Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Avatar as innovation


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Avatar as innovation

  1. 1. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???1…What is Innovation?Innovation is the development of new values through solutions that meet newrequirements, inarticulate needs, or old customer and market needs in value addingnew ways.This is accomplished through more effective products, processes, service,technologies or ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and thesociety.Innovation differs from invention in that innovation refers to the use of a better and,as a result, novel idea or method, whereas invention refers more directly to thecreation of the idea or method itself.Innovation differs from improvement in that innovation refers to the notion of doingsomething different rather than doing the same thing better.The famous robotics engineer Joseph F. Engelberger asserts that innovations requireonly three things: 1. A recognized need, 2. Competent people with relevant technology, and 3. Financial support.In this assignment I mentioned two type of innovation.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 1
  2. 2. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???2…Incremental InnovationA series of small improvements to an existing product or product line that usuallyhelps maintain or improve its competitive position over time. Incremental innovationis regularly used within the high technology business by companies that need tocontinue to improve their products to include new features increasingly desiredby consumersIncremental innovation (sometimes referred to as sustaining innovation) uses existingforms or technologies as a starting point."Gillette used to make razors with a single blade. Later, one of its diligent students ofstubble asked, Wouldn‘t two blades be better than one? Thus was born the TracII. Next came – guess what? – a razor with three blades – the Mach III. I love Gilletterazors – use one every morning."Other good examples include the,Apple iPod. The original iPod came in just white, and enabled you to store and playyour mp3 music collection only. Incremental improvements have occurred over timeso that today you can buy them in many different colours; store your familyphotographs and even your video collection.Global Positioning Satellite. These are now common place in motor vehicles toassist drivers in getting from A to B. GPS systems in cars are an example of anincremental innovation in which something that already exists has just beenreconfigured to another use.Intel Pentium Processors. Intel introduced the Pentium 4 computer processor chip asan incremental improvement to the Pentium 3 chip. Both chips had the same basictechnology but the Pentium 4 introduced new design improvements and additionalfeatures to improve the chips overall performance.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 2
  3. 3. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Motor vehicles. The cars of twenty or thirty years back and beyond could be thoughtof as quite basic when compared to the cars of today. Incremental improvements haveoccurred over time so that its common to expect a modern day car to include electricwindows, ABS breaks, air bags, cup holders and the list goes on.Making incremental improvements is important for extending the marketable life of aproduct or service.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 3
  4. 4. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???3…Disruptive InnovationA disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and valuenetwork , and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network(over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology.The term is used in business and technology literature to describe innovations thatimprove a product or service in ways that the market does not expect, typically firstby designing for a different set of consumers in the new market and later by loweringprices in the existing market.I would like to share some examples:Digital photography: Early digital cameras suffered from low picture quality andresolution and long shutter lag. Quality and resolution are no longer major issues andshutter lag is much less than it used to be. The convenience of small memory cardsand portable hard drives that hold hundreds or thousands of pictures, as well as thelack of the need to develop these pictures, also helped. Digital cameras have a highpower consumption (but several lightweight battery packs can provide enough powerfor thousands of pictures). Cameras for classic photography are stand-alonedevices. In the same manner, high-resolution digital video recording has replaced filmstock, except for high-budget motion pictures.Downloadable Digital media: In the 1990s, the music industry phased outthe single , leaving consumers with no means to purchase individual songs. Thismarket was initially filled by illegal peer-to-peer file sharing technologies, and thenby online retailers such as the iTunes Store and This low end disruptioneventually undermined the sales of physical, high-cost CDs.Desktop publishing: Early desktop-publishing systems could not match high-endprofessional systems in either features or quality. Nevertheless, they lowered the costof entry to the publishing business, and economies of scale eventually enabled them tomatch, and then surpass, the functionality of the older dedicated publishing systems.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 4
  5. 5. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Computer printers: Offset printing has a high overhead cost , but very low unit costcompared to computer printers, and superior quality. But as printers, especially laserprinters, have improved in speed and quality, they have become increasingly usefulfor creating documents in limited issues.High speed CMOS video sensors: When first introduced, high speed CMOS sensorswere less sensitive, had lower resolution, and cameras based on them had lessduration (record time). The advantage of rapid setup time, editing in the camera, andnearly-instantaneous review quickly eliminated 16 mm high speed film systems.CMOS-based cameras also require less power (single phase 110 V AC and a fewamps for CMOS, vs. 240 V single- or three-phase at 20-50 A for filmcameras). Continuing advances have overtaken 35 mm film and are challenging70 mm film applications.In this assignment I did not mention any product or service innovation, but it is relatedto Entertainment Industry and one of the great entrepreneurial efforts in Film industry.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 5
  6. 6. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???4…Is a movie an innovation?Each film is an entrepreneurial venture, a financial and personal risk that filmmakerstake and often sacrifice years of their lives for. As the audience, we enjoy to immersein ever-new stories and characters to touches our minds and emotions.However, is a movie really an innovation? One can argue.The generic definition of innovation…“innovation is different from a novelty: it is the combination that translates a noveltyinto a marketable product (or service), so an innovation brings together the newness,the value it creates and the adoption to something marketable”.Therefore, also a movie would have to demonstrate these same three requirements inorder to be innovative. 1. Novelty 2. Creating a value 3. Capturing value in a marketplace.Yes, I am talking about the one of the highest budget movie of Hollywood….This movie has broken almost all the records of Film industry. This movie wasreleased in 2009 and become highest grossing film ever.This film was released in to 2D, 3D and 4D (in some selected theatres of SouthKorea) format in all over the world and….Name of the movie is AVATAR….!!!The innovations in this movie lie between two kinds of research: Incremental andDisruptive.So, it is necessary to know about the movie and innovations of Director.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 6
