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AAA Section 11 Revision and the Campus Exam


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Section 11 from the Autism, Asperger's and ADHD module at University of Derby - Revision and the Campus Exam.

By Dr Simon Bignell

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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AAA Section 11 Revision and the Campus Exam

  1. 1. Revision and the Campus Exam
  2. 2. Outline. <ul><li>Learning Outcomes Achieved By Exam Questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Themes and the Relation between ASD & ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Of The Module Content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief look again at content of Sections. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Is The Format Of The Exam? </li></ul><ul><li>What Are The Exam Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>How Can I Perform Well In The exam? </li></ul><ul><li>How And What Should I Revise? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes Achieved By Exam Questions <ul><li>The examination questions achieve the following learning outcomes (as detailed in the BSc (honours) Psychology Student Handbook for this module): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate a detailed knowledge of symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and practices relating to Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate a detailed knowledge of research and mainstream theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Themes. <ul><li>Misdiagnosis vs. Missed diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural/Cognitive vs. Pharmacological treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal vs. Pathological behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum vs. Categorical classification. </li></ul><ul><li>Academia & Parental viewpoints. </li></ul><ul><li>Aetiological vs. Symptomatological. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence-based vs. Anecdotal-based methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance vs. Rejection of Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Mild vs. Severe degrees of impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing incidence vs. Better awareness. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Relation between ASD & ADHD. <ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Usually spotted in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal IQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Often pragmatic language problems. </li></ul><ul><li>High comorbidity with other problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Often mistaken for bad behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Early onset </li></ul><ul><li>IQ tends to be lower </li></ul><ul><li>Often fail to develop spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with non-verbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be adept at basic motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s </li></ul><ul><li>Later onset </li></ul><ul><li>Higher range of IQ </li></ul><ul><li>No language deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal communication problems less severe </li></ul><ul><li>Clumsiness in basic motor skills </li></ul>
  6. 6. Summary of the module content. <ul><li>Section 1 – Module Introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 – ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder . </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 – Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism). </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 – Asperger's Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5 – Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6 – Aetiology . </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7 – Comorbidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8 – Treatment For ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9 – Treatment For Autism. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10 – Autism, Asperger's and ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 11 – Revision & Exam Tips. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 2 – ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder. <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>First described around 100 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with Attention, Hyperactivity & Impulsivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects 2-5% of school age children in UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Exists on a degree of severity. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are six times more likely to be referred for help than girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost always occurs with other disorders/problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 3 – Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism). <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>First described around 65 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Exists as a spectrum, a continuum, a syndrome with various degrees of impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Affects communication, social interactions, and strange behaviour that impair education performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally evident before age 3. </li></ul><ul><li>A life-long pervasive developmental disorder with genetic susceptibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Frith, U. & Happe, F. (1994) Autism: Beyond Theory of Mind. Cognition, 50, pp.115-132. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 4 – Asperger's Disorder. <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>A higher-functioning form of Autism characterised by impairments in the social domain, some impairment in the behaviour/interests domain. </li></ul><ul><li>No significant delays in cognitive or language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor clumsiness, especially in younger children. </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s tend to desire to interact with others, but don’t know how to in an appropriate way. </li></ul><ul><li>May live very successful independent lives in appropriate job settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Not so easy to spot Asperger’s Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). The Extreme-Male-Brain Theory of Autism. In Tager-Flusberg, H, (ed) Neurodevelopmental Disorders. MIT Press (1999). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Section 5 – Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis. <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis has to be made on a behavioural basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in symptoms and severity of impairments. </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-IV (APA, 1994) & ICD-10 (WHO, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Pervasive Developmental Disorder’. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavioural Disorders’. </li></ul><ul><li>Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple referral routes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressures on Local Authority resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple assessment protocols and diagnostic tools. