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How Public Design? Nina Terrey

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How Public Design? Nina Terrey

  1. 1. HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?MindLab, Copenhagen Sept 1st-2nd 2011T OPICH OW D O P U B L I C O R G A N I S AT I O N S G I V E S P A C E TO D E S I G N E X P E R I M E N T S ? EMBEDDING D ESIGN : 5 PARADOXES , AN A USTRALIAN C ASE S TUDY
  2. 2. P RESENTATION TODAYHOW PUBLIC DESIGN? 1COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 2 1 2 3 3 PhD Definition of Making Research “design” space: project - “10 paradoxes 4 year design experiment” 5NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  3. 3. P H D R ESEARCH P ROJECT - 1 “10 YEAR DESIGN EXPERIMENT ”HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011  Adoption and innovation of design methods and approaches in the Australian Taxation Office from early 2000‟s to today.  More than methods and techniques, it is more than “product design”, it is about the re-shaping of an organisation‟s way of working, its relationships with others in the Australian Taxation System and tackling complex problems.NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  4. 4. “N EXT FRONTIER OF 1 P UBLIC M ANAGEMENT ”HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011  How design has played a role in shifting entrenched inward bureaucratic views of public policy and administration design to more outward citizen centred approaches. That is the role of design as a way for public organisations to introduce a new form of logic that is inherently more participatory and human-centred in its management style. My research has aimed to answer the question: How has design become a management practice in a complex public organisation?NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  5. 5. 1 “N ETWORK OF ACTORS ”HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011  To understand the management practice - socially constructed meaning The analytical framework is inspired by a post modern view of grounded theory – situational analysis  opens up the data  Using actor network theory as the line of inquiry.  network or web of actions and activities.  action is located, allocated and advocated.NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OF  role of human and non-human actantsCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  6. 6. 2 D EFINITION OF “ DESIGN ”HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Design  In the public management context, public managers do many “types of work”. =  One aspect of their work is about making change and creating preferred futures. Managing by  It is this type of work that design methods, Design standardised practices, design people – can be usefully employed.  Therefore “manage by design” is when management work is performed by taking a more human-centred, participatory, visual and physical approach to bring change and create preferred futures.NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  7. 7. 2 D EFINITION OF “ CHANGE ”HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Design  In the ATO case study “manage by design” was applied when:  New policy or measure (imposed by = government)  Internally generated change Managing by  Constituent generated change Design  These design problem triggers are important to acknowledge in the public sector contextNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  8. 8. 2 D EFINITION OF “P RODUCT ”HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Design  The “product” being designed in the public management context is:  The taxpayer or tax professional or = other actor experience (from > to)  The administrative products that define Managing by this change e.g. form, letter, website, advice, etc Design  The integrated layers of an organisation that realise these products e.g. people, structure, culture, processes, tools and technology  These are elements that are within the „control‟ of the organisation and also „in the system‟NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  9. 9. 3 9 PARADOXESHOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011  Why?  Observed  Contradictions  Seemingly don‟t make sense at first but then they doNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  10. 10. 1 2 3 3 Making space: 4 Paradox 1: paradoxes 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 To embed managing by design “with-in” you must embed “with-out”NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  11. 11. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN? Tax Design DomainCOPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Australian Tax Office Treasury Support: Call Commissioners Centres Paper products A lot of changes imposed Communication: Business as usual projects Letters, Website Doing design without realising it New Policy Design Champion Transactional: Process Privacy Commission Forms, Tax Bottom line kind of person Design questions agent portal Policy driven Leaders Fix fundamentals Business not working Practice statements Other agencies General Solutions Community designers Capability build team Substitute users Understanding design methodsExpert Users Core design team Fund Members Allocating work to designers Testing Designers Mentoring days Speed of design Business Solutions Design User walkthrough Information design Design Design Arena Super Funds Community Design Managers Design resource Centres Design Managers Arena centre (online) Design artefacts Design team meetings Pathways core skills User researchers, Sim Centre Intermediaries Model office Consultative groups Facilitators, Info User research Design methodology team Tax Agents Board Model office designers Senior designer Not one size fits all Third Parties design forms in front of them Distributed design areas Arena Over mechanistic Design capability Software Users Business Analyst Bit disjointed Rapid Solution design Software companies Project Workshops Business Process Modeller managers Project Management methodology Consultants Tax Agents AcademicsNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  12. 12. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 “Yes and so a lot of the design capabilities that the ATO is having to nurture is the ability to influence those who are impacting on the design and who do not live within the ATO” (Senior leader 1, interview 2009) “I think we’ve largely delivered on what we said we’d do. I think the trust element has been reinforced and we can point to initiatives where the community, that human centred part of it, is actually influenced what we’ve done” (Senior leader 2, interview 2009)NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  13. 13. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 Paradox 2: 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Design needs freedom and disciplineNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  14. 14. 1 2 3 3 Senior Designer: “Yes and - but you need that freedom to be able Making space: 4 to be thinking out there because you just never know when you’re paradoxes 5 going to get that key bit that makes the whole thing come together but you’ve also got to be disciplined enough to go okay,HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 enough” (Senior Designer, Interview, 2008) Design principles Senior leader: “…because I think one of the things that’s very good about the design science though that’s been brought to the ATO is this more scientific approach to design, which is to say let us make observations that are freer or almost free of bias” (Senior leader, Interview 2009)NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  15. 15. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Design artefacts are not standardisedNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  16. 16. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 Paradox 3: 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Design is mandatory and a choiceNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  17. 17. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 “By following a conscious design methodology and process (applying the design principles together with early community involvement wherever practical” (Designing Change in the Tax Office, PS CM 2006/11 p7.) Practice StatementNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  18. 18. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Senior leader who played a key role in the establishment of design in the ATO: “Yes. Yes, look it’s a model that’s really inspired by the chaos theory which was my strategy, which was don’t try and impose something on the whole system. Don’t try and impose some big monolith on the whole system. Instead set up a attractors, areas of attraction. So I didn’t even go in with a top down approach and say you must set up a design centre. I waited for people to come to me. But I had a model in my mind that when they rang me and said look, I really need some help with design I would say look, we’ve got a couple of people but you’re going to need a lot more resource than that so how about you set up a design capability and we’ll help you do that? And pretty well everyone bought that argument because they like that too. They keep theNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OF resources under their control so that’s good.” (Interview 2008)CANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  19. 19. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 Paradox 4: 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Design collaborates to compete for spaceNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  20. 20. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 “Design by interdisciplinary, cross functional teams” Bringing together existing expertise and knowledge in the organisation. No attempt to stop, alter or diminish expertise in other social worlds instead it acknowledged and embraced the diversity.NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  21. 21. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Senior Tax Technical manager: “I’m kind of a bottom line kind of person. I want to get to the outcome and the truth is to do design properly you work through a process. So, to work through a process, for me, is not always, but can be, a little frustrating because it’s the obstacle where I am now and where I want to be but the simple reality is I need people who stop me and say, “wait a minute, there’s a process to go through here” (Interview, 2009)NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  22. 22. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 Paradox 5: 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 Who can design is exclusive and inclusiveNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  23. 23. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5 Senior leader: “We have specialists and specialist facility that allowHOW PUBLIC DESIGN? us to do observations of how people go about their taxationCOPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 obligations. And also allow us to put in front of people products that we might be considering to observe them actually carrying out those – trying to deal with those products. And that that gives us an unbiased feedback as to the efficacy of those products”. (Interview , 2009, senior leader) Design Capability Framework: Core capabilities for design practitioners – overview sectionNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  24. 24. 1 2 3 3 Making space: paradoxes 4 5HOW PUBLIC DESIGN? Senior Manager: “You ideally have to have some faith in the [design]COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 people you’re listening to and at the end of the day, you have to realise that a better design, in fact, ultimately gets a better outcome. If you’re really lucky, maybe even a cheaper outcome. So, to me, it’s a focus on those sorts of things” (Interview, 2009)NINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  25. 25. 325 PARADOXESHOW PUBLIC DESIGN?COPENHAGEN SEPT 1ST-2ND 2011 To embed managing by design “with-in” you must embed “with-out” 1 Design needs freedom 2 and discipline 3 3 Design is mandatory and a choice Making space: paradoxes 4 Design collaborates to compete for space 5 Who can design is exclusive and inclusiveNINA TERREY, UNIVERSITY OFCANBERRA AUSTRALIA
  26. 26. S UMMARY These paradoxes describe how space has been created in this organisation There is a multiplicity of approaches There are many tensions that co-exist The balance between these sorts of tensions permits space for design to be part of the management work
  27. 27. WORKSHOP
  28. 28. O PEN BRAINSTORM What questions might we explore as a group? Select three questions Form small groups and openly explore and capture comments as sticky-notes:  Initial ideas, comments, questions, hypothesis  Cluster like ideas, comments, questions, hypothesis  Label each cluster  Report back Distil workshop theme statement
  29. 29. How do we create space for frontline workers to design? Is itcritical that to do design it is “outside” the normal day to daypublic manager work?
  30. 30. How do we build trust? What evidence? Level playing fields
  31. 31. How might we drive design all the way up the value chain?
  32. 32. PANELI was asked to briefly describe my My response to the question what barriers?interests: Barriers to Design being embedded inInterests organisations – 2 points (not only) 1. Organisations are transient – they are-Respecting the public manager and networks – people move – therefore it isacknowledging that there is some work ongoing work to translate and embedof Public managers which can be best design as a management approachdone by taking a design approach 2. Absence of integrated leadership about- I am interested in the “scaffolding” that design – I talked about the failing of oneneeds to be put in place in organisations large org in Australia that embedded atfor design to survive and thrive the TOP and the BOTTOM, millions of- I am also interested in the new dollars, nothing left. I then discussedequation: the new design public the model in the ATO that integratesmanager and the new citizen leadership from: CDF: top tier working on strategic problems collaboratively, the Health of Design Forum: Leaders managing resources and talking about vision for design; the Design Managers forum: meet monthly, discuss the work, the resourcing and practical challenges’; and the communities of practice for designers and practitioners to weekly or monthly talk about methods.
  33. 33. C ONTACT DETAILSnina.terrey@thinkplace.com.au+61 414 247 529www.thinkplace.com.auAddress55 Wentworth Avenue, Kingston, Australia, ACT 2604

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