clamp a board as a edge guide to the workpiece on the god side of the cutting line. The guide should be longer than the width of the panel and square with its edges. Set up the clamps so that they will not interfere with the saw as you make the cut. Saw through the panel as you would a standard crosscut, keeping the blade flush against the guide throughout the operation (above).
  25. 25. m I S Nr n . O m J' # 6 The shopbuilt jigs s o n at right and hw below wirl ensure that your crosscuts are square; each is designed for use with a different vork sf w*on Fer the bench hook jig. Wght)), rvae l/z-inch plyllNoOd for the aige guide and strip of 2-by-2 stock for the lips. Make the edge guide at least as long as the width 5 your workpiece and f wide enough to support it. Screw the tips to the guide, attachiq one to each fa=, Take care to aiign the lips flush with 6pposite ends of the guide. To 'ow the jig, butt am lip against the edge of ymr bench and press the w w k p i i firmly against the othet lip. Align the cutting line with the edge of theg;uideand make the cut, keeping .. I - w':.!$ :,I- , , , i I" :s4 i-: ' : 1
  26. 26. ,-+: , ' 4 +.*, :;-4 .I.- >. - ;:. .. . , 8 yt 'b: , , r, ' .. 1 . I.:' r7!*:;,j.- 1 4= 7h,%'sf ,y; 1. .T HANDSAWS : , , - . , ;.-;,4j , . . ,J,; 8 I . I #ZING BOARD I
  27. 27. ANGLE CUTS Cutting a miter If you are using the type of miter box shown, screw its legs to a 3/'-inch plywood base and secure the base to a work surface. Then loosen the locking knob and swivel the saw assembly until the pointer indicates the miter angle you need. Tighten the knob. Raise the saw assembly on the guide posts high enough to slip the workpiece under the blade and set it on the base of the miter box. Align the cutting line with the blade and butt the workpiece against the fence, then lower the blade onto the wkpiece. Holding the stock firmly in position, tilt the handle-end of the saw assembly down slightly, then start the cut by pulling the assembly toward you a few times. Continue the cut with steady push and pull strokes, gradually raising the handle until the blade is horizontal (right). I
  28. 28. 1 1 > , " & , MlTER BOX . >. S-tart by cutting three 15ind-i1l&gp ' m of hardwad for the and ,: '.t t h front and back pieces. Wake ~ the base wjde enough for the st&& you will be sawing, ayd cut a plyMZod beck-up board to pr&tect'he --' base. Rip the fmnt and back pieces so that'the depth of the b ~ will bex Y inch less than the width of you; 2 backsa#r blade-fim its t e e t ~ o n g t' bettorn of the spine. Gut the front' -p i e r 1 inch wider than thi! ba2k- ; - : v2. piece to form a li~, %rew th&front 1 rr and beick pieces to the b a s e ' s b ~.- ~ of the box wei IeNl.$ ; -& ; . ination square to rnatlj. GUM@ fOT the slots on the top " ' liiles ofth he^. LayWd9OQarrgle: ' slot 2 inches from one end, i h d a , a backsaw, 46O angle slot 2 inches from the to either s of the cutti i b other Bhd. Ou'Yiihea ~ ~ d . 4 5 * , s i o 3 guide the Made, - t in the opposite d i r e c t i o f l $ e ~ n ~ G . i To use the box, secure thefi.rsttwoslots.Cutt'hesl~t~'w~~~~ arise,thenset thewr@Weon _ , 1 'I.- :, - 1 6 SHOP TIP P r Q t e d q e a w b U ~
  29. 29. ADVANCED CUTS sawing be done with handsaws. Cutting an Some standardtasks cannotworkpiece intricatecurve or trimming a flush with an adioinine surface, for example, demands spe2dty saws lk ie those shown on the following pages. Gentle curves and rectangular interior cuts can be made with a compass saw. Tighter contours, however, require a saw with the thinnest of blades, held under tension to prevent it from bendingand breaking. Bowsaws and coping saws are types of frame saws capable of cutting complicated curves while leaving a narrow kerf. Both feature blades that can be rotated in the frame for cuts that are deeper than the throat of the saw. They can also be used on either the push or pull stroke. If you are cutting a workpiece that is facedown, mount the blade with the teeth facing the handle and cut on the pull stroke. If the workpiece is clampedend-up, install the blade with the teeth facing away from the handle and cut on the push stroke. Japanese sa&s are particularly well suited to many kinds of intricate cuts. The main of the double-edged ryoba s wfor cuttinga notch, for exama ple, is that the same tool can be used to make the crosscut and the rip cut (page 47). Because they cut on the pull stroke, Japanesesaw blades can be exceptionally thin and l&t, so they &through wovrqikyMnwsenDd odeyucl.ayetrWOThe detachable blade of a coping saw is thin enough to follow the most intricate curve. workers keep one or more in their tool chests because the Oriental tools sometimes are convenient to use in situations where a Western-style saw might prove clumsy.
  30. 30. HANDSAWS MAKING INTERIOR CUTS 2 Cuuingm~ Saw to one of the cutting lines, then follow the marks, continuing until you reach your starting point and the waste piece falls away. Use smooth and gentle strokes, biting into the wood when pushing the saw forward. Once the first cut is completed, remove the blade from the saw and cut away the remaining waste pieces the same way (right). To align the blade teeth for tight curves, rotate the blade in the frame by turning the fittings at either end of the frame.
  31. 31. HANDSAWS ~hlke s q u a d g 4 interior cut usiq a a compass saw. SC the ~ ~ ~ k p i a x gm in a vise and bare a hale iat each corner of the waste section wide enough to aocommodate Wtipefwblads. Sewv along Uw mwkd outline with slow and steady strokes. If newsmy, clean up the corners with a chisel. 1 . . i . . . - . . ,, 8 .! , 8 ' , . . .. . , .. - . ' .- ., .. I . , . . ... ~_ I _
  33. 33. 1 Coping contoured molding Rather than using 45" mitered corners to fit molding, use a coped cut to make a precise joint. First cut the end of the molding at a 45" angle with a backsaw and miter box (page 39);this will reveal a contour line on the face of the molding that you can follow with a coping saw. To make the coped cut, clamp the molding face-up on a work table, protecting the workpiece with a wood pad. Install a narrow blade on the coping saw, making sure that the teeth are facing the handle. Cut along the contour line carefully with the saw blade held perfectly upright (left), biting into the wood on the upstroke. If the blade binds in the kerf, make occasional release cuts into the end grain of the waste to let small pieces fall away. 2 f i i n g the coped molding in place Position.the coped end against the face of the matching piece (right); the fit should be perfect. Reshape any slight irregularities with a round file or fine sandpaper wrapped around a dowel. For the baseboard molding shown, fix the pieces to the wall with finishing nails. Set the nail heads below the surface using a nail set, then conceal them by rubbing the indentations with a wax stick.
  34. 34. USING A JAPANESE MMBUIATION SAW 1 Making a crosscut A combination saw such as a ryoba can both rip and crosscut-ideal if you are performing a task such as cutting a notch. To make the cut, secure your workpiece edge-up in a vise and butt the saw's crosscut teeth against the cutting line. Saw slowly at first, then continue with firmer strokes using the full length of the saw (right). Exert more pressure on the pull stroke and keep the blade upright throughout the operation. Do not allow the rip teeth on the other side of the blade to enter the kerf; their wider set wouldcause the blade to bind. If the cut is deeper than the width of the saw, make an occasional rip cut t& remove the waste piece befare continuing with the crosscut
  35. 35. HANDSAW JOINERY A v A I- M my woodworkers instinctively of theirjoints. And wie is hl turntopowertoohtocutmost it true that, quipped with the proper jig, a router or a table saw can churn out joints by the dozen with unrivaleddkkncy, Jivejoints cut with handsmvs: (Qch*isr fmm bottom left) a miter-adspline, a dish, a k g h dovetail, af o u r - s h o w mortiseand-tenon, and a &bet aprrwea~todkeJscessivc.Pormampk * bm~and~thana~asda i % . €wmg*tsbyh;mdoffersd- 2~ WlTM@ TENON 8 cwttiw the cw q theb~foras~dmmreaa prsbabb be cut more qutcMy with a handtooJsoffatheirownadvan sometimes tix txt-up time 1 1 t i *arvrd mm ~.ecd~*I'mo~p* m- s a w r w ~ l ~ ~ t l Z B ~ ~ l i i % @
  36. 36. a rn rn HANDSAWS J 2 rn m mtbsrhoTo remove the waste fnrm the tenan cheek, c h p the workpiece in a mitar bwith the shuMer mark aligneel with tta~~.Cuta~ngthestwidslir* onthefacerrfthestock fr&ht%tumthe w x k p k c e a a m d ~ t h r ~ onttw~side. m m m b rn rn rn m rn 1 3 oathe~oftbstmBa To complete the tenon, secure the workpiece upright in the vise and cut the side8 of the t m n , stopping at the line. Then, with the piece the dse, WBIQ~$ the shoulder line on the edge of the stek to the tenan. Finally, turn tha tward o w in the vim and m m mpmttowmu~rythezrrarrtaoathe 8 Qtheredgeofthe~ (mu" m a m Cultillp: away Um waste 49
  37. 37. HANDSAWS CUTTING A THROUGH DOVETAIL 1 Marking tho pins Outline the pins for the joint, as shown in the diagram below. Mark the outside face of each workpiece with a big XI then set a cutting gauge to the thickness of the stock and scribe a line along the ends of both boards to mark the shoulder of the pins and tails. Next use a dovetail square to outline the pins on the end of one board. Start with half-pins at each edge, making sure that the narrow ends of the pins are on the outside face of the board. Mark the waste sections adjacent to the half-pins, then draw the center of the board end. Outline a pin at the tenter line, then mark the remainder of the pins in between (ri&t), spacing them evenly. Use a combination square to extend the pin marks to the shoulder lines. 2 %cum QdlhrgfiLyJln the pi11 bawd in a visb with its outsIda facer t d you. Use a M a i l saw to cut dong the uald~~al't$W (Some d w k m cut the lefthand dm first, then m m on b the: right-hand edges.) For eaeh cut, align tha blah just Po the w e e s i b o f srarmBe~mttrepush~ f. - Gni n swing to tha shwldw e fE m line, naakhg swa tM the blade is perpenQiular ta the line.
