Twentieth Century China
QuickTime™ and a
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Anti-Manchu & Republican Movements in
China in the Nineteenth Century
• Self-Strengthening
Movement - studying
the ways of...
Chinese Emigration
• A process going back centuries,
spreading in large numbers first to
Southeast Asia
• Many kept their ...
The Fall of the Manchus
• Weakened by Western
invasions
• Collapse of national
boundaries
• Loss of tax control
• Feuds am...
Double Ten Rebellion -
Wuhan 1911
• The Qing “New Army”
based in Wuhan.
• Police discovered plot
to overthrow
government, ...
The Republic of China (ROC)
• Sun Yatsen, “George
Washington of China,”
returns from overseas
fundraising to become
Presid...
“The Woman Problem”
• Men and later women
writers in China had
been writing about
women’s place in a
changing society.
• L...
General Yuan Shikai
• Dominates northern
China around Beijing
• Agrees to unify China if
he’s made president of
the ROC
• ...
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The Great War (World War I)
1914 - 1918
• West preoccupied
• US banks lend money
to everyone.
• Versailles Peace Treaty -
...
1919 - May 4th Movement
• Allied peace treaties at
the end of World War
One maintained
Western power on
Chinese coast and ...
Chinese Communist Party
(CCP)
• Founded in Shanghai in
1921
• Work to organize
factory workers in cities
• Mao Zedong amon...
First Chinese Civil War
1920s
• Especially between north and
south
• Alliance of Sun Yatsen’s
Kuomintang party & CCP
• Adv...
Chiang Kai-shek
• Chiang Kai-shek takes
control of Kuomintang after
Sun Yatsen’s death.
• Power based on leading
Whampao A...
KMT versus CCP
• Chiang Kai-shek & Kuomintang
fight to destroy CCP
competitors.
• Kuomintang and gangster allies
destroy t...
Japanese Expansion
• Japan takes more and
more power along the
coasts and rivers,
especially Manchuria.
• Mukden Incident
...
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
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The Long March
Legendary Journey of CCP
• CCP regions surrounded.
• Kuomintang forces CCP
forces to flee in 1934.
• 300 da...
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Ye’nan Commune
• Other CCP groups
come to join them, dig
in.
• Kuomintang blockade
them.
• CCP calls for a truce to
drive ...
Zhou Enlai & Zhu De
• Zhou had studied
Communism in France
before World War I. He
was a member of the
Party before Mao and...
Xi’an Incident
1936
• Generals take Chiang
Kai-shek prisoner and
force negotiations with
CCP.
• Plans made to fight
Japane...
Second Sino-Japanese War
1937 - 1945
• Marco Polo Bridge
Incident
• Massive Japanese
Invasion - “Trading
land for time”
• ...
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are needed to see this picture.
World War Two
The Pacific War (1941 - 1945)
• Japanese attack Hong Kong
at the same time as Pearl
Harbor
• Greater East As...
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Second Civil War
• Kuomintang/CCP alliance
collapses after war.
• Russians move to take over
Manchuria, eventually
removin...
People’s Republic of China
(PRC)
• CCP forces enter Beijing in
1948.
• Big Issues: land reform,
women’s rights, health &
e...
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Korean War
1950 - 1953
• Leftover dispute
between Russia and
USA
• As allied forces near the
Chinese border, Red
Army forc...
Tibet
• 1951 - China takes over
Tibet.
• Han Chinese moved to
Tibet.
• The Dalai Lama flees
Tibet in 1959.
• Most Tibetan ...
Communist Reforms in China
• Many reform movements
became power struggles
among CCP leaders.
• 1953 - Anti-Rightist
Campai...
Nuclear Power
• 1964 - China detonates
its first atomic bomb.
• Based on Russian
technology
• Mao threatens to use
nuclear...
Great People’s Cultural
Revolution 1966 - 1976
• Mao returns to power,
ruling until his death
• Cult of Mao
• China turns ...
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Space Power
• 1970 - China launches
its first rocket into
space.
• Mostly used to launch
satellites and to
demonstrate pow...
China Begins to Open
• 1971 - US Ping pong
team goes to China, its
first official US visitors
in two decades.
• 1972 - Pre...
1975 / 1976
• 1975 - Chiang Kai-shek
dies in Taiwan.
• 1976 - Earthquakes &
Floods
• Zhou dies
• Zhu dies
• Mao dies
Quick...
Deng Xiaoping
• Deng Xiaoping comes to
power
• Weakens cult of Mao
• Opens China economically
but not politically
• One-Ch...
China’s Growing Economy
• Small markets and
businesses spread
and grow.