  7. 7. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???5…“AVATAR”Avatar is a 2009 American epic science fiction film written and directed by JamesCameron, and starring Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, MichelleRodriguez, Joel David Moore, Giovanni Ribisi and Sigourney Weaver. The film is setin the mid-22nd century, when humans are mining a precious mineralcalled unobtanium on Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the AlphaCentauri star system. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continuedexistence of a local tribe of Navi – a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora. Thefilms title refers to a genetically engineered Navi body with the mind of a remotelylocated human, and is used to interact with the natives of Pandora.Development of Avatar began in 1994, when Cameron wrote an 80-page treatment forthe film. Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Camerons 1997film Titanic, for a planned release in 1999, but according to Cameron, the necessarytechnology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film. Work on thelanguage of the films extraterrestrial beings began in summer 2005, and Cameronbegan developing the screenplay and fictional universe in early 2006. Avatar wasofficially budgeted at $237 million. Other estimates put the cost between $280 millionand $310 million for production and at $150 million for promotion. The film madeextensive use of cutting edge motion capture filming techniques, and was released fortraditional viewing, 3D viewing (using the RealD 3D, Dolby 3D, XpanD 3D,and IMAX 3D formats), and for "4D" experiences in select South Koreantheaters. The stereoscopic film making was touted as a breakthrough in cinematictechnology.Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, and was internationally releasedon December 16 and in the United States and Canada on December 18, to positivecritical reviews, with critics highly praising its groundbreaking visual effects. Duringits theatrical run, the film broke several box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time, as well as in the United States and Canada,surpassing Titanic, which had held those records for twelve years. It also became thefirst film to gross more than $2 billion. Avatar was nominated for nine AcademyAwards, including Best Picture and Best Director, and won three, for Best ArtPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 7
  8. 8. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Direction, Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects. The films home mediarelease went on to break opening sales records and became the top-sellingBlu-ray ofall time. Following the films success, Cameron signed with 20th Century Fox toproduce two sequels, making Avatar the first of a planned trilogy.It is brief story of Avatar. Now some questions may be raised in mind like, 1. How the idea was generated in the mind of Director? 2. How the idea was grown and implemented? 3. How the development was carried out? 4. What are the stages of development? 5. What are the themes and inspiration of movie? 6. Was Avatar Disruptive Innovation or Incremental Innovation? 7. How the innovator (Here, Director) manage the Innovation risk? 8. How the innovator linked with the innovation? 9. What are the effects of innovation in Industry with respect to Porter‘s five force model? 10. Who is the behind of success?You can find answer of these questions in this assignment.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 8
  9. 9. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???6…Origin of Idea:In 1994, director James Cameron wrote an 80-page treatment for Avatar, drawinginspiration from "every single science fiction book" he had read in his childhood aswell as from adventure novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs and H. RiderHaggard. In August 1996,Cameron announced that after completing Titanic, he would film Avatar, whichwould make use of synthetic, or computer-generated, actors. The project would cost$100 million and involve at least six actors in leading roles "who appear to be real butdo not exist in the physical world".Visual effects house Digital Domain, with whom Cameron has a partnership, joinedthe project, which was supposed to begin production in the summer of 1997 for a1999 release. However, Cameron felt that the technology had not caught up with thestory and vision that he intended to tell.He decided to concentrate on making documentaries and refining the technology forthe next few years. It was revealed in a Bloomberg Business Week cover story that20th Century Fox had fronted $10 million to Cameron to film a proof-of-concept clipfor Avatar, which he showed to Fox executives in October 2005.In February 2006, Cameron revealed that his film Project 880 was "a retooled versionof Avatar", a film that he had tried to make years earlier, citing the technologicaladvances in the creation of the computer-generated characters Gollum, King Kong,and Davy Jones. Cameron had chosen Avatar over his project Battle Angel aftercompleting a five-day camera test in the previous year.The 280,000-square-foot studio in Playa Vista, Calif., has a curious history as alaunching pad for big, risky ideas. In the 1940s, Howard Hughes used the hugewooden airplane hangar to construct the massive plywood H-4 Hercules seaplane—famously known as the Spruce Goose. Five years ago, movie director James Cameronwas in the Playa Vista studio at a crucial stage in his own big, risky project. He wasviewing early footage from Avatar, the sci-fi epic he had been dreaming about sincehis early 20s. Camerons studio partner, Twentieth Century Fox, had alreadycommitted to a budget of $200 million (the final cost is reportedly closer to $300million) on what promised to be the most technologically advanced work of cinemaPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 9
  10. 10. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???ever undertaken. But as Cameron looked into his computer monitor, he knewsomething had gone terribly wrong. .The film—although "film" seems to be an anachronistic term for such a digitallyintense production—takes place on a moon called Pandora, which circles a distantplanet. Jake Sully, a former Marine paralyzed from the waist down during battle onEarth, has traveled to this lush, green world teeming with exotic, bioluminescent lifeto take part in the militarys Avatar program.The human settlers are interested inmining Pandoras resources but cant breathe its toxic atmosphere, so to help explorethe moon and meet with the native Navi who live there, Sully has his consciousnesslinked with a genetically engineered 9-foot-tall human–alien hybrid.Cameron wrote his first treatment for the movie in 1995 with the intention of pushingthe boundaries of what was possible with cinematic digital effects. In his view,making Avatar would require blending live-action sequences and digitally capturedperformances in a three-dimensional, computer-generated world. Part action–adventure, part interstellar love story, the project was so ambitious that it took 10more years before Cameron felt cinema technology had advanced to the point whereAvatar was even possible.The scene on Camerons screen at Playa Vista—an important turning point in themovies plot—showed Navi princess Neytiri, played by Zoë Saldana, as she firstencounters Sullys Avatar in the jungles of Pandora. Everything in the forest isluminous. Glowing sprites float through Pandoras atmosphere, landing on Sully asNeytiri determines if he can be trusted. Playing Sully is Sam Worthington, anAustralian actor whom Cameron had plucked from obscurity to play the movieshero. Cameron was staring directly into Worthingtons face—or, rather, he waslooking into the face of a digitally rendered Worthington as a creature with blue skinand large yellow eyes—but he might as well have been staring into a Kabuki mask.The onscreen rendering of Worthington was supposed to be a sort of digital sleight ofhand—a human character inhabiting an alien body so that he could blend into an alienworld, played by a human actor inhabiting a digital body in a digital world. To makePrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 10
