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Eminem – Stan (2000)
On this page, I will be analysing and evaluating two music videos, which are Stan by Eminem
and last Friday night by Katy Perry. The genre of Eminem’s song is hip-hop and Katy Perry’s’
song is pop.
In the music video, Stan by Eminem ft Dido. The music video is about an over obsessive fan
which represents Eminem’s loyal fans that listen to his music, it also shows how his fans are
trying to be like him, by dressing like him and even dying their hair like his. The over
obsessive fan writes to Eminem but he doesn’t reply (it’s been over 6 months) in time
because he was too busy with his work and when he final got the time to write to his fan, it
was too late because he had been driving rapidly in the rain and fell off a bridge with his
girlfriend, who was pregnant (13 months) as well and fell into a river, killing them all. And
right at the end, Eminem sees on the news that his fan had killed himself with his family, for
him. The music video has been made by Eminem to explain to his fans that they shouldn’t be
like him or dress like him because his fan can relate to his music and feel the pain that he
went through, but that they should just listen to his music and be themselves buy not
changing how they look.
Genre and Style:
The genre of this music video is hip-hop. It contains rap, beat and the lyrics are reasonably
fast. It is hip-hop but it unconventional because this music video is sad because he is
sending a message to his audience letting them know about what his fans are doing and that
he does not think it is good for them. In addition, the music video does not show any dance
choreography, which most hip-hop music videos do, and it uses pathetic fallacy. The use of
pathetic fallacy shows that the weather in the music video is always dull and dark with rain
because it reflects the mood of the characters.
Codes and conventions:
Codes are signs featured in the text (also known as semiotics). Semiotics is the study of
signs, especially within language and commutation. All media products will have codes, signs
and symbols embedded within them. Some codes have been changed or overused in
another way from the past to the present and from positive to negative. Conventions are
the typical elements featured in the text. It is also a standard procedure or technique used,
especially within the arts. For example, Dark lighting, tense music, woman as victims in
horror movies.
In the music video, Stan, it shows how the obsessive fan is wearing white, which represents
insanity and he looks like he wears lower
class clothing because he lives in a lower
class house. His pregnant girlfriend wears
blue which represents loyalty and trust
which is true because even in later of the
music video, she still doesn’t leave Stan
even though what he has done and with
his obsession of Eminem. The lighting in
the music video is very dull, colourless and
shows that it is raining with lighting. This
shows that the mood of the characters is
related to the weather in the music video,
also pathetic fallacy is used. Pathetic fallacy
is when the weather describes or reflects
the mood in a scene.
This music video is unconventional to other hip-hop music videos because in other hip-hop
music videos, they contain a lot of showing off their lifestyles and making their fans want
them to see their reality and be like them, whereas in Eminem’s music video Stan, he is not
showing any dancing or showing money flashing around but, he is showing an allusion which
he tries and tells a message to his fans that they shouldn’t be like him. In the music video,
there is no dance chorography so this too is unconventional for the music video because
most hip-hop music videos have a lot of dancing.
Eminem also lip sync in the music video because he is actually not in the music video as
much but is showing another person singing as him. He does this because he wants to tell
his fans a message and does it in another person’s view to show what happens to them if
they carry on.
There is no links to other artists in this music video.
Narrative:
The story line of this music video is that it shows how Eminem is showing his fans that some
of them are becoming like them and are getting too obsessive. He does not want them to be
like him because he thinks that he is a bad role model because of his past but he makes the
video with a message suggesting that his loyal fans (they can relate to his songs from his bad
and rough times) should just listen to his songs and not dress like him or act like him in
every way he does.
Representations:
The video attracts the audience because it goes in chronological order and it has a message
behind it. The message suggests that Eminem is getting worried because of what his fans
are doing, they are dying their hair blond like him, dressing like him and getting obsessive
with his identify. He wants to tell his fans that they should not be like him because he thinks
he is a bad role model and that his life was a bad example; also, he just wants them to listen
to his songs and hear what he went through but not to act as he did in the past.
Denotations and Connotations:
Denotations are the basic or literal meaning. It is the first things that we see or understand
within a media text. The denotations in Stan is that we can see an obsessive fan who wants
to be like Eminem and writes to him constantly, the fan also has a basement in his hose
where he keeps his possessions of Eminem such as, he keeps posters of Eminem all around
his walls and writes his letters to him in the basement.