• Growing many times
faster than markets
in USA, E...
Tiananmen Square
1989
• Calls for reforms and
freedoms grow across China.
• Death of an old high official
lead to gatherin...
China continues to grow,
develop, and modernize.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this ...
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4 Twentieth Century China

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4 Twentieth Century China

  1. 1. Twentieth Century China QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  2. 2. Anti-Manchu & Republican Movements in China in the Nineteenth Century • Self-Strengthening Movement - studying the ways of the West • 100 Days of 1898 - Emperor Kuangxi • Boxer Rebellion in 1900 - Anti-Western • 1905 - Exam system abolished • Sun Yatsen • Drifting Provinces & Rebellious Generals QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  3. 3. Chinese Emigration • A process going back centuries, spreading in large numbers first to Southeast Asia • Many kept their links with their ancestral homes. • There were lots of reasons to leave China. • The California Gold Rush (1849) drew many Chinese. • Widespread discrimination • Chinatowns • 1852 - Ratio of Chinese men to women in USA was 1685 to 1. • Chinese helped build the Transcontinental Railroad. • Chinese also emigrated to Mexico and South America. • 1882 - US Chinese Exclusion Act QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  4. 4. The Fall of the Manchus • Weakened by Western invasions • Collapse of national boundaries • Loss of tax control • Feuds among Manchu provinces • Corruption & bribery • Armies kept for political power, not for fighting real wars QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  5. 5. Double Ten Rebellion - Wuhan 1911 • The Qing “New Army” based in Wuhan. • Police discovered plot to overthrow government, some army officers to be charged • Rather than face arrest, the army rebelled against the Qing. • Rebellion spread across the south of China. • Emperor resigned. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  6. 6. The Republic of China (ROC) • Sun Yatsen, “George Washington of China,” returns from overseas fundraising to become President of China. • Kuomintang Party (KMT) leads the new government QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  7. 7. “The Woman Problem” • Men and later women writers in China had been writing about women’s place in a changing society. • Liberal families stopped foot-binding and sent some daughters to school. • Ding Ling was a leader in literature and early Chinese feminism. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  8. 8. General Yuan Shikai • Dominates northern China around Beijing • Agrees to unify China if he’s made president of the ROC • Crowns himself emperor in 1916, dies soon after • Central power collapses • Warlords across China • Sun Yatsen in south QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  9. 9. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  10. 10. The Great War (World War I) 1914 - 1918 • West preoccupied • US banks lend money to everyone. • Versailles Peace Treaty - Japan gets Germany’s old territory in China after the war. • Japan gains power in Manchuria. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  11. 11. 1919 - May 4th Movement • Allied peace treaties at the end of World War One maintained Western power on Chinese coast and gave former German territories to Japan. • Beijing - Student protests grows, demanding reforms in treaties and government. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  12. 12. Chinese Communist Party (CCP) • Founded in Shanghai in 1921 • Work to organize factory workers in cities • Mao Zedong among founders - soon working to organize peasants QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  13. 13. First Chinese Civil War 1920s • Especially between north and south • Alliance of Sun Yatsen’s Kuomintang party & CCP • Advised by Russians - willing to help China, Russians have own goals. • Whampao Academy near Canton - officer training, Russian training • Establishes capital at Nanjing • Beijing renamed Peiping • Sun Yatsen dies during negotiations with northern forces in Beijing. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  14. 14. Chiang Kai-shek • Chiang Kai-shek takes control of Kuomintang after Sun Yatsen’s death. • Power based on leading Whampao Academy • Eliminates enemies, allies with warlords, drives away Russians, breaks with CCP • Marries money - Soong Family QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  15. 15. KMT versus CCP • Chiang Kai-shek & Kuomintang fight to destroy CCP competitors. • Kuomintang and gangster allies destroy the Communists in Shanghai in 1927 • CCP organizes more and more in rural colonies (soviets). • Kuomintang armies kill millions of peasants to destroy CCP support. • Chiang Kai-shek sees CCP as greater enemy than Japan. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  16. 16. Japanese Expansion • Japan takes more and more power along the coasts and rivers, especially Manchuria. • Mukden Incident • Shanghai • Install Pu Yi as Emperor of Manchukuo in 1932 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  17. 17. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  18. 18. The Long March Legendary Journey of CCP • CCP regions surrounded. • Kuomintang forces CCP forces to flee in 1934. • 300 days from south through Sichuan to Ye’nan in Shaanxi province • 6000 miles, 18 mountain ranges, 24 major rivers, 10 warlords • Crossing of the Dadu River - 20 men • Helped peasants, didn’t take food • 200,000 departed, 30,000 reached the north QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  19. 19. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  20. 20. Ye’nan Commune • Other CCP groups come to join them, dig in. • Kuomintang blockade them. • CCP calls for a truce to drive out foreigners, especially Japan. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  21. 21. Zhou Enlai & Zhu De • Zhou had studied Communism in France before World War I. He was a member of the Party before Mao and was an early competitor. • Zhu was a former farm boy and PE teacher. He organized the Red Army. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  22. 22. Xi’an Incident 1936 • Generals take Chiang Kai-shek prisoner and force negotiations with CCP. • Plans made to fight Japanese forces in China - United Front QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  23. 23. Second Sino-Japanese War 1937 - 1945 • Marco Polo Bridge Incident • Massive Japanese Invasion - “Trading land for time” • Take over Manchuria, northern China, coastal cities • Rape of Nanjing, new capital at Chongqing in Sichuan QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  24. 24. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  25. 25. World War Two The Pacific War (1941 - 1945) • Japanese attack Hong Kong at the same time as Pearl Harbor • Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere • USA begins supplying Kuomintang China • Flying Tigers • Burma Road, then The Hump • CCP units infiltrate behind Japanese lines, work with peasants. • Kuomintang armies mostly don’t fight, saving resources to fight CCP. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  26. 26. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  27. 27. Second Civil War • Kuomintang/CCP alliance collapses after war. • Russians move to take over Manchuria, eventually removing most of its factories. • USA tries to negotiate peace. • CCP defeats Kuomintang in 1949. • Kuomintang flees to Taiwan to maintain Republic of China - less than 1% of China. • ROC controls Chinese seat at United Nations.
  28. 28. People’s Republic of China (PRC) • CCP forces enter Beijing in 1948. • Big Issues: land reform, women’s rights, health & education • USA and its allies refuse to recognize it and stick with ROC. • China forms alliances with India and many poor nations, especially in Africa. • Mao Zedong - philosopher, primary leader • Zhou Enlai - best diplomat, practical leader • Zhu De - army commander QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  29. 29. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  30. 30. Korean War 1950 - 1953 • Leftover dispute between Russia and USA • As allied forces near the Chinese border, Red Army forces pour into battle. • Negotiations end war, viewed as a victory by China over landlord nations QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  31. 31. Tibet • 1951 - China takes over Tibet. • Han Chinese moved to Tibet. • The Dalai Lama flees Tibet in 1959. • Most Tibetan temples and monasteries destroyed in Cultural Revolution. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  32. 32. Communist Reforms in China • Many reform movements became power struggles among CCP leaders. • 1953 - Anti-Rightist Campaign - identify and reform old enemies • 1956 - Hundred Flowers - trick? • 1958 - Great Leap Forward - catch up with western industry, bad planning & natural disasters • 1960 - Split with Russia QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  33. 33. Nuclear Power • 1964 - China detonates its first atomic bomb. • Based on Russian technology • Mao threatens to use nuclear weapons against any enemies, including now Russia. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  34. 34. Great People’s Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976 • Mao returns to power, ruling until his death • Cult of Mao • China turns upside down again and again. • Even Zhou Enlai and Zhu De were in danger of imprisonment. • Educational system stopped functioning. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  35. 35. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  36. 36. Space Power • 1970 - China launches its first rocket into space. • Mostly used to launch satellites and to demonstrate power • Manned space flight in 2003. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  37. 37. China Begins to Open • 1971 - US Ping pong team goes to China, its first official US visitors in two decades. • 1972 - President Nixon visits China and opens trade. • 1974 - Terracotta Army discovery QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  38. 38. 1975 / 1976 • 1975 - Chiang Kai-shek dies in Taiwan. • 1976 - Earthquakes & Floods • Zhou dies • Zhu dies • Mao dies QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  39. 39. Deng Xiaoping • Deng Xiaoping comes to power • Weakens cult of Mao • Opens China economically but not politically • One-Child Policy • 1979 - President Carter recognizes PRC instead of ROC. • Deng Xiaoping visits USA. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  40. 40. China’s Growing Economy • Small markets and businesses spread and grow. • Growing many times faster than markets in USA, Europe, and Japan QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  41. 41. Tiananmen Square 1989 • Calls for reforms and freedoms grow across China. • Death of an old high official lead to gatherings and then protests in Beijing. • University students lead protests. • Negotiations and confrontations continue. • Pro-reform leaders lose arguments and are sacked. • Deng sends the army to clear the protests. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  42. 42. China continues to grow, develop, and modernize. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

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