The quest for low cost, clean, and efficient energy sources has assisted the drive for the exploration and development of unconventional oil and gas resources worldwide, especially shale gas and shale oil resources. Advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies has enabled this resource exploitation. Imperative for this industry has been the evolution and development of proppants in hydraulic fracturing – mainly natural silica sand (frac sand), but also ceramic proppants manufactured from kaolin and bauxite. However, the supply of ceramic proppants is limited, especially outside North America, and meeting demand from the existing and anticipated boom in shale gas exploration and development is challenging. There are only certain industrial minerals that can meet ceramic proppant specifications, and their commercial development, until recently, has been somewhat limited. This paper highlights ceramic proppant raw materials, main sources, and supply to the oilfield industry – especially new markets in the Middle East, China, Asia-Pacific, South America – as we enter a new era of resource development which relies heavily on proppant utilisation.