  38. 38. HANDSAWS
  39. 39. HANDSAWS CUTTING A MITER-ANDSPUNE JOINT 1 Cutting the grooves Cut bevels at the ends of the boards to be joined and glue up the corner, then secure the workpiece in a vise as shown. Scribe a line along the outside faces of both boards with a cutting gauge to mark the depth of the splines, which should be slightly less than the thickness of the joint. Use a dozuki saw to cut grooves into the joint for the splines, spacing the cuts about 1inch apart. (A backsaw will also work well, but its wider kerf means that you will have to cut thicker splines.) Saw smoothly and evenly, allowing the blade to cut on the pull stroke. Continue to the spline depth line, making sure that the blade is perpendicular (left). nthgmmes, FwmerrcilmzlMPblR)~th@eD71jn dtb@hsrm9tcmgWrkmga&p. SpPred i ltl glue l ite insert the splines lo thm rrdr f&hU. me a k w b s a of the I d W w and m l l , m making a Md jcziitt. i *tqreti#w&s*
  40. 40. HANDSAWS CUlllWG DADOES SAWING RABBETS and^ Outline the rabbet on the end of the workpiece, then use a backsaw to cut it. Clamp the stock face-up on a work surface, protecting the workpiece with a wood pad. Align the pad with the cuttiq line to guide the saw and make a crosscut for the depth of the rabbet ( a h ) . Keep the saw perpendicular to the board face, taking care to stop when the blade reaches the rabbet width line. You can d o clamp a bpth atop to the s blade to control the depth of the cut (&ep a h ) . To complete the rabbet, secure the workpiece end-up in a vim and cut off the waste (rkht).
  41. 41. CHISELS AND BORING TOOLS T I he wood chisel is one of woodhard use; the entire tool must be well worlang's indqmsable took. This balanced-easy to hold and easy to is no wonder: Although saws, drills, guide. When shoppingfor a chisel, displanes, and other tools have been cuss your needs with dealers and other motorid su-fully, no suitable subwoodworkers. Look for high-quality stitute has been found for the simplesteel, a well-fitted handle, and a blade and versatile-wood chisel. &ong that is finely finished top and bottom. enough to withstand the forceful blows Also chedc that the back of the chisel of a mallet and hog out great quantities blade is perfectly tlat, particularly just of waste wood, the ordinary chisel is behind the cutting edge. A flat back is also light and well-s that seno essential when you are using the chisel sitive hands can use it to impart the for par& as it provides an even beanng most precise shapes. surface that increases accuracy. An old When the table saw is turned off and chisel may be pitted with rust,but it can the whine of router and drill ceases, still give adequate service once it has the chisel is put to work squaring corbeen reground. ners, trimming tenons, smoothing Electric motors now power the drills Mounted in a brace, an auger bit bores curves, and trueing dovetails. The variand other boring devices in most worka hole through a block of hardwood. eties of chisels and some of the techshops. Nevertheless, most woodworkAligning the bit uver thegap between niques for using them for a number of ers still keep a brace, hand drill, and the workbench and the visepermits woodworkipg tasks are explained in push d i l handy, for these hand tools rl the hole to be drilled without the following pages. have unique abilities not readdy duplimarring the bench top. The results you obtain at the workcated by power tools, especially workbench willbe strongly influenced by the ing in tight quarters or when precise quality of your chisels and the keenness of their blades. Time control of a hole's depth is required. Some of the tools and invested in learning and using sharpeningskills (page 65) will their uses are detailed starting on page 70. help produce superior work. Invest also in good-qualitytools. Although new hand tools sometimesc a t as much as their Naturally, strength is one requirement. The steel must also electric counterparts,good used hand to& are more &rdtake and maintain a sharp edge; the handle must withstand able. They deserve a place in every d-quipped tool chest. A paring chisel shaves away a sliver ofwastefim one side of a dovetail The skew chisels on the workbench are used to trim waste to the shoulder line.
  43. 43. u CHISELS AND BOIUNG TOOLS rn m m m rn m m a m a m rn STORING CHISELS rn m rn in r vaf~ktysZwkWbfitanyti~ sjas,~m~b~sWrwr inaiMualtymin sets of Hm or ten. m rn chissl~andrtka(s:~(oldrs tnmrtheharrQ;k. a m b 57
  44. 44. ANATOMY OF A CHISEL blade is attached handle in one of two A chiselstyle featwesways. to itsmore The a narrow metcommon al tang that is driven into a wooden handle or molded into a plastic one. A different construction features a hollow socket that holds the handle. The blade itself may be straightsided or beveled on its upper face. While reducing the tool's strength, the bevel enables the cutting edge to get into corners and restricted spaces. Because bevel-edged chisels are com- fortable to use with hand pressure, they rank among the cabinetmaker's favorite hand tools. Chisels flinto three basic categories i l depending on the blade type. Firmer chisels are durable tools that can be struck with a mallet. They have heavy bolsters,necks, and cuttingedges, along with tough handles s u p p o d by a meteSome al M . models include leather washem, one just below the ferrule and another on the head of the handle, to cushion the impact of mallet blows. Mortise chisels are like h e r chisels but with thicker blades. The handles usually feature a f d e at both the top and the bottom. Finally, there are paring chisels, relatively delicate tools with long, thin, beveled blades, and fine wooden handles not meant to be struck with mallets. Woods like ebony, rosewood, and hickory were once used for chisel handles, but have been replaced mostly by beech and boxwood.
  45. 45. BASIC CHISELING other A lthoughitsthe ischisel, like inflict hand tools, a relatively safe instrument, sharp edge can . Chisels are usually used with the beveledfarje up. However, certain operations may produce better d t s with A fewsafety reminders Use only sharp chisels.A tool wt a well-honed ih blade can slice throughwood with ease; thebladebevel-down.Insomecases, adullblacleforcesyoutoexerttoomuch working w t the bevel down will pre- premm+a recipe for error and injury. ih vent the cuttingedge h m dqjging into Always work with .the blade cutting awlyfromy0~ the wood. serious injury--or destroy a workpiece-unless its user adopts a few simple techniques. Ahvays maintain a balanced, stable pasturewhen cutting; that way, a slip will not lead to an uncontrolled cut. Ahvays damp pour workpiece, and keep both hands behind the cutting edge. When paring thin slivers of wood, use both hands: one on the tool handle to exert pressure and the other on the blade to guide the cut. As shown in the photo at right, butting your blade-hand against the edge of the workpiece enables you to push with as much force as necessary without exposing the hand to the cutting edge of the blade. When you strike a chisel with a mallet, hold both tools firmly, taking care to grip the chisel down from the end of the handle. In general, use a mallet with a chisel to cut away large amounts of waste wood; paring is usually sufficient for trimming or clean- The mnk-&paring chisel if the ided rool&r wttbgthe b d t m tfa dado ko aunt~~ThetooPsqffjethandleaUowsthebiLuien~mirejJat&~t ing up saw cuts. Asthefollavingpagesill~the ~ ~ w ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ , a f t h e c u t e x c e s d s t h e ~ c l J f d angle at which you hold a chisel determines the kind of cut you will m k . ae For aggressive removal of waste, hold the blade perpendicular to the rmrface. Paring, on the other hand, works best with the blade parallelto the surface; try to shear away waste in thin shavin rather than w t one mighty cut. ih k*ymd==hWaare with the grain of the wood. Working @stthepincanmriLeitdif&ult to cut in a straight line; the blade will tendtodiveintothemod,~in split wood fibcrs and mugh edges. CUE off flrig8m and wi' a IWg machine oil on %heir inside ~urFace6 keep t e chiti$l blade fPom ruqting. tO Slipa flrrger m r tach blade arid eecurc:the .leather ~ i h ~ s t h eplace with an elastic band. in R"
  46. 46. CHISELS AND BORING T K C3 U 1Removing rise the waste Secure the workpiece edge-up in a and saw a kerf into the edge of the itock to define the q d of the notch. Stop he kerf at the cuttitig line on the face of the board; the kerf will sever the wood fiben at the end of the notch, making it possible to shear away the waste with a chisel without splinteringthe wood. Using a firmer chisel about as wide as the thickness o the workpiece, butt the tip of the f blade against the end of the h r d about '/e inch below the top edge. Hold the blade bevel-up and parallel to the edge of the workpiece and strike the handle firrnly with a wooden mallet (left), cutting off a thin layer of waste to the saw kerf. Continue slicing away the waste in this h fashion until you are about ? inch above the cutting line on the board face. :*<,'Ig,,$, .-:--, , , : ;frJq, <* C L:. 'h l k r m. . A A fin%, Final Ilarfl With the m r k p b still in the vim, shmr~th8~n~WslSfewjth.the i i chisel or r paring chissl. Presg thk?~sCdeafthebhdeaepinstthebottQfnobthenotch,Wngthedbl himdle with your right hand and the b l a h betwen the thumb and fingers of yaur lefthand. R~theMexfihlgerofyourleft ' hand against the grid of the workpiwe to pretect the hand from the tip o#the biarde. Pmh the ohisel toward the s w a kerf (rQ-hU,shaving away the last slWs ofwmtetatheeuttjngline. IfthebEadc @ ~ h ~ ~ t h e ~ o a d f k ~ , ~ t k e & t i q dgf~ tbnruph the vvroscl by maring ~hm$lsfmmsideBosWie~Le~ 2 iw -- i ,- -