  11. 11. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???the whole thing work, Worthingtons performance, those subtle expressions that sell acharacter to the audience, had to come through the face of his Avatar. But aftermillions of dollars of research and development, the Avatars face was not onlylifeless, it was downright creepy. It "scared the crap out of me," Cameron recalls."Horrible! It was dead, it was awful, it wasnt Sam. God, I thought. Weve doneeverything right and this is what It looks like?”The reaction Cameron was feeling has a name. Its called the uncanny valley, and its aproblem for roboticists and animators alike. Audiences are especially sensitive torenderings of the human face, and the closer a digital creation gets to a photorealistichuman, the higher expectations get.If you map human movements and expression to cute furry creatures that dance andsing like people, then audiences willingly suspend disbelief and go along withit.(Think of the penguins in Happy Feet.) But if you try to give a digital character ahumanoid face, anything short of perfection can be uncanny—thus theterm. Sometimes audience unease is to a characters advantage; in The Lord of theRings the creature Gollum was supposed to be unsettling. But Cameron was lookingfor empathy, and in the first footage, thats not what he got.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 11
  12. 12. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???7…Idea behind computer-generated face of a blue, cat-eyed human–alien hybrid:Well, for one thing, lots of money is riding on it. But so, to an extent, is JamesCamerons stature as an unstoppable force in Hollywood. Cameron has built upenormous fame and power based on his reputation as a technical innovator—pushingthe science and technology of modelmaking, digital animation and cameraengineering. But Cameron is perhaps even more famous as the industrys biggest risk-taker, which might have made him a lot of enemies if his risks hadnt been sospectacularly rewarded in the past. In 1997, the film Titanic taught Hollywood apowerful lesson in Cameronomics: The directors unquenchable thirst for authenticityand technological perfection required deep-sea exploratory filming, expensive scalemodels and pioneering computer graphics that ballooned the films budget to $200million. This upped the ante for everyone involved and frightened the heck out of thestudio bean counters, but the bet paid off—Titanic went on to make $1.8 billionandwin 11 Academy Awards.A unique hybrid of scientist, explorer, inventor and artist, Cameron has made testingthe limits of what is possible part of his standard operating procedure. He dreamsalmost impossibly big, and then invents ways to bring those dreams into reality. Thetechnology of moviemaking is a personal mission to him, inextricably linked with theart. Each new film is an opportunity to advance the science of cinema, andif Avatar succeeds, it will change the way movies are captured, edited and evenacted.Filmmakers, especially those with a technical bent, admire Cameron for "hiswillingness to incorporate new technologies in his films without waiting for them tobe perfected," says Bruce Davis, the executive director of the Academy of MotionPicture Arts and Sciences. It adds to the risky nature of Camerons projects, but hisstorytelling has reaped enormous benefits. Theres a term in Hollywood for Cameronsstyle of directing, Davis says: "They call this ‗building the parachute on the waydown."Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 12
  13. 13. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???But repeatedly pulling off these feats of derring-do requires both the drive of anambitious egomaniac and an engineers plodding patience. "You have to eat pressurefor breakfast if you are going to do this job," Cameron says. "On the one hand,pressure is a good thing. It makes you think about what youre doing, youraudience. Youre not making a personal statement, like a novel. But you cant make amovie for everybody—thats the kiss of death. You have to make it for yourself."Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 13
  14. 14. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???8…Idea behind the GONZO effects:Camerons dual-sided personality has roots in his upbringing—the brainy sci-fi geekfrom Chippewa, Ontario, was raised by a painter mother and an engineer father. "Itwas always a parallel push between art and technology," he says. "My approach tofilmmaking was always very technical. I started off imagining not that I would be adirector, but a special effects practitioner.”Unable to afford to go to film school in Los Angeles, Cameron supported himself as atruck driver and studied visual effects on weekends at the University of SouthernCalifornia library, photocopying dissertations on optical printing and the sensitometryof film stocks. "This is not bull," he says. "I gave myself a great course on film FX forthe cost of the copying.”Cameron eventually landed a job on the effects crew of Roger Cormans low-budget1980 filmBattle Beyond the Stars, but he didnt tell anyone that he was an autodidactwith no practical experience. When he was exposed to the reality of film production,it was very different from what he had imagined, he recalls: "It was totally gonzoproblem solving. What do you do when Plans A, B and C have all crashed and burnedby 9 am? That was my start. It wasnt as a creative filmmaker—it was as a techdude."Over the years, Camerons budgets have increased to become the biggest in thebusiness, and digital technology has changed the realm of the possible in Hollywood,but Cameron is still very much the gonzo engineer.He helped found the special-effects company Digital Domain in the early 1990s, andhe surrounds himself with Hollywood inventors such as Vince Pace, who developedspecial underwater lighting for Camerons 1989 undersea sci-fi thriller, TheAbyss.Pace also worked with Cameron on Ghosts of the Abyss, a 2003 undersea 3Ddocumentary that explored the wreck of the Titanic. For that movie, Pace andCameron designed a unique hi-def 3D camera system that fused two Sony HDC-F950HD cameras 2½ inches apart to mimic the stereoscopic separation of human eyes. ThePrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 14
  15. 15. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Fusion Camera System has since been used for 3D movies such as Journey to theCenter of the Earth and the upcoming Tron Legacy, and at sporting events such as the2007 NBA finals.The 3D experience is at the heart of Avatar. (In fact, some suspect that Cameroncannily delayed the movies release to wait for more theaters to install 3D screens—there will be more than 3000 for the launch.) Stereoscopic moviemaking hashistorically been the novelty act of cinema. But Cameron sees 3D as a subtlerexperience.To film the live-action sequences of Avatar, he used a modified version of the Fusioncamera. The new 3D camera creates an augmented-reality view for Cameron as heshoots, sensing its position on a motion-capture stage, and then integrating the liveactors into CG environments on the viewfinder. "Its a unique way of shooting stereomovies," says visual-effects supervisor Stephen Rosenbaum."Cameron uses it to look into the environment; its not about beating people over thehead with visual spectacle." This immersive 3D brings a heightened believabilityto Avatars live-action sequences—gradually bringing viewers deeper into the exoticworld of Pandora. In an early scene, Sully looks out the window as he flies over thegiant trees and waterfalls of the jungle moon, and the depth afforded by the 3Dperspective gives the planet mass and scale, making it as dizzyingly real for viewersas it is for him.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 15
  16. 16. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???9…Idea behind the Virtual World:Yet live-action 3D was hardly the biggest technical challenge. Only about 25 percentof the movie was created using traditional live performances on sets. The rest takesplace in an entirely computer-generated world—combining performance capture withvirtual environments that have never before been realized on film. Conjuring up thisexotic world allowed Cameron to engage in "big-time design," he says, with six-legged hammerhead thanators, armored direhorses, pterodactyl-like banshees,hundreds of trees and plants, floating mountains and incredible landscapes, all createdfrom scratch. He drew upon his experience with deep-sea biology and plant life forinspiration.Sigourney Weaver, who plays botanist Grace Augustine, calls it "the most ambitiousmovie Ive ever been in. Every single plant and creature has come out of this crazypersons head. This is what Camerons inner 14-year-old wanted to see."To bring his actors into this world, Cameron collaborated with Weta Digital, aneffects house founded by The Lord of the Rings director Peter Jackson. Weta hascreated some of the most groundbreaking characters in recent years, using humanperformances to anima-te digital creatures such as Gollum in the Rings series and thegreat ape in Jacksons 2005 version ofKing Kong. By now, the process of basicmotion capture is well established. Actors are dressed in "mocap" suits studded withreflective reference markers and stripes, then cameras capture the basic movements ofa performance, which are later mapped to digital characters in a computer.For actors, the process of performing within an imaginary world, squeezed into aleotard while pretending to inhabit an alien body, is a challenge. Motion-capturetechnology is capable of recording a 360-degree view of performances, so actors mustplay scenes with no idea where the "camera" will eventually be. Weaver found theexperience liberating. "Its simpler," she says. "You just act. Theres no hair ormakeup, nothing. Its just you and the material. You forget everything but the storyyoure telling." Directing within a virtual set is more difficult. Most directors choosetheir angles and shots on a computer screen in postproduction. But by then, most ofPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 16