Connotations are the hidden or deeper media of a media text or something that the text
may suggest. The hidden message in Stan suggests that Eminem is making the music video
to tell his fans not to be like him, or look like him because he thinks that they should be
themselves and he thinks that he is not a good role model for them because of his past.
When Stan says in the video that he will name his child, Bonnie, it shows that he wants to
even name his child because in Eminem’s song he refers to Bonnie and Clyde so it shows
that Stan is obsessive over everything Eminem does.
“My girlfriend's pregnant too, I'm bout to be a father
If I have a daughter, guess what I'm a call her?
I'm a name her Bonnie…”
Polysemic means many signs. Polysemic is shown throughout the music video Stan because
when the obsessive fan wears white, the colour white can mean numerous things such as,
purity and innocence whereas, in this music video, it represents as mental insanity.
Pathetic fallacy:
Pathetic fallacy is when the weather describes or reflects the mood of a scene. In the music
video, the weather is shown as rainy and dark throughout the video because it symbolises
the mood of the characters within the music video.
Andrew Goodwin theory:
The music video Stan doesn’t show much of any of the ideas that Goodwin has disused in his
theory. The music video
Stan does not use any
multiple close-ups of the
artist, male gaze theory,
voyeurism, intertextual
references and thought
beats. However, there a
link of the visuals to the
lyrics because when Stan is
writing the letter to
Eminem, he is singing it out
loud for the audience to
hear what he will write to him.
“My girlfriend's pregnant too, I'm bout to be a father
If I have a daughter, guess what I'm a call her?
I'm a name her Bonnie…”
Camera angles:
At the beginning of the music video, you can see the scene where the actor, who plays the
obsessive fan (Stan) is dying his hair blond to look like his idol, Eminem.
This image also shows how Stan (the obsessive fan) is in his bathroom, which looks lower lie
class because of the background which looks poor and the walls eve have some holes in
them. Stan is dying his hair in the sink; this represents the obsessive fan over Eminem.
This image is showing a birds eye view shot. It shows how Stan and his pregnant girlfriend
are in the toilet after she sees what he has done to his hair.
This image shows when Stan is
tape-recording his message to
Eminem. You can see how its rang
outside and this is a use of pathetic
fallacy because the weather
reflects the mood of the character,
Stan is now feeling angry and
annoyed about Eminem because he
thinks he’s ignoring him and not
seeing his letter which he wrote to
him.
This is the image
at the end of the
music video,
because it shows
how Stan’s ghost
is still obsessed
with Eminem and
that he will still
haunt him even
though he has
died.
This image has been screenshot
from the music video, it shows
when Stan’s letter to Eminem
has fell on the floor which has
been left behind from all the
other letter from his fans so now
Stan thinks that Eminem is
ignoring him which make Stan
even more obsessive and angry
towards Eminem.
This image is the scene when
Stan is in the car with his
girlfriend tied in the trunk. The
car is falling of the bridge
because Stan didn’t see the sign
in time for him to stop them
from falling into the river.
Katy Perry – Last Friday Night (2011)
In the music video Last Friday Night, it shows how there has been a party at a house and a
nerd looking girl likes a guy who is a player on a team and is popular but he doesn’t like her
because of her nerdy look, but then she changes and it shows how he then finds her new
appearance to be better and then wants her. However, there is one nerd guy who likes the
nerd girl but doesn’t get recognised by her. In addition, when the party is then over, her
parents come home to find a mess that they do not really mind it. The music video is shown
in non-linear order, which shows the after math of the party first and not going in
chronological order.
Genre and Style:
The genre of this music video is pop. This music video is conventional to pop because, it
contains most of what pop music videos contain. The style visual does suit the genre
because it contains dance choreography, party in the video, fast and upbeat sounds. The
music video suits the genre pop because there is a party, which uses dance choreography,
there’s loud music, upbeat and it is conventional to the genre pop.
Codes and conventions:
The codes in this music video is that Katy (the geek girl) first wears braces with glasses and
clothes such as ‘mom jeans’ and a jumper to give her the geeky look but then later changes
to more skin showing clothing which makes her look not like a nerd anymore but more of
like a popular girl.