  47. 47. * CHISELS AND BORING TOOLS -parSr ToshavaamywastGfmawwthlsurface, w h as the shmJdms 6f a t m n , clamp the w;orkpkte to a I@ strrfaw, Hoidi~thekMede chi with yew fL&hfhand* the thumb of yaw IMthgnd to but4 theltiatddeofthe blade ~ i a sthe term shouldax, Rest t t h e f i ~ c r f ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ n the h d . Leaning o the -piece w and ksepiq paolr arm b W in pmih,, slice a m w d h o f w a @ e a t rthe v yn (MI, exerting g e s r b# W w ywr nsue u p ( w r . ~ ~ t h m ~ a ~ m k i a Once you reach the $ding line, turn the warkpW over and repeat on the ofther;sidedthstanan. . I Keep ywr chisrelo organized and in full view in a shop-made wall rack. Build t&e rack f m three strips: the back piece should .be longer than the others $a its ends can be screwed to the wall; make the mjddle piece twice as wide as the outside pieces. Cut slats for your drivels elmgthe edges of the middle piece. The slats should be a b u t V2 inch deep and slightly wi&r than your c h i d blades. Glue the three piece together and mount the rack on a wall as you would a screwdriver rack (page 121). I
  50. 50. CHISELS A N D BORING TOOLS TRIMMING IN RESTRICTED SPACES m w r - Uwa~cMaeltDMrnaswfaceinsr ti&spat#atasb&rdchis;elisunable tanrach,suchastheinsidecomerofa drawer, Wure tks &mar in a vise and hald the chisel in the d r a w berm1 up, caresing! the b M e flat and guiding it with yaur kft h a d . Push ttre chisel t d the casm lightly to trim the surFactb ~&?wI* @you mad t smoo& .the o betzomdadacto,Isutdo S &>.. im ravlae a , h I t i h a 6 & m e lob; R W$ a ~ihrpmitq guids, mlmtwel $ha 651W on the jaw wrk;piw wqainei; %hedado tQ b p y m r mmksshIfZ; h F . 7km dvmm the &iwl along the cksmrscl. h~lalw ~lpyly it; LHSH *he &u*-- . eEng adae . m F @eugi@ theb-rn
  51. 51. SHARPENING A CHISEL 1---@@ Sharpening a chisel black involves two steps: honing a m m l i w y bevel on the fonvard edge of @ existing bevelcalled a mhbeueCChenremovingthe resulting bun: To form the microhevel, lay a combinarim stone mam side up and nail cleats to the work surface to kmp tkestone from moving. Saturate the stone with the appropriate lubrkant--either water o a light oil--until it pools on the r surface. Start by haldingthe bt- with the existing bevel flat & the &me; then rake it about 5' and slide the cutting edge on the stone with long, elliptical passes (left). Apply moderate pressure until a microbevel forms (inset). Turn the stone obnrtomkeafew passson the fineside. To remove the burr that f m .on the flat side of the blade+ prw%ss woodw k call 'lapping' the b rm u ~ the stme once again. bloldiw the c h i d blade flat on the fine side of the stme, bgviel side up, mit in a cimula# pattern (r@f) until the flat sidar of t b cutting edge is smooth & the touch. A few strokes stveuld suffice. ~ e
  52. 52. CHISEL JOINERY lthough modern machinery may Arole inrelegatedjoint-making aoperahave the chisel to backup many tions, ti particular hand tool remains hs indispensable for cutting the finishing touches on joints. Two everyday examples are cleaning out the comers of a router-cut blind dado and shaving away the last slivers of waste from dovetails cut by a saw. A chisel is also a good choice for chopping out mortises, particularly when only a few joints are involved. For small jobs, the speed of power tools is usually offset by setup time. It is faster .to hand-cut the mortises for one table, for example, than to set up a mortising attachment on a drill press. There is no single correct sequence in chiseling a mortise. Some wood- HAND-CUTllNG A MORTISE 1 Chopping the mortise Clamp your stock to a work surface. / Then, starting about I. inch inside the cutting line at one end of the outline, hold a mortise chisel vertically and strike it with a wooden mallet, making a cut that is about 1/4 inch deep. Use a chisel the same width as the mortise and be sure that the beveled face of the blade is fac/ ing the waste. Then make another cut l4 inch from the first (right) and lever out the waste (step 2). With its 90" angled cutting edge, a comer chisel squares the comers ofa mortise cut by a router. workers prefer to start their cuts in the middle of the mortise outline and work toward the ends. You can just as easily start at one end and proceed to the other, as shownbelow. One requireme@that does not vary, however, is using the correct tool for each stage of the operation. A mortise chisel will cut a cavity with cleaner edges than either a h m r or ordinary beveledged chisel,and a swan-neckchisel s m iplifies dean-up of the cavity. A comer chiselisusefulforsquaringmortisecorners cut by a router. The dado is another joint that can be chiseledekthdy. The technique shown on page 6 8 4 m h q off the waste wood in a series of thin layers-may seem relatively time-consuming,but the resulting channel will be square and clean.
  53. 53. I CHISELS AND BONN( Levering out tho waste With the blade wedged in the cut, tilt the handle down toward the uncut portion of the outline. The tip of the blade will dig in under the waste wood and sever it from the bottom of the mortise. Continue making a cut every l4 inch as in step 1and / levering out the waste (right). When you are '/8 inch from the other end of the outline, turn the chisel around so the bevel faces in the opposite direction. Make a cut and lever out the waste. Repeat the process until you reach the desired depth of the mortise. 2 3 I. . SMolmiRg.*-ad~ the ends of the mortise Use a lock mortise chisedelw called a swan-neck chisel-the s m width as the mortise to smooth the bottom d the cavity. Holdingthe rounded back face of the blade w i n s t one end of the mortise, push the chisel toward the other end ( l a . The tip of the black will =ape along the bottom of the W e shaving df waste i , s and leavingthe surface smooth and even. For a long martise, repeat from the other end. Trim the ends of the cavity with the same mortising chisel used to chop out the mortise. With a mortise chisel held . vertically, pare away the %-inch-wide waste sections at e i t b end d the mortise. This time, align the chisel blade with the cut;tirrg marks at the ends of the outline and pare Q the line.
  54. 54. a - CHISELS AWD BORING TOOLS m I CHISELING A DADO hnavkkanrdcut the edges of the dado ta tlla deired de@hmithabdaw,~wsingrbvd4ged chitel M y tmmw than the dado, mmwo the wastrj Mith o series of shallwv cuts that ~ M an inverted V at B ther b tm tlle Qt of F ~ . ~ t h ~sathatone.siQ~~instoneof the saw cuts md shwe Qff thin layers af wash stopping habay ahtq the &annel. Angling the aub, mtintm shavina m y the waste in th& fashion until the lower edge of the blade reaches the bt- t o m d ~ ~ ~ ~ OWd oftha e h r d (lW,then turn Js the workpiem wwnb and repeat to clear the!was$frnthe*Wf a thin layer of waste IrigM, stopping about halfway along the d&. Continue until you reach the the baftbm of the dado, making the final oass with the chisel blade flat. -- . . .- - - .- - against the bottom. Turn the w r k p i m wound and repeat fw the other half. 1 e ~ m
  56. 56. A BATTERY OF TOOLS FOR BORING m rn 1'm chuck and h & b on it^ ~ana**hotfion U I O I ~ ~ * * I J m m . L I mr I '4 m I U i q p h d I s d gimlat I t a thdd Up bm u small-dlamcter starting or pilot h o b for nalls and scmm ddlls deeper hoke than 6w stspW c PLndtxwmm&k B wu-i~rtk o w hob; f a m mune@ a km?&?k kV$ mma k t td IS 13rcacncf&n bn& ;V D
  57. 57. - CHIBU AND BOrnGTOOU m c . -. .L. 1 ' - RANGE OF BRACE AND D Countemink Mt Used with hand k a c e madI&waJma in tapmd f o m ibr ma r/u t n/w inch in diameter a w-wtw'/a to 1 inch In diamb& h u b from gihabw h o b h m V i and 2 % inchm irr diarnutw t5mwv&wMt A flat-tip blt ueed with a brace to driw dot-head screw; ueuslly available in ='/B- to g/,-inc), blade width ha5 s short brad lead anal spurs. Available wEh fitraight or tapered ehank t o fit in hand drill w brau TWf& d M An all-purpoee drill W h a stmight shank t h a t only fits in threejaw drjll chuck@; bores h o b from Y i to 'zinch in diammr d - .. -I
  58. 58. BORING TOOLS the electric drill and t dsill bits up to Ih inch in diameter. For largh pas, craftsmen used braces d er holes, from Y2 to 3i d e s in diamehand to bore holes in wmd. ter,use a brace fitted wt an auger bit, ih Like their electric counterparts, t h e expansive bit, or a center bit Auger bits traditional hand tools accept a vari- are your best choice for boring deep ety of bits to drill holes of different holes as they are e;yy to keep centered. type and diameter. The solid-centerbit is the stronger of Bits for braces and hand drills are the twu auger style and is the preferred not interchangeable. As shown on the type for longer bits. Brace bits freprevious page, brace bits featwe quently have lead sr~ews, which m k s ae square, tapered tangs that mate with them self-starting. If you are wing a i the two-jaw chuck of a brace. The bit with no lead screw, bore a small three-jaw chuck of a hand drill accepts starting hole with a gimlet or a sr cm only straight-shaft bits. Hand drills starter to keep the bit from slipping. frequently come with a set of driU You can use either a hand drill or points, which are stored in the handle. brace to bore holes for saws,dependPush drills, a type of hand drill used ing on the gauge of the screw. A comto bore very small holes, can only use mon sequence is to start with a notched drill points held in the chuck counterbore hole dried with a bra ' bv a bd-bearing mechanism. point bit, then continue w t a han, ih ' ' bore a fuii ranee of holes vou 5 driU and drill point to bore clearance neGb~thtypesoft&ls.~sir~liOf holes. The pilot hole is bored next,and thumb, drill holes up to Y.4 inch in a brace and screwdriver bit can then be Fitted with a countersink bit, a diameter with either push drill and used to drive the screw. Countersink had brill widens the mouth of a drill point, or a hand drill fitted with holes can be drilled using a brace or pilot hole to allow the screw ?md a twist bit, drill point, or brad-point hand driU fitted with a countersinkbit, bit. The hand drill can be fitted with o with a hand co r to be &push with bte wjkz B dore drills J - a MAKING STARTING HOLES wad- Mold the workp'm s&& on a flat &rface md Sgt the tip of a gimlet on ,the m k e d poht for the M e . &mithe gimM into the woed and rotate it to b e a mlH i n g l Imt). sum to kwp Bs the -1 vertical ti~roPlghaut oparation. the To bwer your hole, d Wn tip of a drill ar brace bit in thh stwting hde. rn I I II