  17. 17. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???the immediacy of the performance is lost. Cameron wanted to be able to see his actorsmoving within the virtual environments while still on the motion-capture stage (calledthe volume).So he challenged his virtual-production supervisor Glenn Derry to comeup with a virtual camera that could show him a low-resolution view of Pandora as heshot the performancesThe resulting swing camera (so called because its screen could swing to any angle togive Cameron greater freedom of movement) is another of Avatars breakthroughtechno-logies. The swing camera has no lens at all, only an LCD screen and markersthat record its position and orientation within the volume relative to the actors. Thatposition information is then run through an effects switcher, which feeds back low-resolution CG versions of both the actors and the environment of Pandora to theswing cams screen in real time.This virtual camera allowed Cameron to shoot a scene simply by moving through thevolume. Cameron could pick up the camera and shoot his actors photographically, asthe performance occurred, or he could reshoot any scene by walking through theempty soundstage with the device after the actors were gone, capturing differentcamera angles as the scene replayed.But all of this technology can lead right back into the uncanny valley, becausecapturing an actors movements is only a small step toward creating a believabledigital chara-cter. Without the subtle expressions of the face, Cameron might as wellbe playing with marionettes. Getting this crucial element right required him to pushWetas technology far beyond anything the company had done before.In fact, Cameron doesnt even like the term "motion capture" for the process useon Avatar. He prefers to call it "performance capture." This may seem like semantics,but to Cameron, the subtle facial expressions that define an actors performance hadbeen lost for many of the digital characters that have come before. In those films, theprocess of motion capture served only as a starting point for animators, who wouldfinish the job with digital brush strokes."Gollums face was entirely animated byhand," says Weta Digital effects master Joe Letteri."King Kong was a third or soPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 17
  18. 18. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???straight performance capture. It was never automatic." This time, Cameron wanted tokeep the embellishment by animators to a minimum and let the actors drive their ownperformances.In order to pull more data from the actors faces, Cameron reworked an old idea hehad sketched on a napkin back in 1995: fasten a tiny camera to the front of a helmet totrack every facial movement, from darting eyes and twitching noses to furrowingeyebrows and the tricky interaction of jaw, lips, teeth and tongue. "I knew I could notfail if I had a 100 percent closeup of the actor 100 percent of the time that traveledwith them wherever they went," he says. "That really makes a closeup come alive."The information from the cameras produced a digital framework, or rig, of an actorsface. The rig was then given a set of rules that applied the muscle movements of eachactors face to that of the Avatar or the Navi that he or she was playing. To make aCG character express the same emotion as a human actor, the rig had to translateevery arch of a human eyebrow directly to the digital characters face.But it turns out there is no magic formula that can supplant hard work and lots of trialand error. After Cameron complained about the uncanny-valley effect, Weta spentanother year perfecting the rig on Worthingtons Avatar by tweaking the algorithmsthat guided its movements and expressions until he came alive enough to meetCamerons sky-high standards. "It was torturous," Letteri admits. But when Weta wasfinished, you could pour the motion-capture data into the rig and it would come outthe other side right.With all the attention focused on Avatar, anything short of perfection may not begood enough.Cameron is asking moviegoers to believe in a deep new universe of hisown design and to buy the concept that 9-foot-tall blue aliens can communicatehuman emotions. If Cameron is wrong, then Avatar may be remembered as themoment when the battle for the uncanny valley was lost. If he is right, the technologywill disappear behind the story line, and audiences will lose themselves in Avatarsworld.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 18
  19. 19. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???10…Development:From January to April 2006, Cameron worked on the script and developed a culturefor the films aliens, the Navi. Their language was created by Dr.Paul Frommer, alinguist at USC.[13] The Navi language has a lexicon of about 1000 words, with some30 added by Cameron. The tongues phonemesinclude ejective consonants (such asthe "kx" in "skxawng") that are found in the Amharic language of Ethiopia, and theinitial "ng" that Cameron may have taken from New Zealand Māori. ActressSigourney Weaver and the films set designers met with Jodie S. Holt, professorof plant physiology atUniversity of California, Riverside, to learn about the methodsused by botanists to study and sample plants, and to discuss ways to explain thecommunication between Pandoras organisms depicted in the film.From 2005 to 2007, Cameron worked with a handful of designers, including famedfantasy illustrator Wayne Barlowe and renowned concept artist Jordu Schell, to shapethe design of the Navi with paintings and physical sculptures when Cameron felt that3-D brush renderings were not capturing his vision, often working together in thekitchen of Camerons Malibu home. In July 2006, Cameron announced that he wouldfilm Avatar for a mid 2008 release and planned to begin principal photography withan established cast by February 2007. The following August, the visual effectsstudio Weta Digital signed on to help Cameron produce Avatar. Stan Winston, whohad collaborated with Cameron in the past, joined Avatar to help with the filmsdesigns. Production design for the film took several years. The film had two differentproduction designers, and two separate art departments, one of which focused onthe flora and fauna of Pandora, and another that created human machines and humanfactors. In September 2006, Cameron was announced to be using his own RealityCamera System to film in 3-D. The system would use two high-definition cameras ina single camera body to create depth perception.Fox was wavering because of its painful experience with cost overruns and delays onCamerons previous picture, Titanic, even though Cameron rewrote Avatars script tocombine several characters together and offered to cut his fee in case the filmflopped. Cameron installed a traffic light with the amber signal lit outside of co-producer Jon Landaus office to represent the films uncertain future. In mid-2006,Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 19