At the beginning of the music video, it shows how the video is set in an upper American
class area because of the huge and
wealthy looking houses; also, it shows a
boy riding a bike throwing newspapers
in front of the people’s houses. This
makes the beginning of the video look
more like a movie because in American
movies in the 80’s they would have
children working as ‘paperboy’ or
‘papergirl’ which would throw newspapers in the neighbourhood’s houses so they would get
their newspaper. This makes the beginning of the music video unconventional to pop
because in most pop music videos, they do not make it look like a movie. Another
unconventional thing that has been shown in the music video is that at the beginning, it
shows the after math of the party that had happen the day before, and then later in the
music video it shows how the party happened so it is showing the music video in a non-
linear way, not in a chronological order. However, the music video is still conventional
because it contains dance choreographies and uses fast cuts, which changes to the beat if
the sound. Overall, this music video is mostly conventional because it does what most pop
music videos do, with the fast cuts, dance chorography and colourful colours.
The lighting in the music video shows to be bright and powerful because it is not showing
the scenes to be dull and dark but the opposites because you can see the atmosphere and it
shows that the mood with the people too are cheerful.
Another code in the Katy Perry music video, is that the theme of the video is based in the
80’s. It makes the beginning scene of the video look more like a movie because when it
shows how the boy is riding the bike infront of the neighbourhood throwing newsapaers,
this refers to how the 80’s movies use to have this because in the modern society (2016),
there is no longer people riding on bikes giving out newsapaers in their neohgbouhood.
Moving on, the party and the outfits shows how people use to dress at a party and their
lifestyle in the 80’s. It shows how
they use to wear bright neon
colours, with huge trousers and
puffy hair. However, at the end of
the music video, it shows how the
two parents of Katy’s are the iconic
80’s actors which she uses them as
her paretns because those two
actors were big in the 80’s and ithe
music video is based in the 80’s,
The two actors that she uses to
represent, Corey Feldman and
Debbie Dibson.
Narrative:
The story line of this music video is that it shows how a geek girl likes a popular guy who
doesn’t notice her because of look, but as soon as she changes into a popular look, then
finally he notices her. Also, love doesn’t matter about appearances but you should like the
person for they actually are. Furthermore, it shows how in the 80’s there would be parties
with bright colours and shows how fun they were. Finally, it suggests that most American
upper class children have a spoilt life because their parents would have done the same at
her age and that they don’t mind her making the mess in their house.
Representations:
The music video attracts its target audience by
showing how the male gaze theory is used
because when the geek girl changes her look
from nerdy to promiscuous, it shows a use of
the male gaze theory which shows how the
popular guy finally gets her attention because
of what she is wearing and the camera angle
shows the ‘tilt shot’ which shows the girl from head to toe and shows her outfit giving the
“wow” expression. Furthermore, it attracts the audience because there is another famous
artist featured in the music video, Rebecca Black. Moreover, it shows how Katy Perry is
promoting the game console, ‘Wii’. By promoting this item in her music video, it tells her
fans and audience that they should buy the game because not only is she apart of it but also
because she shows how fun it to dance with in her music video.
Denotations and Connotations:
The denotation in the music video
is that there is girl who is a nerd
who likes a boy who is out of her
league because he is more popular
and doesn’t like her, however
there is a nerd guy who like her
but she doesn’t notice him either.
The nerd looking girl also changes
her look just to impress the popular guy and once he sees her like that, then he finally
notices her.
The connotation of the music video is
that the nerd girl is dressed in a nerdy
way, with glasses which could mean
intelligence or that she is a nerd and
that she doesn’t get any attention from
people but when she changes into
brighter and neon colours such as pink,
which mean femininity and more
revealing clothing, she appears to
receive more attention from people. In
addition, when she is walking down the
stairs in her new outfit, it shows that
she walks uncomfortably and does not
look like she likes it but still makes the
effort to impress the popular guy.
However, another geek person who is
at the party is the nerd guy who likes the geek girl but she doesn’t notice him, he also
daydreams about her and that her rescues her and near the end of the music video, you can
see him placing back her glasses onto her face because he doesn’t want her to change but
to be herself.
The codes shown throughout the music video Last Friday Night are numerous because; it
shows how people change for other people in order to get their attention. Katy (the geek
girl) changes her geeky look to a more promiscuous look, which she wears, pink to show
femininity and wears green, which represents refresh and renewal. Therefore, she wears
these colours to show her change in looks and that she wants attention. This shows the
numerous of codes, is polysemic.
Synergy:
Katy Perry uses synergy in her music video because she has been stared in the game console
“Wii”. She promotes it through her music video, which can then let her know fans know and
buy it. This will make her image and more increase because it shows how she is a true
entertainer and that she is more than just a singer and this could then later lead for her to
have her own television show.