  59. 59. CHISELS AND BORING TOOLS BORLWG H I W WITH A BRACE AND BIT 1 SHOP TIP piece &en resultti in splinaring on the opposite face. One solution is t o atop boring just as the tip of the bit's lead screw emerges. Then turn the workpicce over, setsthebit in the small o cning pierced by Zht;he lead screw and nish hritling %6ehole. A back-up bfock clamped %o the tp.dtom of the p i d ~ e 2 1 0 WHI 9 6 reduce the chanoe o f aplintcring. 4
  60. 60. CHIS@ AND BORING TOOIS -- f r) Boring the hole / Clamp the work to the bench on a piece of scrap wood. With the head cupped securely in one hand, grip the handle of the brace firmly and set the tip of the bit on the mark of the hole to be bored, or into the starting hole. Crank the handle clockwise to bore the hole, applying downward pressure on the head of the brace (above). For greater power, set the brace head against your forehead or chest, and bear down on the workpiece. To ensure that the brace is vertical when you bore, you may set a try square beside the bit when you work and Ltaeg, # e ~ 4 0 a l s ~ e L -
  61. 61. CHISELS AND BORING TOOLS BORING WIDE HOLES 1 Selting up an expansive bt i To adjust the bit to bore a hole of the appropriate diameter, loosen the setscrew on the back of the bit and turn the dial on the front until the correct increment on the cutter's ruler lines up with the gauge line. To check the adjustment, use a ruler; the distance between the spur on the cutter and the center of the bit's lead screw will equal the radius of the hole (right). Tighten the setscrew and recheck the adjustment.
  62. 62. * CHISELS AND BORING TOOLS rn HOLES FOR SCREWS AND PLUGS DRIVING SCREWS 1 WngacbanwRdo Clamp the workpiece to a work surface, setting a support board under it to prevent splintering. Fit a hand drill with a Ruted bit slightly smalter than the screw shank. Press down on the drill's top handle with your thumb and turn the crank handle to bore the hole (above), This depth should equal the length of the screw collar. Be wre to keep the drill perfectly square to the workpiece throughout the operation. 2 ~ a ~ b d r Once all the clegrzmce holes h w been drilled, bore ttte as countersinks. Holdinga hanrJ oounmink firmly* set the tip in o a clewanca h k (abmJand Mit bM e n the mouth of the hole. The countmink rn hsciw head and its depth 8 w h heiad; test for fit with the senwv bad. rn m '~ +m . I
  63. 63. l i .-';;;,? ? .: ' C , , -. :is-5k*e: -+% k q hy y*.p,. 7 . :: , -.;;. . 2 .'*-, * =-,.a ; . ; * i = * ; ; . , , . . : : . . !. .:, : . : , *.. - a - .-mL + 8 CHISELS AND BORING TOOLS Drilling a pilot hole Remove the clamps, put the support board aside, align the workpiems to be fastened together and clamp them. (ln the illustration,a drawer front is being attached to a false front.) F i t a push drill with a fluted bit of a diameter slightly smaller than the screw threads and bore th of the threads 3 tab^,; 4 e r DrivingIhescrew Setthesaewintheholebyhand,~W& bt in the h @ g Fit the bit inSR t smw i ~ h tob#r,abk,cwalc
  64. 64. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS .. " I t is hard to imagine building work, you will need three of the basic even the simplest piece of furbench planes illustrated on page 82: a niture without using such tools as smoothing plane for surfacing faces hand planes, scrapers, files, and and edges, a jokting plane for straightrasps. In fact, most woodworkening out long& boards, and a block ers-even those with a full complane for smoothing end grain. b batplement of power tools-rely on tery of specially designed planes wl il these smoothing tools at different make more advanced work possible stages of their projects, from the from beveling panel edges to cutting coarse removal of stock to final dadoes aqd grooves. The combination shaping of decorative details. 981, a forerunner of the plane The range of these tools is as , electric-powered router, comes with a varied as the tasks they are called wide range of interchangeable cutters upon to perform. Surface-forming or cut that enable it to shape nbl* A shooting board holds the mitered end tools, such as files and rasps, give tongues and matching grooves. initial shape to rough blanks. An of a piece of molding square to the sole ofa Bench planes are available in two block plane. Such shop-made jigs extend inshave is unsurpassed for holconfigurations, $t~tcbbdied planes are the versatility of hand planes, letting them lowing out the surface of a panelthe modern standard: solid, accurate, smooth end grain with little risk of tearout. a chair seat, for example. A spokeand comfortable to use. Wooden planes ' shave can help transform a block are still p r k d by many woodworkers. of hardwood into an elegant item such as a cabriole leg. Although they are built of an agrtkld material?today's woodA drawknife will debark a log or shape a chair leg. For fine en planes have a modem blade adjustment Wat rnakesthqn work, there is an equally impressive array of shaping tools, every bit as accurate and easy to use as their,,steelcQpterincluding rifflers, needle rasps, and needle files, to add the parts-while imparting a measure of c w comfoft that finishing touches to a contoured surface, like the foot of a their users claim is unattainable w t ; ~ l other tool. With ih p Queen Anne leg. A hand scraper is invaluable for smooth- a good plane blade and cap iron along $&a.blo& of harding or for clearing away dried adhesive after glue-up. wood, you can build your own p l d in w o p age 941, Planes are most often used to joint faces and edges pric~eating tool that w q smooth as fhi$gond acagately as a or to glue-up or to prepare surfaces for a finish. For most any store-bought mod61 Vv (pke '
  65. 65. ANATOMIES OF TWO BENCH PLANES rn&-BODtED SMOQTIIMLB M Smooths faces a d edge6 w'm-kkde to cliep i m 5wum E %w a r w p i n p k e H afw a d adJu5tegap k w m w ~ %he M d ' cucffng gadp md Ms a es end of the Iron; €wa a d b U ti ckattcr, set gap 0% m imh Vi t;o pmpaw w d ~urFace6; a typblly 9 1/2 Inches long m LaHwaf*.ka&h C e m m & M e Irr much of 5- th8 cutting depth of the blade; a Ysz inch dapUl I5 ideal for most operations r r I I foak b k w or n t m w h g w m t f mouth sp""Im; sBi~)(1I$ be ~ W O & that *)36 @ 1 5 k i a m n 'ha d I e mh /-" * / - Mom - birds Also known ae plane Iron: in@$alldbe~el down on frog. Far bad tw@uIte,I should t k r @ pr&rlrude from mouth m rn m m
  66. 66. . I SMOOTHING AND SHAPiNG TOOLS ral &just,Jnplace Wtic3nal woodmplanes i k m p a t e a simple but~myof~trgtheBW~dqth~f cut T o i t t c l . e w s e t h e ~ q f a r t ~ q p t h e wpda*.*ansnrMsk,~~-T~g ~e~tnJtrmm~opofflD&pkWiu k-*~#alarr Cutting depth ~ustrnsntbcm Intarlock6 wfth cap iron to hold blade, cap iron. and lafar- I Locking aanr Holds blade assem- b!v in place and m applie's tension 50's Mouth'
  67. 67. PLANES
  68. 68. plane must be A adjustedasthinsharp and properly to shear off shavings of as paper-with no wood-often tearout. Before using a new plane you kedequipment,H ~ c a n b e ~ m p l i s h a i d ac o ~ i n a t i o n ~ stom and a c o d honing guide, Adjustinga @me's deptfi of cut mquim will have to sharpenthe blade and adjust onlyasmd&ex.Tbesdeofawood- the tool for top performance. The procedure involves two steps: creating a bevel on the blade's cutting edge and honing another bevel on part of the first one, called a microbevel; then removing, or "lapping," the burr that results from the honing process. If the cutting edge is damaged in any way, or if you are trying to restore an old blade, you first need to square its end. As shown in the photo at right, a grinder hs is the best tool to use for ti purpose. Whether you work with steel-bodied or wooden planes, setting them up requires very little in the way of special- en plane becomes ~faturally wt slick ih use; hmnrbbingalirdepatewax on the bottom of a plane will reduce friction. Hone your b l a b frequently to maintainahdgedehvolyasretrad them into the plane &er u9e. Store the plane upllght to prmat sole from being harmed by other took A nicked or out+-squane plane Made canbesahwgedby~itsdona @der.Tltep*~~tfreW perpmdidar to thegdd3ngwhed HONING A PLANE BLADE 1~ r bsdaea- ~ @ m l top;Faceuphacmm&al3l0crlnemide set fora3ff h l . Wwtefhe sm t e w M mi oWaapriatEc l u M 4 i l h ~ o r a l i g k STBpadsonWe ~ i ~ wrka npapl, ~tddhg hmbgguide, the slidhthabkkwd'~m~gnd to m ahgtiwstmiMf.&giJiq d the b a I ~ ' l a lPans*
  69. 69. m 2 mmiwe-t b Sht To burr- thin ridge of m W forms 6n the Rat face d the Made as a result of honing the rnicrakvd-+move the blade from the honing guide and saturate the fine side of the stone once again. lidding t;t.Ee h W perfectly flat on the %tone, ~giideup~,mn#weitadrwlar ptbm on the stone until the fiU sidedthecuttingdgeEssmwth.fss;t the sharpness of the cutting edge on a piece of paper; a sharp blade will slice a sliver from the paper's edge. A shop-made hmingJg If you do not own a commm;lal Mfyguide, you ~ s r n still get; good resultti sharpening plane blade6 uelna this simplejig, Slip a +inch-lmg, S/6-inch-QLawter carriage bolt through the blade'ti slut. Fasten wi%h waehers and wing nuts on both sides af the blade. With the blade on the darpening emne and the head of the bolt on your work surface, use a pro%ractorand a slidlng bevel to adjust the wiry nuts 650 that che blade can be slid along the sWnc a t the proper angle. - -
  70. 70. 'SMOOTHING AND SHAPING m U O ADJUSTING A PLANE Podtieningthe blade assembly Position the cap iron on the top face of the blade with the cutting edge of the blade extending about %6 inch beyond the end of the cap iron. Tighten the cap iron screw (above, left). Then place the blade assembly--including the blade, cap iron and l e w c a p j n position on the frog. The gap between the front edge of the blade and the front of the mouth should be 1 between l& and Y6 M. If tfte gap bB wkh w ~ ~ ~ ; o l ~ i u r , 1 fD remove the blade assembly and loman both hqj about l/i turn. Then adjust the frog adjustment sm.w to Set the proper gap (above, right). Tighten the setscrews and reposition the blade assembly on the frog, locking it In place with the cap lock.