  20. 20. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Fox told Cameron "in no uncertain terms that they were passing on this film," so hebegan shopping it around to other studios, and showed his proof-of-concept to DickCook (then chairman of the Walt Disney Studios). However, when Disney attemptedto take over, Fox exercised its right of first refusal. In October 2006, Fox finallyagreed to commit to making Avatar after Ingenious Media agreed to back the film,which reduced Foxs financial exposure to less than half of the films official$237 million budget. After Fox accepted Avatar, one skeptical Fox executive shookhis head and told Cameron and Landau, "I dont know if were crazier for letting youdo this, or if youre crazier for thinking you can do this …"In December 2006, Cameron described Avatar as "a futuristic tale set on a planet200 years hence … an old-fashioned jungle adventure with an environmentalconscience [that] aspires to a mythic level of storytelling". The January 2007 pressrelease described the film as "an emotional journey of redemption and revolution" andsaid the story is of "a wounded former Marine, thrust unwillingly into an effort tosettle and exploit an exotic planet rich in biodiversity, who eventually crosses over tolead the indigenous race in a battle for survival". The story would be of an entireworld complete with an ecosystem of phantasmagorical plants and creatures, andnative people with a rich culture and language.Estimates put the cost of the film at about $280–310 million to produce and anestimated $150 million for marketing, noting that about $30 million in tax credits willlessen the financial impact on the studio and its financiers. A studio spokesperson saidthat the budget was "$237 million, with $150 million for promotion, end of story."Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 20
  21. 21. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???11…Theme and InspirationAvatar is primarily an action-adventure journey of self-discovery, in the contextof imperialism and deep ecology. Cameron said his inspiration was "every singlescience fiction book I read as a kid", and that he was particularly striving to update thestyle of Edgar Rice Burroughss John Carter series and the deep jungles of Pandorawere visualized from Disneys 37th animated film,Tarzan. The director hasacknowledged that Avatar shares themes with the films At Play in the Fields of theLord, The Emerald Forest, and Princess Mononoke, which feature clashes betweencultures and civilizations, and with Dances With Wolves, where a battered soldierfinds himself drawn to the culture he was initially fighting against.In a 2007 interview with Time magazine, Cameron was asked about the meaning ofthe term Avatar, to which he replied, "Its an incarnation of one of the Hindugods taking a flesh form. In this film what that means is that the human technology inthe future is capable of injecting a humans intelligence into a remotely located body,a biological body."The look of the Navi – the humanoids indigenous to Pandora – was inspired by adream that Camerons mother had, long before he started work onAvatar. In herdream, she saw a blue-skinned woman 12 feet (4 m) tall, which he thought was "kindof a cool image". Also he said, "I just like blue. Its a good color … plus, theres aconnection to the Hindu deities, which I like conceptually." He included similarcreatures in his first screenplay (written in 1976 or 1977), which featured a planetwith a native population of "gorgeous" tall blue aliens. The Navi were based on them.For the love story between characters Jake and Neytiri, Cameron applied a starcrossed love theme, and acknowledged its similarity to the pairing of Jack and Rosefrom his film Titanic. Both couples come from radically different cultures that arecontemptuous of their relationship and are forced to choose sides between thecompeting communities. He felt that whether or not the Jake and Neytiri love storywould be perceived as believable partially hinged on the physical attractiveness ofNeytiris alien appearance, which was developed by considering her appeal to the all-male crew of artists. Though Cameron felt Jake and Neytiri do not fall in love rightPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 21
  22. 22. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???away, their portrayers (Worthington and Saldana) felt the characters do. Cameron saidthe two actors "had a great chemistry" during filming.For the films floating "Hallelujah Mountains", the designers drew inspiration from"many different types of mountains, but mainly the karst limestone formations inChina." According to production designer Dylan Cole, the fictional floating rockswere inspired by Mount Huang (also known as Huangshan), Guilin, Zhangjiajie,among others around the world. Director Cameron had noted the influence of theChinese peaks on the design of the floating mountains.To create the interiors of the human mining colony on Pandora, production designersvisited the Noble Clyde Boudreaux oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico during June2007. They photographed, measured and filmed every aspect of the platform, whichwas later replicated on-screen with photorealistic CGI during post-production.Cameron said that he wanted to make "something that has this spoonful of sugar of allthe action and the adventure and all that" but also have a conscience "that maybe inthe enjoying of it makes you think a little bit about the way you interact with natureand your fellow man". He added that "the Navi represent something that is our higherselves, or our aspirational selves, what we would like to think we are" and that eventhough there are good humans within the film, the humans "represent what we knowto be the parts of ourselves that are trashing our world and maybe condemningourselves to a grim future".Cameron acknowledges that Avatar implicitly criticizes the United States role inthe Iraq War and the impersonal nature of mechanized warfare in general. In referenceto the use of the term shock and awe in the film, Cameron said, "We know what itfeels like to launch the missiles. We dont know what it feels like for them to land onour home soil, not in America." He said in later interviews, "… I think its verypatriotic to question a system that needs to be corralled …" and, "The film isdefinitely not anti-American." A scene in the film portrays the violent destruction ofthe towering Navi Hometree, which collapses in flames after a missile attack, coatingthe landscape with ash and floating embers. Asked about the scenes resemblance tothe September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Cameron said he had been"surprised at how much it did look like September 11".Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 22
  23. 23. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???12…Development phases of Filming:Principal photography: for Avatar began in April 2007 in Los Angelesand Wellington, New Zealand. Cameron described the film as a hybrid with a fulllive-action shoot in combination with computer-generated characters and liveenvironments. "Ideally at the end of the day the audience has no idea which theyrelooking at," Cameron said. The director indicated that he had already worked fourmonths on non principal scenes for the film. The live action was shot with a modifiedversion of the proprietary digital 3-D Fusion Camera System, developed by Cameronand Vince Pace. In January 2007, Fox had announced that 3-D filmingfor Avatar would be done at 24 frames per second despite Camerons strong opinionthat a 3-D film requires higher frame rate to make strobing less noticeable. Accordingto Cameron, the film is composed of 60% computer-generated elements and 40% liveaction, as well as traditional miniatures.Motion-capture photography: lasted 31 days at the Hughes Aircraft stage in PlayaVista in Los Angeles. Live action photography began in October 2007 at Stone StreetStudios in Wellington, New Zealand, and was scheduled to last 31 days. More than athousand people worked on the production. In preparation of the filming sequences,all of the actors underwent professional training specific to their characters such asarchery, horseback riding, firearm use, and hand-to-hand combat. They receivedlanguage and dialect training in the Navi language created for the film. Beforeshooting the film, Cameron also sent the cast to the Hawaiian tropical rainforests toget a feel for a rainforest setting before shooting on the soundstage.During filming, Cameron made use of his virtual camera system, a new way ofdirecting motion-capture filmmaking. The system shows the actors virtualcounterparts in their digital surroundings in real time, allowing the director to adjustand direct scenes just as if shooting live action. According to Cameron, "Its like a big,powerful game engine. If I want to fly through space, or change my perspective, I can.I can turn the whole scene into a living miniature and go through it on a 50 to 1scale." Using conventional techniques, the complete virtual world cannot be seen untilthe motion-capture of the actors is complete. Cameron said this process does notdiminish the value or importance of acting. On the contrary, because there is no needPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 23