In this music video, it shows that there is most of the Goodwin’s theory expressed
throughout the video because, it shows conventions and contradictions, thought beats,
Multiple close-ups of the main artist, voyeurism and intertextual references.
There isn’t really much of any conventions and contradictions because the song lyrics do
match the music video because she is singing about a party and there is a party going on in
the video. However, there is a use of though beats because the scenes do cut to the beat of
the song. Also, there is use of multiple close-ups of the artist because it shows Katy’s face in
different scenes close up to her. There is voyeurism in the music is presented by Katy
walking down the stairs in a new outfit wearing more tight and revealing clothing. It also
uses the male gaze theory because it shows when Katy is walking down the stairs, the
cameras use a tilt shot which makes the camera angle film her from toe to head and also the
clothing is tight and shows a lot more skin than the other outfit she was wearing previously.
And finally, the video does include intersexual references because when Katy is looking at
the popular guy, it shows the other geek guy checking her out so there are two scenes using
intertextual references.
Overall
Overall, both music videos are unconventional and conventional towards their genre.
Eminem’s music video is mostly unconventional to the genre hip-hop because it does not
contain any dance choreography; the music itself is depressing and he tries to tell his fans a
message. Whereas, Katy Perry’s music video is mostly conventional to the pop genre
because, her music video contains what most pop music videos contain such as, dance
choreography, synergy and it shows a use of the male gaze theory, which links with the
voyeurism and intertexual references, are used from the Goodwin’s theory.
Andrew Goodwin’s music video theory (1992)
Andrew Goodwin’s theory states music videos tend to ignore messages and instead promote
stuff. Most people now call music videos, video promos because they see the music videos ad
just promoting things instead of making a message in the music video. Goodwin came up
with six theories that explain his research from the music videos that he has recognised, I
have listed them below.
Conventions and Contradictions:
Conventions are the relationship between the lyrics and the visuals, which illustrate, amplify
or contradict the lyrics. How the lyrics and images do not really match because of
exaggeration or contradiction. Music videos will exaggerate through images; an example of
too much exaggeration throughout a music video is Miley Cyrus, Wrecking Ball.
Contradiction is going against
something. This image has
been captured from the music
video ‘Wrecking Ball’ by Miley
Cyrus. This image is an
example of exaggeration and
contradiction because she
does not really need to be
naked on a wrecking ball to
show people her feelings.
Thought beats:
Seeing the sounds (the relationship between the music and the visuals, which illustrate,
amplify or contradict the music). Goodwin identified that the music video may be edited in
time to the lyrics or change in pace of the song. The cuts match the beat. An example of
thought beat is the music video, Calvin Harris – Bounce. Throughout the music video, the
scenes are cut when the beat changes, so every time a beat changes so does the images of
the music video.
Genre:
Genre is related style and iconography present. Most artists tend to repeat certain actions
within their music videos in order to associate themselves with it. Each artist wants to be
known for something. An example of this is, Dr. Dre because he is known for his cars and
money with females throughout his music videos so when people see females or bling in a
music video, they think of Dr. Dre. In addition, Amy Winehouse was known for her big hair
and you can see her with it in all her videos.
Multiple close-ups of the main artist or vocalist:
The creation of a star image to promote a recognisable brand image. It is used so the audience can
get use to the artist’s face, also it is used n women body parts (provocative angles), which relates to
the male gaze theory. Examples of music videos, which use provocative angles are in, Nicki Minaj –
Anaconda, Britney Spears – My Prerogative and Cassie – Me&U. Female gaze theory is also used
because there are numerous of male music videos which they use the male’s body parts to attract
female audience. An example is the group JLS, they are known for showing their chest throughout
their music videos.
Voyeurism:
Angles that show a view of a man checking out a woman. This is mostly done to women
than men. A music video example of voyeurism is Rhianna ft Drake – What’s my name.
Voyeurism (Watching or spying in a sexually driven way) often plays a major part, especially
in relation to females.
This image is from Rhianna ft Drake – What’s my name. It shows how Drake is looking at
Rhianna but the camera is from behind him to make it took as if we are in the scene with
him looking at her too. Mostly in music videos, they use tripods to capture the images in the
music video but for the voyeurism angles, they use free hand so makes it a better view for
the audience to experience the same angle as the character watching the other person.