  71. 71. BASIC TECHNIQUES H and planing procedures are the same regardless of what type or size of bench plane you use. Guide the tool along the surface by pushing it away from you with smooth, even strokes. (If you are using a Japanese us plane, remember that it c t on the pull, rather than the push, stroke.) Align your shoulder and hip with the plane, and grip the tool with both hands. Cup one hand around the front knob and keep the other at the back--either around the handle or the body. Apply firm, constant pressure with every stroke. To keep the sole of the plane Bao, exert more downward pressure on the front of the tool at the beginning of the stroke and shift the pressure to the rear as you approach the end. Your stock should always be clamped to a work surface. PIANIN6 WITH THE WOOD GRAIN C h d n g tlw dimtian to plane Determine the grain slope by inspecting the surface adjoining the one you are planing. The diagram at right shows several typical grain patterns with arrows indicating the best direction to plane. The direcf tion may be constant from one end o a board to the other (A). Or it may change, requiring that you plane the surface from each end toward the middle (B) o from the r middle toward each end (C). If the grain does not slope at all, you can plane the surface in a single pass from either end (Dl. With irregular grain, guiding the plane at a slight angle to the direction o travf el will help reduce the tearout by shearing the wood+ratherthan tearing it. If you must plane against the grain, set the depth o cut to remove the thinnest f possible shaving. Its blade adjusted to slice oflthe thinnest of shavings, a wooden smoothingphne evens out the surfae ofa workpieca. It is important that you cut with the grain of the w o . You can usually deterod mine the grain direction by running your hand along the board face or edge: The surface will feel smoother when your hand is moving with the grain and rougher when running against it. Another m t o is to make a test cut: ehd The blade will chatter or catch on the wood when it is cuttinn&the grain.
  72. 72. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING 'I'QQU PUNIN6 A FACE 7 - < Secure your stock face up ima m k m surface. Once you haw aridoscl %he planewiththqwoodgrrrjn,w$Wsde on the bowd with the Mde just clerw of one end. To rgmovs stock quickly, plane with smooth, even strokes, angling the tool slightly to the grain (above, to@. To smooth the su'rface, keep the plane parallel to the grain using a series of straight passes that slightly werlap. Examine the shavings as you work and adjust the cuttingdean;rify~1Wafiicut.Keep planing until the surface is s m t h
  73. 73. ; , - ,<,,,r ; ,.-; . . ,,,. ! ,? .; .. . .-.. ... L, - . . ~ ~ ,5?..:-.b:1, J ; ~ q- ,#,,yIk*29,.!. L . ,r L . r . I... : .hr.,..--+. 8 SMOOTHING AND SHAPINGTOOIS : Planing edg - Secure the workpiece edge up in a vise. Guide a jack plane along the edge from one end of the board to the other, keeping the sole straight and flat on the surface (above, top). To help steady the plane, you can press down on the toe withtbttDwibodywr~handsnd
  74. 74. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS the alga of a - G workpiece, we a josnting plane. Its saw to keep the board To long sde. makes it less likely than a jack plane to fdlow the plane along the csdgw3 WnxiwX @king mg?XD.b wn~thaty~~Hmnfb~.Securethewwkpiecewith untilyoureachtbgehge&,Wasmpeassasr#necesthe~facirrgup;c~poneendtothewwirtrenchifneces- s o l t y u n t i l t h s p l a r i b ~ d f m ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a n r l
  75. 75. 'SMOOTHING AND SHAPING T O U smooth the mh of a warkpii. There we t h m ways t do the job without causing tearout at the end of o each cut. Two am shown abow, a third methud is skrmn below. Start by securing the wwkpiece end-up in a wise. For t t first ~ metttod, vvol4c tward the center, beginning at one edge of the board with the plane held at an angle t the sides. Guide the o ~ l l g l ~ ~ k A third mathod of mmthing end grain erlh you ttmake each pass with r singkstmb. Securelhewartcpleceendup with mplsart b k x b clamped to bath edges as shown. The blocks should be the same thicas the workpiece; the mat the end of the pas should be lavel with the e d t~ be planed. Guide the p h o h g thcwrfawfromoneedgetothe~, hddingthe tool atadSghtangbtothe ? B the bard f@O. w of tool a h g the surface until the blsde ia abtwthrsmcm the end ~ . MI,then mgmt S edge. For the sscond mdhd, a d Wtbgheat an angle to fhR%nthe cam^ f&m, tif#?tlb Thektmakes pas alone the e ta amd, &@nnirlg ni sWke d f.h@Ww ~~~ m.
  76. 76. rn SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS - - . I rn m m m rn SmB@,Wtwptothe baswiththe m aws* d rligmd. Then &fh8 lip b b making; sure tkqt the lip lkas up with the edge dw lase, Fasten the rightlangkd$@@tm to the top flush a w&the&hea~'dthej@. Center w mitered $top IJ&I&the t q . on 70 we eimg 1 hook the tip over % 'the* ~ f c Set your r mdtpim 4 1the tap, butting ttre x a@ &@Insttbe sbeg id&k so that i ~ ~ it~wq~.(8elsresdthetep bpabmt I h r , ~ . W ~ 2 1 S k ~ l i ~ ShmIq hmK4, Wlle!wwkp' cm HBC& $iepxit@&~nstelher side of m ~ , & i @ Q ~ under ~ , O ~
  77. 77. * S M O Q m GAND SWIE6G TOOLS -- I SALVAGIMG A BOWED BOARD MhgaOorrsdbw8flat Salvage a bowed board in two Steps using a jack plane. Fit, secure the warkpka with its mcave face up and shave away the high spots near the ench of the board (inset, top). Guide the. plane at a 45" angle to the grain, alternating the direction of your strokes by 90a,as shown by the red arrom fabow, icp). Once the surface is flat, twm the workpiece over and rapeaf the process (above, bottomI. This time, you will be removing a single high spot E the middk d n the board (inset, bobom).