  24. 24. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???for repeated camera and lighting setups, costume fittings and make-up touch-ups,scenes do not need to be interrupted repeatedly. Cameron described the system as a"form of pure creation where if you want to move a tree or a mountain or the sky orchange the time of day, you have complete control over the elements".Cameron gave fellow directors Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson a chance to testthe new technology. Spielberg said, "I like to think of it as digital makeup, notaugmented animation … Motion capture brings the director back to a kind of intimacythat actors and directors only know when theyre working in live theater." Spielbergand George Lucas were also able to visit the set to watch Cameron direct with theequipment.To film the shots where CGI interacts with live action, a unique camera referred to asa "simulcam" was used, a merger of the 3-D fusion camera and the virtual camerasystems. While filming live action in real time with the simulcam, the CGI imagescaptured with the virtual camera or designed from scratch, are superimposed over thelive action images as in augmented reality and shown on a small monitor, making itpossible for the director to instruct the actors how to relate to the virtual material inthe scenePrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 24
  25. 25. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???13…5 Innovations in AVATAR:Performance Capture Workflow: A lot of the film was captured using aperformance capture technique similar to that of which Robert Zemeckis filmedBeowulf. So Cameron developed a virtual camera which will allow his to point it athis actors and see them as their computer generated characters in real time.Simulcam: A camera set-up which allows them to follow or monitor a virtualcharacter which was captured in performance capture into a live action environmentin real-time. It also allows them to see what virtual backgrounds will look like in alive-action shot. I know that Steven Spielberg had a set-up like this on A.I., but I thinkit only showed him wireframes of buildings, and was very glitchy. My impressionfrom Cameron‘s quotes is that the new technology renders something a lot morevisual, probably akin to a video game (likely more last generation).Facial Capture Head Rig: The actors in performance capture suits also wear acamera rig on their heads that takes digital shots of the actor‘s face. This allows thecomputer generated character to have 100% facial movement, even in the real-timeperformance capture workflow mentioned above.Facial Performance Replacement: In traditional filmmaking they use ADR (oradditional Dialogue Replacement) when filmmakers need a cleaner take of the actor‘sdialogue, or need to fudge in a new line. But with a traditional film, you really need totrick a shot to make it work. The lips don‘t always match up, and sometimes, if youproviding an entirely new line of dialogue, filmmakers usually resort to a wide shot ora behind the head shot, so that you can‘t see the lips of the actor on-screen. Since 60%of Avatar is performance capture, he has designed a way to insert a new facialscan/dialogue capture on an existing performance.Fusion 3-D Camera System: The Fusion 3-D camera system was co-developed byJames Cameron and Vince Pace. The rig uses two Sony HDCF950 HD cameras tocreate stereoscopic 3-D. Cameron first used the system on his 2003 IMAX filmGhosts of the Abyss.It has since been used by Robert Rodriguez on Spy Kids 3-D andPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 25
  26. 26. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl, and most recently on Hannah Montanaand Miley Cyrus: Best of Both Worlds Concert and Journey to the Center of theEarth. But I‘m not exactly sure what improvements Cameron made to the rig over thelast five years.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 26
  27. 27. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar??? 14…A lesson of Managing Innovation risk from Movie:Who would have guessed that a movie about blue aliens could teach us anything aboutnew product innovation?Of course, I‘m not talking about the movie itself, but the story of how it was made –something that was chronicled in a recent Business Week article.James Cameron, the creator and director of Avatar, has a reputation for makingBlockbuster movies with cutting edge special effects that deliver billions inrevenue. Films like Terminator, Aliens, True Lies, and Titanic. That‘s why Fox was allears when he came to them with a screenplay for a new 3D film that promised tochange the way that people viewed movies and return people to the box office.But Cameron also has a reputation for going over budget – way over budget. That‘swhy Fox made a really smart move in managing the innovation risk for this film. Theyused an assessment and feasibility step in deciding whether to resource the project.The idea of proving feasibility before funding product development might seem a littlebuttoned down at first. But it seems to make sense even in a free-wheeling and big-spending industry like Hollywood. With a proposed budget of $237 million, Foxdecided that the investment was just too big to jump in one go. Instead they gaveCameron $10 million for proof of concept.Fox‘s approach with Avatar demonstrates another important point too – that inventionand innovation are separate activities. The proof of concept wasn‘t about the inventionor the technology. Cameron had already invested his own money in the invention ofsimultaneous 3D and 2D film making technology. The feasibility step was to prove thatit would be commercially viable.The movie industry has been hammered by an abundance of leisure time choicesincluding Hi-Def movies on home big screens, video games, TV and the internet. If Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 27
  28. 28. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Avatar was going to be successful, Cameron had to create something so compelling andso unique that people would pay more to go to the theater.The proof of concept demonstrated that Cameron could deliver on his vision and Foxeventually lined up the entire $237 million. Of course, with box office results hittingthe $1 billion mark in its first 17 days, the rest of the story is quickly becoming history. Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 28
  29. 29. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???15…Path breaking record on world-wide Box offices:US AND CANADA BOX OFFICES:  Highest grossing 3rd weekend  Highest grossing 4th weekend  Highest grossing 5th weekend  Highest grossing 6th weekend  Highest grossing 7th weekend  Biggest January weekend.  Highest grossing movie in US and Canada  Fastest to reach $600 million.  Main contributor to the biggest aggregated weekend of all time.  Highest opening weekend for an environmentalist film  Largest gross on New Year day  Highest-grossing CGI star movie  Highest-grossing paraplegic film  Highest-grossing environmentalist movie  Highest-grossing SCI-FI film  Highest grossing movie released in 2009  Highest PG-13 grossing movie of all time  Highest-grossing Martin Luther King weekend  Most Oscar Nominations of 2010 (9, but all-time record is 14 by All About Eve and Titanic)WORLD-WIDE RECORD:  Avatar became the highest-grossing movie in history on January 25 after only 41 days of play  The film was No. 1 in all of the 106 markets it opened the week of December 2009Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 29