Intertextual references:
To other media texts may be present, especially in numerous videos, also in the visuals to
refer to other artists. An example of intersexual reference is the music video Beat It by
Michael Jackson. He made this video similar to a movie scene from ‘West Side Coast’.
As you can see from the image on the left, it’s the dance fight scene from West Side Coast in
the movie. And the image on the right hand side of the page above, it shows the dance fight
from the music video, Beat It by Michael Jackson.

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In the music video media

  • 1. Eminem – Stan (2000) On this page, I will be analysing and evaluating two music videos, which are Stan by Eminem and last Friday night by Katy Perry. The genre of Eminem’s song is hip-hop and Katy Perry’s’ song is pop. In the music video, Stan by Eminem ft Dido. The music video is about an over obsessive fan which represents Eminem’s loyal fans that listen to his music, it also shows how his fans are trying to be like him, by dressing like him and even dying their hair like his. The over obsessive fan writes to Eminem but he doesn’t reply (it’s been over 6 months) in time because he was too busy with his work and when he final got the time to write to his fan, it was too late because he had been driving rapidly in the rain and fell off a bridge with his girlfriend, who was pregnant (13 months) as well and fell into a river, killing them all. And right at the end, Eminem sees on the news that his fan had killed himself with his family, for him. The music video has been made by Eminem to explain to his fans that they shouldn’t be like him or dress like him because his fan can relate to his music and feel the pain that he went through, but that they should just listen to his music and be themselves buy not changing how they look. Genre and Style: The genre of this music video is hip-hop. It contains rap, beat and the lyrics are reasonably fast. It is hip-hop but it unconventional because this music video is sad because he is sending a message to his audience letting them know about what his fans are doing and that he does not think it is good for them. In addition, the music video does not show any dance choreography, which most hip-hop music videos do, and it uses pathetic fallacy. The use of pathetic fallacy shows that the weather in the music video is always dull and dark with rain because it reflects the mood of the characters. Codes and conventions: Codes are signs featured in the text (also known as semiotics). Semiotics is the study of signs, especially within language and commutation. All media products will have codes, signs and symbols embedded within them. Some codes have been changed or overused in another way from the past to the present and from positive to negative. Conventions are the typical elements featured in the text. It is also a standard procedure or technique used, especially within the arts. For example, Dark lighting, tense music, woman as victims in horror movies.
  • 2. In the music video, Stan, it shows how the obsessive fan is wearing white, which represents insanity and he looks like he wears lower class clothing because he lives in a lower class house. His pregnant girlfriend wears blue which represents loyalty and trust which is true because even in later of the music video, she still doesn’t leave Stan even though what he has done and with his obsession of Eminem. The lighting in the music video is very dull, colourless and shows that it is raining with lighting. This shows that the mood of the characters is related to the weather in the music video, also pathetic fallacy is used. Pathetic fallacy is when the weather describes or reflects the mood in a scene. This music video is unconventional to other hip-hop music videos because in other hip-hop music videos, they contain a lot of showing off their lifestyles and making their fans want them to see their reality and be like them, whereas in Eminem’s music video Stan, he is not showing any dancing or showing money flashing around but, he is showing an allusion which he tries and tells a message to his fans that they shouldn’t be like him. In the music video, there is no dance chorography so this too is unconventional for the music video because most hip-hop music videos have a lot of dancing. Eminem also lip sync in the music video because he is actually not in the music video as much but is showing another person singing as him. He does this because he wants to tell his fans a message and does it in another person’s view to show what happens to them if they carry on. There is no links to other artists in this music video. Narrative: The story line of this music video is that it shows how Eminem is showing his fans that some of them are becoming like them and are getting too obsessive. He does not want them to be like him because he thinks that he is a bad role model because of his past but he makes the video with a message suggesting that his loyal fans (they can relate to his songs from his bad and rough times) should just listen to his songs and not dress like him or act like him in every way he does.