  79. 79. rn -SMOOTHINGAND SHAPING TOOLS might fwl. ntk I t is stmig%th omawdt r hwblock, a @mi )lane blade and cap iron, an$ kngtb rn The~ntingplm~@rigMwas rp* urisng thrr 'sandwich' method. ~tirj$ sate was glued on the bottom, a m*-wereMmm- of t e hardwoad blank destitmd to M bcmethepknebady,TheRlsrtise for the btede and cap imn was sw an out next. Finally, the cheelss wpke @wd , back on to the body, and the btade ondwpiron~putinp~hskl MtbyawoadenwMge. StsrC by cutting the Mank for the body to size. Ottwm e dense, c W I
  80. 80. rn ;-8%-'3q-2d,; ' q ' p:,*.ik+: 9 &4. 3 y V ~ . ~ $ 2,L SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TQOLS 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ; ~ l ,- >- ..,.- 8 r or ligwm vitae for the sore, cutting it slightly longer end wider than the blank and at least % inch thick. Attach the sole so that the uphill direction of the grain runs from the heel to the toe. Once the glue is dry, trim the excess wood from the sole and squm the blank. Next, mark out the blade mortise as shown on page 94 (bottom). Mark a tine across the sob far the mouth uf the plane, placing it about one-third of the way from the toe. Then, from one end of this line, draw a line across one side of the blank at a 45" angle to the sole toward the heel. Then start another lirw fnxn the sane point, curving it gew tly toward the toe to fonn a clearance angle fotP mortise. Transfer these the line% across the top of the blank to the other side. Next, extend the mouth line up the sides 13/. inches. Then measure horizontally 3/4 inch back towud the heel and mark the center of the wedge pin. Finally, mark a location point for a referme dowel inside each corner of the blank. The marks should be ctase enough to the ends so that they can be cut off when the fence and.Ute sole flat ~PY-the table fabow). Repeat to cut Sikfieek from the &MY side of W.blslrnk, than s , & .the cheeks W e . Plane the rPf the bla& until it is no marethan 'As inehwjderthanthe plane W.Redraw the lines tor ah'Q Made mortise m t sides gf tlse h then insW a %-hA~-wide biada,!~ the b& SW. Align the M e Vf Q W , ~ d h thelinwttbetopofthebWfhm feedtheMgnkani$skintQ~W wing your right hand, v$ib@dins,& with your left hand (h&. Cutt as ofma as pcsibteto ihe point w thg W h m rnarkedlines~iwtdonot~eom plebefythrough the sole. Repbat to cut along the othw l i ~ . Rimtam the waste pi- and set it aside; later, yA will fashion the piece into the Glsde-separate the Blank into W b m by pc hand and l i t l y smd the suck%$d the blade ma%&: To prepare the pieces far reassanbly, test fit t b q imand b l a h sn the heel piece of 'the b W ansf mark plane is trimmed to its finished size. Place the blank on its side on a drill press table, clamping-a support board underneath to prevent splinteringwhen the bit exits the blank. Bore 112-inchdiameter hdes at the corner marks (page 94,bottom) and a %-inchdimeter hole at the wedge pin location mark. Next, install a Yr-inckwide resaw blade on the band saw and set up the rip fence on the table for a %-inchwide cut. Feed the blank into the blade with both hands to cut off one cheek, keeping the side flush against the s m ' *, cut a g r w a for the xrew (page t ~ p stopping it9imkmabw?the l~
  81. 81. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS PIW~B. 1 the ~healrs $ ~ t& auto the blank, inserting g I@ngW %-imh.di-dowel t d frrtrB f K hOf @& t5tcvafmmxMin~sicjeaofthe ch&b to help rlim Wls p%ms 6 ! & ~ , Clamp the mernL&y tq#her securely, Once the giua is dry, m w m olarnpd and cut d the doweled en& of f *Wk. - I tuma tha m against b the b W and cap iron be flat, 8 point, the snd the t ~ e b u l d wumdmd. Fw k pin, cut r 3h-in~h dim1 t o length as the width af; the plane body. Fit# a ft& wMa! on wre -tQarrwnUse the jointet to fine-tune the m * openin0 of your p~ma up u SM tme machine frJl a *-inch depth of cut and nW ~ n r a Then instdl r pasis. the blade, sup i r ~ n wedge, and , wedge pin in the body and tmwdre the dhtmc~ the cuttingQdge to fiDm 7 L
  82. 82. w ;?+i*lyy+pJ&y':. ,...A ADVANCED TECHNIQUES *Jqm.-%' L * . A, .4.--:b%T.t.T "". < -L L 5 I - lthough bench planes A wide variety specialtgcan handle a of smoothing tasks, there is an array of planes 4able to the woodworker who is faced with more delicate operations, smooth- ing and t i m n wood in out-ofrmig the-way places. From the diminutive bullnose rabbet plane to the b e combination plane with its host of interchangeablec u m , each speaaltyplane is designed to reach a tricky place or plane a diflicult stdice. Many of these tools were developed epxdly h r joinery. The rabbet, shodder, router and bullnose rabbet planes all featurrprecjseblade adjwhwmtsthat allow you to fine-tune tenons, hinge =-ti=, dadoes,and gmm+dka that are hwhblytoo rest&ed for even versatile combination plane, you can shape a piece of molding or cut a tongue-and-groove joint, d e p d b g on the cutter you install in the tooL A cirde plane will smooth the edges of a d pieceas its rounded sole followsthe contours of the wood, keeping the blade f o taking off too much wood from rm any point mund the circumf-. - Although all these planes can be f adjusted to a wide range o cutting depths, you rarely should shave more thsln~hzt01J16hchwitheach~of these tools. To ensure precise results, ahqsdampyourstocktoaveorksurdace ~ b e f o r e p ~ $ ~Aspedtyphinftdjon:A router t o pmtectthesurEacesofthewo~~ ptane tn'mthe bwapmoft# hjll* wood pads w e e necessary. hr w~inaazbjnet~~ UNING Use a shoulder plane to trim a short tenon, Secure the workpiace ka wise with the tenon extending beyond the work surface. Adjust the cuttiq depth to no monr than 4h inch, then hold the side of the p h e flush ag;a1nst the shmCder and guide the sole along the cheek (istp). Check the fit "-quently, making as many light passes -n b trim the surface to the coned depth. To Mm the tenon shwlder, place the plane on its si6 and cut along the shoulder while holding the side of the tool flat on the cheek. Turn the workpiece over and repest the procsJs on the o p p site cheek and shoulder. To trim the adpb ingsidadttre~,secumthevrakpiece edgbup in the vise. For tenons, in WhiChtheWoftheterwwncheak~ the width of the shwlder p h ' s s h use o, a bench rabbet plan& -
  83. 83. R SMOOTHING AND S W I N G TOOLc B C ~ w t h 8 ~ m ~ ~ w o Use a multiplane, or cambination plane, to cut a tongue and matching qroove. Begin with the m Seeurqone w r k p i i edge ; up and install a tongue cutter in the plane. Adjust the edge guide to center the cutter on the workpiwe and set the depth stop to the desired depth of the tongue. Start near the far end of the workpiece and make a shallow a, beping the gdse guide flush against the stock. B@n the second pass a littie c l a w b you, and continue working your way to ttre near end until you have cut a shallow tangpre along the full length of the edga. Now make full-lmg& passes along the surface~muntilywnaach~~depth. To~~grc~we,~hmrtingworkpiece and ixlstall a $mwe cutter of the same wid4haathePonguecutbrinthephme.Set the depth stop to cut the grows slightly deepe than the tongue, then cut the gmve with r The combination plane is a mat&, w-Wprenrwofthk-. Its range ofinm-le cutters eantongues, grooves, dadoes, flutes, reeds, ovolos, a d W i n g s .An adjustable e & d guide ensures straight cuts while a depth stop allows the tool to trim t precise o depths. The model showrt at right, the Stanley 45 Multiplane, is an original ~ W h ~ r ; e d ~ h ~
  84. 84. SMOOTHINGAND SHAPING TOOLS Using a rsabea a d 8 l W pknr, Secure your workpiece to a work surface, protecting the stock with wood pads. Adjust the plane's edge guide for the desilPed width of the rabbet and set the depth stop located behind the fence for the depth. Cut the rabbet as you would a tongue or groove with the combination plane: Start with short strokes near the far end of the workpiece and gradually work your way to the near end until you have plowed a shallow rabbet. Then make a series of passes along the entire length of the swface (right) until the depth stop prevents the Made from cutting further. If you need to plane both across and with the grain, work across the grain first, clamping a support block to the workpiece when planing across the grain to prevent tearout (pa@ 901.
  85. 85. TRIMMIW6 A STOPPED RABBET Levelingthe rabbet A bullnose rabbet plane is designed to trim a stopped rabbet or other enclosed spaces. Secure the workpiece, then unscrew the nose from the front of the plane and set the depth of cut at no more than 1/32 inch. Starting at the end of the workpiece, guide the plane along the surface to the other end of the rabbet (left), keeping the side of plane flush against the rabbet shoulder. Make as many passes as necessary to trim the rabbet to the appropriate depth. CUTTING A DADO Makingthe cut Cut a dado using a router plane. Clamp the workpiece face-up, then mark two sets of cutting lines: one on the face for the width of the dado and another on the edge for the dado depth. Saw a kerf along each of the dado width lines, stopping the cuts at the depth line. Then install a chisel cutter on the plane. Loosen the depth adjustment knob and set the cutting depth to about '/16 inch; tighten the knob. Begin each pass with the plane at the far edge of the workpiece and pull the tool toward you (right). Keep the cutter flat on the surface and aligned between the saw kerfs. Increase the cutting depth of the plane after each pass, continuing until you reach the depth mark.