  30. 30. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???  Except for India, it was No. 1 in every market worldwide in its second week of release.  It was the highest-grossing movie worldwide for 7 weeks in a row  It became the second-highest-grossing movie worldwide only 20 days after its initial release  Highest grossing movie of 2009  Fastest pirated movie in history  First 3-D movie to reach $1 billion worldwide  Reached $1 billion sales outside US and Canada in 28 days  First movie in history to reach $2 billion worldwideALL TIME RECORDS IN OTHER COUNTRIES:  After 41 days of release it held the record in 24 markets:  China ($204 million)  Germany ($157.6 million)  United Kingdom ($150.02 million) (now beaten by Skyfall)  Russia ($117.1 million)  South Korea ($105.5 million)  Spain ($110.0 million)  Australia ($105.8 million)  Chile ($10.5 million)  Hong Kong ($22.9 million)  UAE ($7.3 million  Colombia ($13.6 million)  Czech Republic ($11.8 million)  Portugal ($9.3 million)  Singapore ($8.1 million)  Ukraine ($8.7 million)  Hungary ($7.3 million)  Romania ($5.6 million)Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 30
  31. 31. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???  Bulgaria ($3.4 million)  Slovenia ($1.8 million)  Dominican Republic ($1.3 million)  Latvia ($1.5 million)  Serbia ($1.3 million)  Kuwait ($1.1 million)  Qatar ($883,412)  Jordan ($752,520)  Jamaica ($476,301)  Bahrain ($896,623)OTHER RECORDS:  Highest sixth week sales (over 100M) overseas  Over $100M in France, China, Germany, UK, Russia  Highest opening week Italy  Russia opening theaters  Highest fourth weekend sales  Highest Dominican Republic opening weekend  Gained six weekends in a row at least 100M per weekend abroadPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 31
  32. 32. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???16…About the Innovator (Here, Director)James Francis Cameron (born August 16, 1954) is a Canadian film director, filmproducer, deep-sea explorer, screenwriter, visual artist and editor. His writing anddirecting work includes The Terminator (1984), Aliens (1986), TheAbyss (1989), Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), TrueLies (1994), Titanic (1997), Dark Angel (2000–02), and Avatar (2009). In the timebetween making Titanic andAvatar, Cameron spent several years creating manydocumentary films (specifically underwater documentaries) and co-developed thedigital 3D Fusion Camera System. Described by a biographer as part-scientist and part-artist, Cameron has also contributed to underwater filming and remotevehicle technologies. On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the MarianaTrench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible. He wasthe first person to do this in a solo descent, and only the third person to do so everHe has been nominated for six Academy Awards overall and won three for Titanic. Intotal, Camerons directorial efforts have grossed approximately US$2 billion in NorthAmerica and US$6 billion worldwide. Not adjusted for inflation,Camerons Titanic and Avatar are the two highest-grossing films of all time at$2.19 billion and $2.78 billion respectively. In March 2011 he was named Hollywoodstop earner by Vanity Fair, with estimated 2010 earnings of $257 million.James Cameron and AvatarIn June 2005, Cameron was announced to be working on a project tentatively titled"Project 880" (now known to be Avatar) in parallel with another project, BattleAngel (an adaptation of the manga series Battle Angel Alita). Both movies were to beshot in 3D. By December, Cameron stated that he wanted to film Battle Angel first,followed by Avatar. However in February 2006, he switched goals for the two filmprojects and decided to film Avatar first. He mentioned that if both films are successful,he would be interested in seeing a trilogy being made for both. Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 32
  33. 33. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Avatar had an estimated budget of over $300 million and was released on December18, 2009. This marked his first feature film since 1997s Titanic. It is composed almostentirely of computer-generated animation, using a more advanced version of the"performance capture" technique used by director Robert Zemeckis in The PolarExpress. James Cameron had written an 80 page scriptment for Avatar in 1995 andannounced in 1996 that he would make the film after completing Titanic. In December2006, Cameron explained that the delay in producing the film since the 1990s had beento wait until the technology necessary to create his project was advanced enough. Thefilm was originally scheduled to be released in May 2009 but was pushed back toDecember 2009 to allow more time for post-production on the complex CGI and togive more time for theatres worldwide to install 3D projectors. Cameron originallyintendedAvatar to be 3D-only.Avatar broke several Box Office records during its initial theatrical run. It grossed$749.7 million in the United States and Canada and more than $2.74 billion worldwide,to become the highest-grossing film of all time in the United States and Canada,surpassing Camerons Titanic. Avatar also became the first movie to ever earn morethan $2 billion worldwide. Including revenue from the re-release of Avatar featuringextended footage, it grossed $760.5 million in the U.S. and Canada, and more than$2.78 billion worldwide. It was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including BestPicture and Best Director, and won three for Best Art Direction, BestCinematography and Best Visual EffectsAvatars blockbuster success made Cameron the highest earner in Hollywood for 2010,netting him $257 million as reported by Vanity Fair.Awards received by James Cameron Year Film Role Notes 1984 The Terminator Director, Writer Saturn Award for Best Writing Avoriaz Fantastic Film Festival - Grand Prize 1985 Rambo: First Writer Razzie Award for Worst Screenplay Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 33
  34. 34. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar??? Blood Part II1986 Aliens Director, Writer Saturn Award for Best Director Saturn Award for Best Writing Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation Kinema Junpo Awards - Best Foreign Language Film1989 The Abyss Director, Writer Saturn Award for Best Director Nominated for Saturn Award for Best Writing Nominated for Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation1991 Terminator 2: Director, Writer Saturn Award for Best Director Judgment Day and Producer Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation MTV Movie Award for Best Movie Mainichi Film Award for Best Foreign Language Film Peoples Choice Award for Favorite Dramatic Motion Picture Ray Bradbury Award for Outstanding Dramatic Presentation Nominated for Japan Academy Prize for Outstanding Foreign Language Film1994 True Lies Director, Writer Saturn Award for Best Director and Producer Nominated for Japan Academy Prize for Outstanding Foreign Language Film1997 Titanic Director, Writer, Academy Award for Best Director Producer and Academy Award for Best Film Editing Editor Academy Award for Best PicturePrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 34
  35. 35. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar??? Golden Globe Award for Best Director Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Drama Empire Award for Best Film Amanda Award for Best Foreign Feature Film Eddie Award for Best Edited Feature Film Blue Ribbon Award for Best Foreign Language Film Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Director Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best Director Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Producers Guild of America Award for Motion Picture Producer of the Year MTV Movie Award for Best Movie Film Award for Best Foreign Language Film Japan Academy Prize for Outstanding Foreign Language Film Mexican Cinema Journalists - Best Foreign Film International Monitor Award for Theatrical Releases - Color Correction Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best FilmPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 35
  36. 36. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar??? Florida Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film Kids Choice Award for Favorite Movie Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Director Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Film Mainichi Film Award for Best Foreign Language Film National Board of Review Spotlight Award - For the use of special effects technology Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Director Peoples Choice Award for Favorite Dramatic Motion Picture Peoples Choice Award for Favorite Motion Picture Satellite Award for Best Director2003 Ghosts of the Director and Nominated by the Broadcast Film Critics Abyss Producer Association for Best Documentary2009 Avatar Director, Writer, Golden Globe Award for Best Director Producer and Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Editor Picture - Drama Empire Award for Best Director Empire Award for Best Film Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Editing Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Action Movie Japan Academy Prize for Outstanding Foreign Language FilmPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 36