  • 3. Representations: The video attracts the audience because it goes in chronological order and it has a message behind it. The message suggests that Eminem is getting worried because of what his fans are doing, they are dying their hair blond like him, dressing like him and getting obsessive with his identify. He wants to tell his fans that they should not be like him because he thinks he is a bad role model and that his life was a bad example; also, he just wants them to listen to his songs and hear what he went through but not to act as he did in the past. Denotations and Connotations: Denotations are the basic or literal meaning. It is the first things that we see or understand within a media text. The denotations in Stan is that we can see an obsessive fan who wants to be like Eminem and writes to him constantly, the fan also has a basement in his hose where he keeps his possessions of Eminem such as, he keeps posters of Eminem all around his walls and writes his letters to him in the basement. Connotations are the hidden or deeper media of a media text or something that the text may suggest. The hidden message in Stan suggests that Eminem is making the music video to tell his fans not to be like him, or look like him because he thinks that they should be themselves and he thinks that he is not a good role model for them because of his past. When Stan says in the video that he will name his child, Bonnie, it shows that he wants to even name his child because in Eminem’s song he refers to Bonnie and Clyde so it shows that Stan is obsessive over everything Eminem does. “My girlfriend's pregnant too, I'm bout to be a father If I have a daughter, guess what I'm a call her? I'm a name her Bonnie…” Polysemic means many signs. Polysemic is shown throughout the music video Stan because when the obsessive fan wears white, the colour white can mean numerous things such as, purity and innocence whereas, in this music video, it represents as mental insanity. Pathetic fallacy: Pathetic fallacy is when the weather describes or reflects the mood of a scene. In the music video, the weather is shown as rainy and dark throughout the video because it symbolises the mood of the characters within the music video.
  • 4. Andrew Goodwin theory: The music video Stan doesn’t show much of any of the ideas that Goodwin has disused in his theory. The music video Stan does not use any multiple close-ups of the artist, male gaze theory, voyeurism, intertextual references and thought beats. However, there a link of the visuals to the lyrics because when Stan is writing the letter to Eminem, he is singing it out loud for the audience to hear what he will write to him. “My girlfriend's pregnant too, I'm bout to be a father If I have a daughter, guess what I'm a call her? I'm a name her Bonnie…” Camera angles: At the beginning of the music video, you can see the scene where the actor, who plays the obsessive fan (Stan) is dying his hair blond to look like his idol, Eminem. This image also shows how Stan (the obsessive fan) is in his bathroom, which looks lower lie class because of the background which looks poor and the walls eve have some holes in them. Stan is dying his hair in the sink; this represents the obsessive fan over Eminem. This image is showing a birds eye view shot. It shows how Stan and his pregnant girlfriend are in the toilet after she sees what he has done to his hair.
  • 5. This image shows when Stan is tape-recording his message to Eminem. You can see how its rang outside and this is a use of pathetic fallacy because the weather reflects the mood of the character, Stan is now feeling angry and annoyed about Eminem because he thinks he’s ignoring him and not seeing his letter which he wrote to him. This is the image at the end of the music video, because it shows how Stan’s ghost is still obsessed with Eminem and that he will still haunt him even though he has died. This image has been screenshot from the music video, it shows when Stan’s letter to Eminem has fell on the floor which has been left behind from all the other letter from his fans so now Stan thinks that Eminem is ignoring him which make Stan even more obsessive and angry towards Eminem. This image is the scene when Stan is in the car with his girlfriend tied in the trunk. The car is falling of the bridge because Stan didn’t see the sign in time for him to stop them from falling into the river.
  • 6. Katy Perry – Last Friday Night (2011) In the music video Last Friday Night, it shows how there has been a party at a house and a nerd looking girl likes a guy who is a player on a team and is popular but he doesn’t like her because of her nerdy look, but then she changes and it shows how he then finds her new appearance to be better and then wants her. However, there is one nerd guy who likes the nerd girl but doesn’t get recognised by her. In addition, when the party is then over, her parents come home to find a mess that they do not really mind it. The music video is shown in non-linear order, which shows the after math of the party first and not going in chronological order. Genre and Style: The genre of this music video is pop. This music video is conventional to pop because, it contains most of what pop music videos contain. The style visual does suit the genre because it contains dance choreography, party in the video, fast and upbeat sounds. The music video suits the genre pop because there is a party, which uses dance choreography, there’s loud music, upbeat and it is conventional to the genre pop. Codes and conventions: The codes in this music video is that Katy (the geek girl) first wears braces with glasses and clothes such as ‘mom jeans’ and a jumper to give her the geeky look but then later changes to more skin showing clothing which makes her look not like a nerd anymore but more of like a popular girl. At the beginning of the music video, it shows how the video is set