  86. 86. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS SHOP TIP Inddbb nailer T hi& nails in o oabinst work, use an invieible nailer, also known a0 a Mind nailer. This wmmamial device w instrument maker's plan&, using a I/.-inch chisel cutter to lift a thin wood ehavlrrg under which a ,nail can then be driven. The shaving ~an<t?c u d rigkt k c k d m t conceal the nail. To use the gl a mil&a adJm% foflowirt the manufactursr's instructione. it The sharing ie u$u~IIy /sz-inch thick and 1 a enough t o m enable you t wmfortably drive a nail undernmr;h. Practice a on a piecs of wrap first+ a ~ C r i of masking tape to Urn p hdd Ghs: shaving h w n whlb %hle.&e i drying, s B
  88. 88. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS -ended file or rasp with two heads used to smooth con- quickly without clogging D the cuttlng edge of a scrapr &r honing. Round models are usualb used for curved scmpm and triangular models for rccCangular scrapers: tri-burnisher combines round, and coarse teeth on ihe otha. The mfih- Y W W r bun,i* A h@h& accurate, adJug4;aM~ burn* with a dial pbmmkrg ~ f & n of any h k B M ~ L m kwtwm O Q a dT ' 5 103
  89. 89. - the its Bprecision contouringof wood, and ity to large bites the tools known etween dmwkde,with capac- take as rifners, lie files and rasps, two common and frequently used shaping tools in the woodworker's toolbox. Files and rasps are classified according to their shape, cut, and coarseness. There are flat files to smooth flat surfixes, round and half-round filesfor con- SHAPING WOOD toured surfaces, and triangular files for reaching into restricted spaces like corners and keyholes. The cut of a file refers to the arrangement of its teeth. Single-cut files have one set of continuous, paraUel teeth running across the face of the blade. These are often dfor dmpemng tool blades and scrapers.Double-cut files have a second set of teeth running across the k , t forming a series of points, which makes for a rougher cut Although a double-cut file will cut wood quickly, the job is usually left to the rasp, which has large, individualteeth rather than a lined pattern of cutting edges. Rasp teeth shear slivers of wood with relative ease, but they leave a rough d c e which must usually be smoothed wt a file or sandpaper. ih The coarseness of a file or a rasp depends on the depth of the teeth and the spacing between them. In order of increasingfineness, files are graded bastard, second, and smooth cuts. Smooth tiles have closely packed, shallow teeth. Rasps are available as bastard and second cuts. In general, the longer a rasp or £ile, the coarser its teeth will be. While Cleaning w flb 8s n p e Ths flm wosd ehavingg any fle can be used on wood, finer cuts clog quicklywith shahgs, malang sandpaper a better choicefor fnlsmoothing ia of a work A double-cut bastard file is your best bet for shaping tasks. Grip the tool yith both hands and work diagonally across the grain, applying even pressure. Since file teeth face away from the handle, they cut only on the push stroke. For that reason, you should avoid moving a file back and forth like a saw; this will dull the teeth. Instead, raise the teeth clear of the surface on the return stroke. For an extra-smooth result, hold the file with both hands perpendicular to the grain of the workpiece and draw the blade gently along the grain, guiding it back and forth. Whenever you are filing, clamp the workpiece searely. Ifthe 6le or rasp has no handle, fit it with one fist; an exposedtang can be hazardous. Almost anythmg that suits you will do: Some woodworkers use old golf balls as makeshift handles. To help reduce clogging, sprinkle file or rasp teeth lightly with chalk. 0 7is not recommended as it attracts saw ust I % _ _
  90. 90. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS SHAPING DETAILS 1 Shaphgatnl~ngthetad Rasps, files, and rifflers work well in tandem for shaping and smoothing decorative details on contoured workpieces, like tho foot on the Queen Anne-style I shown in the illustraq tions on this page. Begin by securing the leg in a bar clamp and fixing the clamp in a vise. To shape the foot, use a patternmaker's rasp. Holdingthe rasp at an angle sf about 45" to the leg, push the tool across the surface in overlapping passe until the desired contour begins to e n rE u hR1. &* Rotate the leg in the clamp as rysothatystscanshdlpe the foot all the way around. Oncar the fat has t you want, smmth the wood using a double-cut flat ile. Work the surface as you did with the r&p I-, *I. Finish the job with sandpaper, using prc@r%ssivglyfiner@ papers until the surface is smooth.
  91. 91. SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS ad - To gine a m b w e d wkpiece such as a caWi4le leg its finished shape, and stmoth its SU&G$, urn id spcikmhrn. Secrure the leg as shown on page 105, Pull the $gmkmhm slowly toward you with both hands, attirq a thin shaving W f l nsthe -in Ir&W. E w t nodda r embpceswnmd kwpyourmrigid. Coeinue until the contouf you want begjmtotrdtQshapemdtheMnface is s & adjwding the angle of the toel m, ~ ~ ~ t o ~ ~ t h e c u n r c s d s u r b If the grain dimtien chmgis part. vlr%y~thers&eles,f=M#~- t o or skip, meme your dimtikin and p l w h t b - m t h a ~ pull it. Rota& the kg in the ba shape snarl smooth
  92. 92. SCRAPING TECHNIQUES often S and sanding aoverlooked,or But ing wood surface. q i n g is viewed asanin-testepbetweenplan- there are several situations in which a well-sharpened and properly used scraper is a good alternative to a plane or an abrasive. Planes can tear irregular or interlocking grain and sandpaper produces minute scratches. But a scraper severs wood fibers cleanly, leaving a smooth, even surface behind. The versatile tool can also flatten high spots, scrape away dried glue, and dean up tom edges. The two most common versions are the hand scraper and the cabinet scraper. Available in a range of thicknesses and shapes for every scraping task, hand scrapers are single blades of spring steel nie honed to form a cutting edge. U l k a plane blade, a scraper has a burr, or hook, turned along each side of its cutting edge. This allows the implement to be pulled or pushed in any direction, getting the cut- ting edge into comers and tight spots a plane cannot reach. The cabinet scraper works much like the hand scraper,q t that its blade is mounted in a metal body that resembles a spokeshave, providing greater control. C' I The cutting edges of scrapers dull quickly and require regular dmpening; most new scrapers also need t be sharpo ened before use. Sharpening a hand scraper is a thm-step operation in which the existbg hook is reanowl, the cutting edges are honed, and a new hook is formed. The size of the shaving a scraper produces will let you know when it is time to sharpen; the duller theblade, the Mallertheshaving. As its name i p i s a scraper works mle, by scraping, not cutting; its burr is dragged along the surfaceby holding the blade at a relatdy flat angle. Held perpendicular, the blade will tend to gouge, dent, or scratchthesudb. Held at more ofanangle,thescraperwillcut awayless wood, but leave a smoother surbce. To find the ideal angle for scraping,hold the scraper almost parallel to the work surface and begin scraping while gradually rakingt e angle of the blade until it proh ducesthedesiredfhkh. I With a mere inch of blade prottudingfiom its body, a properly sharpened cabinet scraper can smooth a wood su+e as effdveZy as the finest grit of sandpaper. S ~ P E WA ~ I ~SCRAPER HAND e 1Wwto filh*rdl[b,m the scraper in a vise, edge up, with a wood Mack on one side keep it rigid. Clamp a mill bastard file in a commercia1 saw jointer and, h d d i the jointer firmly against one side of the scraper, exeft mcKierate pressure as you make mwal pases back and fwth alongthe edge of the tool ~~1 until €he existing hook disappears and the edge is flat. Twn the smfm over in the vise and tepeat t h process for the other edge. / Secure a combination sharpening sbne fine side up t a o work surface with cleats and luhride it as you WdtP h a plane blade Ipge $3). Holding t?wm efl# against pf the stone, rub each face on the 8t~ne a ~ ~ O Umotion Wifh IIOT (above) until any roughness poducad by filingt d i a . To complete the prwess, hold tthe scraper uprigltt and d i 6 the backandfwthdiy~thestgna~ilthq arestmath wiittrshatrpcomers.
  93. 93. 'SMOOTHING AND SHAPING TOOLS w 3 m the a l l r r d Wipe a tiny afmrasnt oil onto the scraper. Form a hook on edge of each cutting edgar af h~scmper layby ing the scraper fiat on a w k wiurface with an sdga adan$W~g the tabk, off then nm the burnisher W and forth k atong the mlga EleftJ, awEirpg stmg dormmard presswe. 8mW the other cutting edge the sawnu3 way, then turn the scraper o ~ p l rand b m k h the edges on the uthw face. 4 C e R l ap ~ M ! ~ ~ Secure the scraper edge-up in the vise and wipe littk more oil onto its edge. Holding the burnisher level, make a few passes along the edge in one direction until the edge swells stightly. Apply modeKate pressure to turn the edge wtward on one side (right). Then hold the burnisher so that the handle is 10" to 159 above the horizontal and continue burnishing until t f edge turns o . ~ w To form a hook on Weother side of the edge (insat), repeat the process with the handle in your other hand. The greater the pressure you apply, the bigger the b k . Turn the scraper over in the vise and complete the'hooks on the other edge.
  94. 94. STRIKING AND FASTENING TOOLS joints b , + Pnd dimsemble fmniaIater,wbsmnaa emerged, .forged by hand by b l h i t h s , The screw&, kw as a turnsaav until the on :u. I
  95. 95. . -.. 1 7 . . A SELECTION OF HAMMERS AND MALLETS -Brad d * A pliers-like tool for driving small nails $. i ACSArOMY0FACLkW)kAMklER Omphits-handled okrw hammer 5pace-qe materia!@mead M e biz-h d the *df.tional w&n hallelk wh1.k anrw!atIng W 5 shmk-absorbing ~omforr;. c?Iwv Ie moderaw& The G U W for pulllry nails a& the fa@ L elkghtly ~ domed for driving naib true; $he hammer is maIIable in IS- t 2 2 - o o m weigh a ( Features a t a ered tipfor startlng small nails and bra4, and a flat face for driving fasmw-5. Available In weights from 3 1/2 fa 12 ounces: 10-ounce hammer shown rn h A plain% maIIcZ with a &-faced, hollw head filled w&h metal shot ddivem a firm but bounce-free blow. - ' - - rn 5-p.; W-ndhd ham7% WmJonal hammer wnU w to W thG standard n 6 far bolama and wmM; c u d - c l a w t$p commonly a v a W In W g h M h m .-- - Avallshl~ ld- t n A&-* ,--- . v e . n w ; la - . --. 14- and 42-ounce shes show 12towou~ r ~ubbsr mallkt A rubber-headed mallet with a wooden handl* for tappingjojnt6 together and knocking them apalt; 16-ounce mallet ctehown. White-rubber mallets do not leave black marks on wood 8 112 rn
  96. 96. rn rn m STRIKING AND FASTENING TOOLS $he heads of finiehing nails below the surfdlca I . - - 4 . A
  97. 97. HAMMERS AND MALLETS are o l H ammersnailssimpletothesthat of driving seem easiest And while it true that pound- make tasks. is al em ing n i s into a board scarcely s e sto require instruction, even ti most basic hs activity can benefit b m the use of proper techniqueand a few tricksof the trade Acquired skilland extra care will enable you to sink a row of fUllshmg nails into a h e cabinet without m a r r k the surf;ace. For best results, use a Gll-balanced hammer with a forged head; the cast heads used on low-cost models tend to mushroom and shatter with use. The best hammers feature a slightly convex face, &wing nails to be driven flush without leavkg hammer marks on the surface. Placing a ~ i e c e ~erforated of hardboard be&eei the hakner head and the wood and then using a nail set I tosinknailheadsbelowthesurfaceofkrs an additional measure of protection. Consider the force you use. A short swing from the wrist is sufficient to drive finishing nails, but a fuller swing, involvina elbow and shoulder action, should b;usedwith larger nails. Nails that bend or go a k w as you se drive them should be removed, not straightened in place. To pull a nail, place a small wood blodc under the hammer head to provide extra leverage and to protect the surface. Before nailing into dense hardwoods or an obstruction like a knot, bore a pilot hole. Some safety reminders: Wear safety glasses and do not use a damaged hammer or one with a loose handle. Never strike one hammer head against another, the heads may shatter. Use the face of the hammer to strike a nail, rather than the cheek. Keep hammer and mallet faces free of oil and dirt. A &-blow hummer sh.ikes a chair l g to separate it e from the leg rails. The metal shot in the head absorbs the blow, focusing the impact on the kg and preventing the hummerfrom rebounding.
