Arc Flash Review:
Requirements, Results, Issues,
and Strategies
Keith Mullen, P.E.
Arc Flash Review
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


WindMil & LightTable Requirements
Consensus Standards
Analysis Methodology
Sample Result...
Arc Flash Review: Requirements
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Accurate Connectivity Model
Up-to-Date Source Impedances
Complete Equipment ...
Arc Flash Review: Standards
NFPA 70E
Hazard/Risk Categories
Hazard/Risk
Categories

Calculated Arc Energy
(Cal/cm2)

(J/cm...
Arc Flash Review: Standards
IEEE Standard 1584 Method
 Voltages from 208V to 15,000V
 Frequency from 50Hz to 60Hz
 Bolt...
Arc Flash Review: Standards
IEEE 1584
Factors for Equipment and Voltage Classes
System Voltage
(kV)

Typical Gap Between
C...
Arc Flash Review: Analysis Methodology
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
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Lee method is the most conservative
IEEE method is more conservative than
ARCP...
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Requirements
Urban System
 Feeder breaker and fuses clearing faults
 Limited variations in faults and ...
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
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Transformer protection is critical to arc
clearing time
System impedance can ...
Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
Arc Flash Review: Integration
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Operating procedures and clothing systems
should align with arc flash results
Ha...
Arc Flash Review: Questions
Keith Mullen
Senior Engineer & Project Manager - Nashville
R. W. Beck, Inc.
tel 615.431.3212 f...
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Electric Utility Solutions: Arc Flash Analysis

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Milsoft Utility Solution’s Arc Flash Analysis software facilitates faster and easier assessment of arc flash hazards and electrical incident analysis. Identify and analyze high risk arc flash areas in your electrical power system with greater flexibility by simulating and evaluating various mitigation methods in your arc flash study.

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Electric Utility Solutions: Arc Flash Analysis

  1. 1. Arc Flash Review: Requirements, Results, Issues, and Strategies Keith Mullen, P.E.
  2. 2. Arc Flash Review         WindMil & LightTable Requirements Consensus Standards Analysis Methodology Sample Results Issues Uncovered Hazard Reduction Strategies Assessment Integration Questions
  3. 3. Arc Flash Review: Requirements        Accurate Connectivity Model Up-to-Date Source Impedances Complete Equipment & Device Definitions Add Transformer Protection Accurate Construction Codes Establish Device Links to LightTable Analysis Parameters Based on Operating Practices
  4. 4. Arc Flash Review: Standards NFPA 70E Hazard/Risk Categories Hazard/Risk Categories Calculated Arc Energy (Cal/cm2) (J/cm2) 0 1.2 5.0 1 4.0 16.7 2 8.0 33.5 3 25.0 104.6 4 40.0 167.4 >4 > 40.0 >167.4
  5. 5. Arc Flash Review: Standards IEEE Standard 1584 Method  Voltages from 208V to 15,000V  Frequency from 50Hz to 60Hz  Bolted fault currents from 700A to 106,000A  Grounding of all types and ungrounded  Equipment enclosures of commonly available sizes  Gaps between conductors from 13mm to 152mm  Faults involving three phases
  6. 6. Arc Flash Review: Standards IEEE 1584 Factors for Equipment and Voltage Classes System Voltage (kV) Typical Gap Between Conductors (mm) Distance Factor 10-40 2.000 Switchgear 32 1.473 MCC & Panels 25 1.641 Cable 13 2.000 Open Air 102 2.000 13-102 0.973 13 2.000 13-153 2.000 Switchgear 153 0.973 Cable 13 2.000 Equipment Type Open Air 0.208 - 1 >1-5 Switchgear Cable Open Air > 5 - 15
  7. 7. Arc Flash Review: Analysis Methodology
  8. 8. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  9. 9. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  10. 10. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  11. 11. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  12. 12. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results     Lee method is the most conservative IEEE method is more conservative than ARCPRO at low-end fault values IEEE method and ARCPRO yield consistent results at various fault levels Parameters in the NESC Table 410.1 must align with equipment specifications and operating practices
  13. 13. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  14. 14. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  15. 15. Arc Flash Review: Requirements Urban System  Feeder breaker and fuses clearing faults  Limited variations in faults and clearing times Rural System  Larger variety and layers of protective devices  Significant variations in faults and clearing times
  16. 16. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  17. 17. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  18. 18. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  19. 19. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  20. 20. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results
  21. 21. Arc Flash Review: Sample Results     Transformer protection is critical to arc clearing time System impedance can influence calculated hazard levels on transformer low-side Line devices upline of transformer fuse can reduce arc clearing time Arc flash results can be significantly impacted by transformer impedance
  22. 22. Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
  23. 23. Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
  24. 24. Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
  25. 25. Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
  26. 26. Arc Flash Review: Issues & Strategies
  27. 27. Arc Flash Review: Integration     Operating procedures and clothing systems should align with arc flash results Hazard levels should be re-evaluated with changes to system configuration and fault levels Adjustments to coordination scheme should include an arc flash assessment Planning studies should include the impact of recommendations on hazard levels
  28. 28. Arc Flash Review: Questions Keith Mullen Senior Engineer & Project Manager - Nashville R. W. Beck, Inc. tel 615.431.3212 fax 615.824.7570 131 Mir Parkway, Suite 300 Hendersonville, TN 37075 kmullen@rwbeck.com

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