in an upper American class area because of the huge and wealthy looking houses; also, it shows a boy riding a bike throwing newspapers in front of the people’s houses. This makes the beginning of the video look more like a movie because in American movies in the 80’s they would have children working as ‘paperboy’ or ‘papergirl’ which would throw newspapers in the neighbourhood’s houses so they would get their newspaper. This makes the beginning of the music video unconventional to pop because in most pop music videos, they do not make it look like a movie. Another unconventional thing that has been shown in the music video is that at the beginning, it shows the after math of the party that had happen the day before, and then later in the music video it shows how the party happened so it is showing the music video in a non- linear way, not in a chronological order. However, the music video is still conventional because it contains dance choreographies and uses fast cuts, which changes to the beat if
  • 7. the sound. Overall, this music video is mostly conventional because it does what most pop music videos do, with the fast cuts, dance chorography and colourful colours. The lighting in the music video shows to be bright and powerful because it is not showing the scenes to be dull and dark but the opposites because you can see the atmosphere and it shows that the mood with the people too are cheerful. Another code in the Katy Perry music video, is that the theme of the video is based in the 80’s. It makes the beginning scene of the video look more like a movie because when it shows how the boy is riding the bike infront of the neighbourhood throwing newsapaers, this refers to how the 80’s movies use to have this because in the modern society (2016), there is no longer people riding on bikes giving out newsapaers in their neohgbouhood. Moving on, the party and the outfits shows how people use to dress at a party and their lifestyle in the 80’s. It shows how they use to wear bright neon colours, with huge trousers and puffy hair. However, at the end of the music video, it shows how the two parents of Katy’s are the iconic 80’s actors which she uses them as her paretns because those two actors were big in the 80’s and ithe music video is based in the 80’s, The two actors that she uses to represent, Corey Feldman and Debbie Dibson. Narrative: The story line of this music video is that it shows how a geek girl likes a popular guy who doesn’t notice her because of look, but as soon as she changes into a popular look, then finally he notices her. Also, love doesn’t matter about appearances but you should like the person for they actually are. Furthermore, it shows how in the 80’s there would be parties with bright colours and shows how fun they were. Finally, it suggests that most American upper class children have a spoilt life because their parents would have done the same at her age and that they don’t mind her making the mess in their house.
  • 8. Representations: The music video attracts its target audience by showing how the male gaze theory is used because when the geek girl changes her look from nerdy to promiscuous, it shows a use of the male gaze theory which shows how the popular guy finally gets her attention because of what she is wearing and the camera angle shows the ‘tilt shot’ which shows the girl from head to toe and shows her outfit giving the “wow” expression. Furthermore, it attracts the audience because there is another famous artist featured in the music video, Rebecca Black. Moreover, it shows how Katy Perry is promoting the game console, ‘Wii’. By promoting this item in her music video, it tells her fans and audience that they should buy the game because not only is she apart of it but also because she shows how fun it to dance with in her music video. Denotations and Connotations: The denotation in the music video is that there is girl who is a nerd who likes a boy who is out of her league because he is more popular and doesn’t like her, however there is a nerd guy who like her but she doesn’t notice him either. The nerd looking girl also changes her look just to impress the popular guy and once he sees her like that, then he finally notices her. The connotation of the music video is that the nerd girl is dressed in a nerdy way, with glasses which could mean intelligence or that she is a nerd and that she doesn’t get any attention from people but when she changes into brighter and neon colours such as pink, which mean femininity and more revealing clothing, she appears to receive more attention from people. In addition, when she is walking down the stairs in her new outfit, it shows that she walks uncomfortably and does not look like she likes it but still makes the effort to impress the popular guy. However, another geek person who is
  • 9. at the party is the nerd guy who likes the geek girl but she doesn’t notice him, he also daydreams about her and that her rescues her and near the end of the music video, you can see him placing back her glasses onto her face because he doesn’t want her to change but to be herself. The codes shown throughout the music video Last Friday Night are numerous because; it shows how people change for other people in order to get their attention. Katy (the geek girl) changes her geeky look to a more promiscuous look, which she wears, pink to show femininity and wears green, which represents refresh and renewal. Therefore, she wears these colours to show her change in looks and that she wants attention. This shows the numerous of codes, is polysemic. Synergy: Katy Perry uses synergy in her music video because she has been stared in the game console “Wii”. She promotes it through her music video, which can then let her know fans know and buy it. This will make her image and more increase because it shows how she is a true entertainer and that she is more than just a singer and this could