  98. 98. STRIKING AND FASTENING TOOLS DRIVING NAILS Nail 4kt P d orated hardboard - ' u$blgaolaw~ To pate@ warkpiece, slip a piece of perfmated hardboard over the naii head once the mil has bssn the stM&d, Holding the hammer near the butt of tR@ handle, drive the mil with short stroke (&ow, MI. To s tha nail head flush with or slightly below the d a c e , me a nail set with a tip the stme size as tho t mil had, M e #e nail s on the center of the nail head and tap it dwd( with Ws bnm t t right). To conceal a nail head you have driven blow the surface, cover it by m w ' i witk a wax W . I
  99. 99. STRIKING AND F i 4 2 3 ' m G TOOLS REPlACI#B A HAMMER HANDLE m m rn
  100. 100. STRIKING AND FASTEWGTOOLS 3 tnsert a c o m m i a l metal Itammer-wedge into the kerf you eut E n step 1 and tap it into the handle until the we* is Rush with the top. Make gms in straiebRt; tap it occasiorutlly on the W to shighten it out, if . A~~ Shaptwildin)3peurrm~lmmallet tllgm kninrted p h s t ~ k d f wood isan i ~ ~ r e w a y t o s t a c k ~sRspvvith4lpglCGtionaffJIgSe Usetorl, d w a k buts. bl'though the 1 3nckdes Qimen~ ~ C a r r ~ t h e m g U e t ~ ~ e u i Z m - Cutthethresr~Mdinkgand tkMkftmamJodllkeoaku magh. To tishin, the handle, tapw tMgOdggsligh&frcrrtrkl#1 enrtsb €heMdkmtheWsaw.rtrsn ~1UInt0memfaft)Bgm ~&~whs#odltr's~sh8pem fhswidclkWbWWsaw# outThmgWvptttedlet,alWnutin#the gmin direction td the made M@ill.the kerf and bad p l e ~ e s k , p r c s v i ~ ~ ~ tap it in pf-, then shape the head ta ywr ljking on the band sew, MStrBAiftyI, A l l a * h # ~ b ~Mallet.hegds a n typically wurtded ~ mttkc~~d,irarer~sr.&asp. an the tap wiih d h angles on gt the.hPmdle krr a ~ l l ~ W g i p .
  101. 101. A GALLERY OF SCREWDRIVERS I I b while Phillips and square d r k (or Robertson) models are limited to four. plastic molded directly onto the shaft. Screwdrivers often feature BU, square, ofkt*dh I Also known as cranked screwdriver: turns screws in reswicted spaces. Available with flat or Philllp tips, or one of each, in various sizes JbwdIsr'o b~twwdrlvsr Used for turning tiny screws, especially In restricted spaces; typically available In sets which include flat, Phillips, and awl-shaped tips $. . J 'k',k,-.,+y; ip ~~~~ Q %$ c m d r l w wir;h l & M b I e r&&& rw wr ? & bn C-b -7 :1
  103. 103. 8 , . r 8, . .... . 8 T+.., 9 '.llh$'; -4 .,4.. ,, .'15,;+: 8 $ r Ti. , 8 ; , ' .L b;, : SCREWDRIVERS T head This ry to match the screwdriver tip as closely as possible to the size of the screw will reduce the chances of slippage which can mar a workpiece or causc a screwdriver tip to break. Avoid the tem~tation use a darwed screwto chippedtip,forexaqle,islikelytosiip off. In many cases, a damaged tip can be squared easily with a grinder (page12 ' A long-handled mewdriver or o-_ with a thicker handle will provide extra twisting power. To apply maximum torque,select a ratchet driver. Before!drivinga sr~asr t any k h o wood should predrill a hole to prev a t the screw heid from breaking off 0teolpeermpb.eed rhwrTlcfoslgDpx:-g on how deep you ws to drive the ih rew, you m y have to bore up to three a wtlapingholes of different diamem, le inside the next. Begin by marking ' ,? w7' ' ; p 8 - Using a rcmw-lwldiug s c m d r h Slide the collar on the shaft of the screwdriver toward the tip to open the screwholding clips. Fit the tip into the screw head slot and release the collar; the clips will close and grip the screw. Start the screw in the hole, then open the clips and drive the screw as you would with a standard tool (rigjht).To magnetize the shank of a standard screwdriir, use a commercial mqmtizer/demagnetizer. Push the driw tip into the hole in the device and slide the magnetizer up and down on the shank a few times (inset). The tip will be able to hold a steel screw. To demagnetize the screwdriver shank, slide it in the oiet on the side of the device. , 1 , "T A ratchetscrewdriver is idealfbr turn- ingscrewswherespaceistimifa&& as inside the door opening 4 a cabinet. 11 DRIVING SCREWS IN RESTRICTED S q . theds~withmdToset the screw head on the sarface of the woad,bore r plot hole for tihe threads and a clearance hole for the shank For ~llfngrip,the~hmleL~be t&bdpdkkthe--its depth &odd be h u t one-half the int?thwd,dalwuta deepiw s c r e w ~ h h a r 8 w o o d . Ifyou~tthescl.ewhesrdt~sitfl~8h with the s d k e , b ~ r a corne hoktoaonaalthe-&ad plug, bore r (K)hole. You cre baretheseWwithabigceand bit o r hand drill and a hand countersinker ( q 76) or with an dectric drill. $p ~ t h e x e i s e n ~ m ~ r y w ,A,<- ,, 1 = -7 ,. . - Tk , ' I -! '1 ,kh $8' m towrk~ithbothhm&holdascmv SteadyinitsholewhiJRpustartit. I n tight spots, tlse a sawdriver or magnetize the driver tip, w shown belaw. mw -
  104. 104. A COLLECTION OF CLAMPS sided clamp; 01% side is cbmpcd t U1G wrk surface a while $he other m u m the @koK'wtw~nPrr &amp Ad@ known d l t ~ short:bar
  105. 105. do wr% surface or Spring Clamp A plncer-like tool available in a range ofs h wlth a capacity and reach of up to 4 inches; some models feature plastic tips to protect stock m m Inib the 6nd grain of uvo adloinfw b r & wI/lnd t h h r com&4ng'surfims %&her tightly. AvailaHe /n eizee off fa ?5 '/2 Inch- I I Slip on laws of bar. piie, a i d C clamps-to prevent marring stock pipe c l a 4 t apply ho ward pm6tiul.c I
  106. 106. GLUING UP hether you are bonding W together face-to-faceforto boardsa form panel, leg blank or edge-to-edge a there are certain principles that apply to most glue up operations. First, make sure that the contacting surfaces have been smoothed and squared on the jointer. The boards should appear to be a single piece of wood rather than a composite. Experiment with the boards in different configurations to produce a pattern that is visually inkresting, but make sure that the grain runs in the same direction on all of the pieces. To minimize warping, arrange the boards so that the end grain of adjacent pieces runsin opposite directions, as shown below. When edge or facegluing, spread glue on one mating surface. To avoid marring the stock when you tighten the clamps, place wood pads between the damp jaws and the work, or slip proe v e pads over the jaws. --- Atthou& the three boards shown at t i t could be glued with the use of onfy four clamps, mare cbmps will distribute the pt'aam m m m l y , resulting in a s u p ~ior W.The u of eight C clamps pm m dwm warty canstant force a c r m the entire joint. Stating 1or 2 inches from t h s ~ o J t h e ~ , ~ t h e c l a m p at 3- to 4-inch intervals. Alternate the handle direction to provide mom room to t i m n the jaws. Tighhn the clamps just mough to hold the contacting surfaces together, and position dpads c ~ t 0 ; t h s t O p ~ o f ~ ~ e ~ so that t t cimping p s m is focused ~ es on Mp half o f ~ ~ b lTwn the tp y . ammbly o v e ~ that the first row of so clamps is resting on the work surface and install the sacand row along the 0 t h edge ilrwt). Finish tightening all of the clamps until there are no gaps between the boardsand a thin bad of glw s q W e s out of the joints. The type of clamp p a d e c t for
  107. 107. CLAMPS GLUING DOWN TRIM ,, Usinga C c h p To increase the reach of a C clamp when you need to apply clamping pressure away from the edges of a work surface, use a wood strip as a clamp extension. Once the trim has been positioned, place a wood block of the same thickness as the trim near the edge of the surface and a wood strip long enough to reach from the block to the point on the trim where pressure is required. Install the C clamp on the strip just ahead of the wood block and tighten the clamp (above) until the far end of the strip is securely holding the piece of trim. 1- -- -- - -- L