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Section 6 – Aetiology of ADHD & Autism. <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>The causes of ADHD are not fully known. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to have multiple causes and complex interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good evidence for genetic component. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of structural and functional brain abnormality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barkley’s Theory of Response Inhibition in ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Mind deficit. Executive Dysfunction. Weak Central Coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111. </li></ul><ul><li>Rajendran, G. & Mitchell, P. (2007). Cognitive Theories of Autism. Developmental Review, 27. </li></ul><ul><li>Frith, U. & Hill, E. (2004) Understanding Autism: Insights From Mind and Brain In Autism: Mind and Brain, ed. Frith, U. & Hill, E. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp.1-19. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 7 – Comorbidity in ADHD and Autism. <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>A large number of medical conditions are very often associated with ADHD and/or Autism. </li></ul><ul><li>High overlap between ADHD and ASD symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD and Autism are generally described as separate disorders with separate genetic aetiologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most genetic studies exclude cases of Autism from studies on ADHD and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 102 , 321–330. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 8 – Treatment For ADHD. <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct problems and symptoms of ADHD may hinder treatment and/or assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>All strategies do not fit all children. </li></ul><ul><li>Medication is the ‘treatment of choice’ for ADHD following MTA. </li></ul><ul><li>The MTA studies suggest that there’s very little benefit from any psychotherapeutic treatment on core symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulant treatment is easily available in the community and behavioural treatment is not. But opinion remains divided. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>The MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A14 Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56. p.1073-1086. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 9 – Treatment For Autism. <ul><li>Key Points: </li></ul><ul><li>Many different types of behavioural interventions for ASD. </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention is most beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment depends on the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective treatment for the disorder is highly structured and intensive ‘Applied Behavioural Analysis’ (ABA). </li></ul><ul><li>Problems treating people with Autism, communication, non-compliance, comorbidity, intellectual/emotional immaturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Lovaas, O. I. (1987) Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What Is The Format Of The Exam? <ul><li>Exam information </li></ul><ul><li>The examination is 2 hours long (on-campus). </li></ul><ul><li>Students must answer 2 questions from 6 (one pair of questions from three questions sets.) </li></ul><ul><li>Each answer should be answered in a separate booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>Put your Student ID number on the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the module leader asap if you have an ECF for the exam or if you have any special requirements. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Is The Format Of The Exam? <ul><li>Mock exam questions </li></ul><ul><li>Answer one pair of questions from set A, B, or C: </li></ul><ul><li>A) </li></ul><ul><li>i) Using evidence from research, evaluate the suggestion that the symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are explainable as one end of a continuum of normal human behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Illustrate the factors that may obstruct the treatment of Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>B) </li></ul><ul><li>i) Assess the issues surrounding the use of food supplements and special diets in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Using evidence from research, outline how the symptoms of Autism may impair children’s cognitive and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>C) </li></ul><ul><li>i) Using evidence from research, summarise the support for the main theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Discuss why early intervention is important for children diagnosed with Autism. </li></ul>Look at the past papers
  17. 17. What Are The Exam Questions? <ul><li>Note: Questions will differ from previous years’ exam papers. </li></ul><ul><li>With reference to research... / Evaluate… </li></ul><ul><li>Using evidence from research... / Discuss critically… </li></ul><ul><li>Using evidence from research and/or theory... </li></ul><ul><li>Assess critically… / Contrast …with … </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Subtypes of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment & Treatment of Autism/ADHD. </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Can I Perform Well In The exam? <ul><li>Use the Section notes in addition to general background reading. Have key studies and theories in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the questions thoroughly and plan an answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Write clearly and use correct grammar and style. </li></ul><ul><li>When revising, practice answering exam questions under exam conditions (in the same amount of time!). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark your work and learn what you didn’t know. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better - get someone else to mark and comment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When you are revising, don't just read your notes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate on asking yourself questions about your work. </li></ul></ul>Cite Research! Cite Research! Cite Research!
  19. 19. How And What Should I Revise? <ul><li>Use the section hand-outs as a guide. </li></ul><ul><li>Print and read any recommended papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Find review papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Read papers and highlight or summarise key points. </li></ul><ul><li>Know three main theories of Autism. </li></ul><ul><li>Know about Barkley’s theory of response inhibition. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe symptoms, assessment, diagnosis & treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a pre-structured answer to the obvious questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Google advanced search and filter for .pdf or .ppt files. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the module Blackboard web site. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice and assess your own knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddy up with someone and revise together. </li></ul>Read Research, Understand it and then Cite it!
  20. 20. AAA Blackboard Web Pages Blackboard Web Pages
  21. 21. Any questions on the exam or any part of the module?