then later lead for her to have her own television show. In this music video, it shows that there is most of the Goodwin’s theory expressed throughout the video because, it shows conventions and contradictions, thought beats, Multiple close-ups of the main artist, voyeurism and intertextual references. There isn’t really much of any conventions and contradictions because the song lyrics do match the music video because she is singing about a party and there is a party going on in the video. However, there is a use of though beats because the scenes do cut to the beat of the song. Also, there is use of multiple close-ups of the artist because it shows Katy’s face in different scenes close up to her. There is voyeurism in the music is presented by Katy walking down the stairs in a new outfit wearing more tight and revealing clothing. It also uses the male gaze theory because it shows when Katy is walking down the stairs, the cameras use a tilt shot which makes the camera angle film her from toe to head and also the
  • 10. clothing is tight and shows a lot more skin than the other outfit she was wearing previously. And finally, the video does include intersexual references because when Katy is looking at the popular guy, it shows the other geek guy checking her out so there are two scenes using intertextual references. Overall Overall, both music videos are unconventional and conventional towards their genre. Eminem’s music video is mostly unconventional to the genre hip-hop because it does not contain any dance choreography; the music itself is depressing and he tries to tell his fans a message. Whereas, Katy Perry’s music video is mostly conventional to the pop genre because, her music video contains what most pop music videos contain such as, dance choreography, synergy and it shows a use of the male gaze theory, which links with the voyeurism and intertexual references, are used from the Goodwin’s theory. Andrew Goodwin’s music video theory (1992) Andrew Goodwin’s theory states music videos tend to ignore messages and instead promote stuff. Most people now call music videos, video promos because they see the music videos ad just promoting things instead of making a message in the music video. Goodwin came up with six theories that explain his research from the music videos that he has recognised, I have listed them below. Conventions and Contradictions: Conventions are the relationship between the lyrics and the visuals, which illustrate, amplify or contradict the lyrics. How the lyrics and images do not really match because of exaggeration or contradiction. Music videos will exaggerate through images; an example of too much exaggeration throughout a music video is Miley Cyrus, Wrecking Ball. Contradiction is going against something. This image has been captured from the music video ‘Wrecking Ball’ by Miley Cyrus. This image is an example of exaggeration and contradiction because she does not really need to be naked on a wrecking ball to show people her feelings.
  • 11. Thought beats: Seeing the sounds (the relationship between the music and the visuals, which illustrate, amplify or contradict the music). Goodwin identified that the music video may be edited in time to the lyrics or change in pace of the song. The cuts match the beat. An example of thought beat is the music video, Calvin Harris – Bounce. Throughout the music video, the scenes are cut when the beat changes, so every time a beat changes so does the images of the music video. Genre: Genre is related style and iconography present. Most artists tend to repeat certain actions within their music videos in order to associate themselves with it. Each artist wants to be known for something. An example of this is, Dr. Dre because he is known for his cars and money with females throughout his music videos so when people see females or bling in a music video, they think of Dr. Dre. In addition, Amy Winehouse was known for her big hair and you can see her with it in all her videos. Multiple close-ups of the main artist or vocalist: The creation of a star image to promote a recognisable brand image. It is used so the audience can get use to the artist’s face, also it is used n women body parts (provocative angles), which relates to the male gaze theory. Examples of music videos, which use provocative angles are in, Nicki Minaj – Anaconda, Britney Spears – My Prerogative and Cassie – Me&U. Female gaze theory is also used because there are numerous of male music videos which they use the male’s body parts to attract female audience. An example is the group JLS, they are known for showing their chest throughout their music videos.
  • 12. Voyeurism: Angles that show a view of a man checking out a woman. This is mostly done to women than men. A music video example of voyeurism is Rhianna ft Drake – What’s my name. Voyeurism (Watching or spying in a sexually driven way) often plays a major part, especially in relation to females. This image is from Rhianna ft Drake – What’s my name. It shows how Drake is looking at Rhianna but the camera is from behind him to make it took as if we are in the scene with him looking at her too. Mostly in music videos, they use tripods to capture the images in the music video but for the voyeurism angles, they use free hand so makes it a better view for the audience to experience the same angle as the character watching the other person. Intertextual references: To other media texts may be present, especially in numerous videos, also in the visuals to refer to other artists. An example of intersexual reference is the music video Beat It by Michael Jackson. He made this video similar to a movie scene from ‘West Side Coast’. As you can see from the image on the left, it’s the dance fight scene from West Side Coast in the movie. And the image on the right hand side of the page above, it shows the dance fight from the music video, Beat It by Michael Jackson.