  37. 37. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar??? Lumière Award for Live Action 3-D Feature [Film] Youthfulness Award for Favourite Flick New York Film Critics Online Award for Best Film Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Editing Santa Barbara International Film Festival Lucky Brand Modern Master Award PETA s Proggy Award for Outstanding Feature Film Environmental Media Award for Feature Film St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Award for Most Original, Innovative or Creative Film Saturn Award - Visionary Award Saturn Award for Best Director Saturn Award for Best Writing Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film Scream Award for Best Director Scream Award for 3-D Top Three Teen Choice Award for Favorite Sci-Fi Movie Peoples Choice Award for Favorite 3-D Live Action Movie Peoples Choice Award for Favorite 3-D Animated Movie Cinema of Brazil - Best Foreign Language FilmPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 37
  38. 38. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar??? Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists - Best 3-D Film Director Nikkan Sports Film Award for Most Popular Film Rembrandt Award for Best Foreign Film Venice Film Festival - Most Creative 3- D Film/Stereoscopic Film of the Year (after release) 2,396th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (after release) Visual Effects Society - Lifetime Achievement AwardPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 38
  39. 39. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???17…Some Findings from this Assignment:Avatar as Innovation: Disrupting the Film IndustryWhy do we care about disruptive innovation?  It‘s cool.  It‘ll make us rich and well-respected.  It‘s the natural way to leverage our big, expensive MBA brains to add value to our teams, projects, and organizations. Yeah. While there are many fascinating angles to analyze Avatar‘s innovation We are going to focus on three key areasThree key areas of Focus  Financial  Technological  SocialFinancial Innovation  Ludicrously massive financial success  Highest grossing movie of all time ($3B)  Broke Blu-Ray sales records of 2.7m in 4 days.  Raised the price point for movie tickets From $10 to $14 for 3D, and $16 for IMAX 3D Incremental: - Willingness to increase costs of production - New capital costs for theatres Disruptive: - Premium product priced above IMAX and 2D - James Cameron‘ intended to shift the balance of powers within the industry Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 39
  40. 40. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Technological Innovation  James Cameron is considered ―part Scientist, part Artist‖ – developed new 3D movie making technology  Revolutionary 3D Fusion Camera System modeled after the eye  Performance Capture Animation3d camera to disruptive 1. Cameron took almost a decade off between Titanic and Avatar to develop his dream for 3D 2. The Fusion Camera was modeled after the eyes capturing two perspectives simultanous 3. Cameron also created new cameras, new screens, new soundstages 4. New Animation System allowed for actor to avoid lengthy makeup but also do more than read a script. Cameron‘s perfomance capture system allow actors to truly act despite a largely CGI or animated productsIncremental : - 3D Fusion Camera System - Performance Capture AnimationDisruptive: - 3D : A renewed and exploding PlatformSocial Innovation  James Cameron  Visits to Brazil‘s Amazon and Alberta‘s tar sands  Social Action inspired by Avatar  The Avatar Project: a program to support military amputees  Avatar-themed Palestinian protests  Avatar-themed protests in Jakarta to protect orangutansIncremental: -Using Fictional stories to inspire social action. -Coordinating social action with existing organizations & movementsPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 40
  41. 41. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar??? Disruptive: -Avatar‘s scale and power have inspired grassroots social action across the globe. It‘s a platform. What says Porter‘s five force model after AVATAR as Innovation: • Digital Imaging • Cameras • Production Skills Suppliers • Technical Training • 3D Accessories• Raised cost of entry • Increase in• Threat to Compe production New smaller, emerging Entrants Firm titors costs • Shift in production Marketing houses and positions • Digitizing Theatres Buyers • Imax Expansion • Movie goers paying more So, Finally……………. Was Avatar Disruptive Innovation or Incremental Innovation? And answer is………….. It was not only Disruptive. It was also Incremental Innovation….. Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 41
  42. 42. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???18….BibliographyJames Wigney (August 15, 2010). "Avatar director slams bandwagonjumpers".Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved August 16, 2010.Johnston, Rich (December 11, 2009). "Review: AVATAR – The Most ExpensiveAmerican Film Ever … And Possibly The Most Anti-American One Too.". BleedingCool. Retrieved March 29, 2010.Wilhelm, Maria; Dirk Mathison (November 2009). James Camerons Avatar: AConfidential Report on the Biological and Social History of Pandora. HarperCollins.p. 4. ISBN 0-06-189675-6.Britt, Russ (January 4, 2010). "Can Cameron break his own box-office record?Avatar unprecedented in staying power, international sales". MarketWatch (DowJones & Company). Archived from the original on January 06 2010. RetrievedJanuary 4, 2010.Subers, Ray (May 13, 2012). "Weekend Report: Avengers Shatters More Records,Shadows Mostly Sucks". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 13, 2012Barnes, Brooks (December 20, 2009). "Avatar Is No. 1 but Without a Record".TheNew York Times (The New York Times Company). Archived from the original onDecember 23 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2009."Avatar fastest film to break $1 billion mark". Hindustan Times. India. January 5,2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.Fritz, Ben (December 20, 2009). "Could Avatar hit $1 billion?". Los AngelesTimes (Tribune Company). Archived from the original on December 22 2009.Retrieved December 20, 2009.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 42
  43. 43. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Han Sunhee (February 5, 2010). "Avatar goes 4D in Korea". Variety. Archivedfromthe original on February 10 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010."Top Grossing Movies in Their 5th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo.IMDb. Archived from the original on January 18 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2010."Top Weekends – 7th". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original onFebruary 03 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2010."All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from theoriginal on January 28 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2010.Cieply, Michael (January 26, 2010). "He Doth Surpass Himself: Avatar OutperformsTitanic". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 28 2010.Retrieved January 27, 2010."9. James Cameron | Top Ten Billionaires In The Making |" 2010-09-21. Retrieved 2012-03-23.Thompson A (2009). "The innovative new 3D tech behind JamesCameronsAvatar". Fox News. Retrieved December 25, 2009.Broad, William J. (25 March 2012). "Filmmaker in Submarine Voyages to Bottom ofSea". New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2012."National Oceanography Centre heralds Cameron achievement". NOC. 26 March2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 43
  44. 44. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???19…Photo GalleryPrepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 44
  45. 45. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 45
  46. 46. How James Camerons Innovative New 3D Techniques Created Avatar???Prepared by: Milan Padariya (MBA) Page 46