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Aligning Performance Levers
  For Breakthrough Sales Results




       Mike Kunkle
          August 2011
Performance Levers
       The Plan

Agenda
 Overview:
   Background, Definition, Six-Project Approach, Why It’s Worth the Effort
 Walk-through of the Six Projects
 Case Example
 Appendix with Helpful Resources




            “Everybody's got plans... until they get hit.” Mike Tyson         2   2
Performance Levers
       Overview | Definition

 A sad but true tale
           “Karen, we need sales training!”


            Karen reviews sales training.




                                              3
Performance Levers
       Overview | Definition

 A sad but true tale

            Karen selects sales training.




                             Note: Miller Heiman is a fine company. This is neither an endorsement nor
                                   a condemnation.
                                                                                                         4
Performance Levers
       Overview | Definition

 A sad but true tale

            Karen delivers sales training.
                                        Training Expenses




                                                            5
Performance Levers
       Overview | Definition

 A sad but true tale

           “Karen, what happened!?”




                                      6
Performance Levers
                 Overview | Definition

   A sad but true tale                                                                             A Xerox
According to a Sales Performance International study, most sales professionals forget at least       study
50% of what they learned in training programs in less than five weeks. For over 44% of 6,000        showed
                         “Karen, what happened!?”
 sales professionals surveyed, they forget in less than one month. Further, salespeople only     that 87% of
         remember 16% of content from sales training workshops after only 90 days.
                                                                                                       the
                                                                                                 knowledge
        According to ES Research Group, 85-95%                                                    learned in
                                                                                                      sales
        of sales training results in no long-term                                                  training is
                                                                                                  lost within
                 impact in performance.                                                            12 weeks.

   A study at Columbia University
   found that up to 95% of what is
    taught in training programs is                            Something needs to change!
  wasted through a failure to transfer
      learning to the workplace.
                                                                                                                 7
Performance Levers
                 Overview | Definition

 An alternative                                            Performance
                                                          Lever Alignment

                      Performer                              Organization
                       Analysis

                                                              Function
 Performance                       Sales & Sales
     Lever                           Manager
  Alignment                          Selection                 Position
                     The Six
                   Performance
                  Lever Projects                                  Task

 Sales & Sales                     Performance
   Manager                             Lever
   Training                        Identification

                                                    Real Sales
                        Best
                      Practices                     Performance
                      Capture
                                                    Improvement

                                                                            8
Performance Levers
            Overview | Definition

Performance Levers
 Critical competencies, knowledge, skills, behaviors and conditions which
  must be present for ethical, sustained high-performance to occur.
 Conditions include other organizational elements such as compensation,
  processes, policies, systems, technology, tools, culture, and more.

Examples: Appointment Setting
 Competencies           Knowledge                Skill/Behaviors                  Conditions
 Assertiveness    How products work          Tracking lead results    Compensation
 Attitude         How to organize leads      Setting appointments     Processes, Policies & Procedures
 Energy Level     How to set appointments    Opening a sales call     Systems, Technology & Tools
 Verbal Skill     How to use collateral      Probing for needs        Performance Management
 Sociability      Sales process stages       Presenting solutions     Reporting
 Independence     How to get answers         Negotiating              And more…




                                                                                                             9
Performance Levers
        Overview | Definition

 Imagine an 8-cylinder engine, firing on all 8 cylinders.

                                1
                        8                2

                    7                        3

                        6                4
                                5


                                                             10 10
Performance Levers
        Overview | Definition

 What happens if it’s only firing on 4 cylinders?

                                1
                        8               2

                    7                       3

                        6               4
                                5

                                                     11
                                                          11
Performance Levers
          Overview | Definition

 What if more than one system isn’t working right?


     System 1
      Engine




     System 2
         Drive Train


                                                      12 12
Performance Levers
          Overview | Definition

 How is this different in organizations?
 System 1
                                System 2
    Hiring
                                     Learning | Development
          System 3
              Compensation                 System 4
                                                   Processes
     System 5
         Coaching | Management
                                         System Et Cetera
                                               And More…
                                                                13 13
Performance Levers
        Overview | Definition

 How is this different in organizations?




                     It’s Not!


                                            14 14
Performance Levers
                        Overview | Definition

     Types of Levers                                                          It’s “Systems Thinking”
      Organization (Company)
                                                                                                     Organization

      Function (Department)
                                                                                                        Function
      Position (Role / Job)
         • Task (subset)                                                                                 Position



                                                                                                            Task
Competencies                Knowledge                 Skill/Behaviors                      Conditions
   Assertiveness      How products work            Tracking lead results       Compensation
   Attitude           How to organize leads        Setting appointments        Processes, Policies & Procedures
   Energy Level       How to set appointments      Opening a sales call        Systems, Technology & Tools
   Verbal Skill       How to use collateral        Probing for needs           Performance Management
   Sociability        Sales process stages         Presenting solutions        Reporting
   Independence       How to get answers           Negotiating                 And more..

                                                                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_Thinking   15 15
O

            Performance Levers                                                                                       F
                                                                                                                     P
                                                                                                                     T
            Overview | Definition

Sales Training + Levers = Sales Effectiveness
 Sales Training                                          Sales Effectiveness *
  Is an important part of “sales effectiveness”  Includes much more than training
  Preceded by a training needs analysis                  Preceded by a performance gap analysis
  Based on learning objectives                           Based on performance objectives
                                                          Improves workplace behaviors and
  Improves knowledge, skills, or attitudes
                                                           outcomes
  Requires instructional design and/or
                                                          Also requires performance consulting skills
   training delivery skills
  Output includes courses, curricula, training           Output includes learning systems,
   events (e-learning, self-directed,                      processes, policies, technology, systems,
   classroom/instructor-led, field training)               best practices and more
  Tactical: Focused on who, what, why, how,              Strategic: Focused on organizational
   when & where                                            alignment to support high performance

                    * Also referred to as Sales Force Effectiveness, Sales Enablement or Sales Performance Development
                                                                                                                         16
O

       Performance Levers                                F
                                                         P
                                                         T
       Overview | Definition

Where to Start? I used to consider…
 What can you control (or most strongly influence)?
 Within that span:
   What is the easiest win? (low-hanging fruit)
   Where is the biggest gain? (most mileage)
   What is the biggest pain? (biggest problem solved)

Logical… but these days, to get started…



                                                             17 17
O

       Performance Levers                                                               F
                                                                                        P
                                                                                        T
       Overview | Definition

…I Suggest This:
             Get sourcing, selection, and promoting right:
              Identify the right competencies by role (sales/mgt)
 Selection    Upgrade processes for sourcing and hiring employees
              Upgrade processes for developing and promoting employees
             Do a Position-level Performance Lever analysis:
                Put strong focus here - on the Position levers
 Position       Identify Levers, capture Best Practices and upgrade learning systems
                Get this right for frontline Sales & Sales Management Roles
  Levers        Align as many supporting organizational levers as you can
                Show results
                Then start “tying strings” (aligning) to other levers and functions
             Pure training task analysis: Identify Levers, capture Best Practices and:
   Task       Conduct a great task analysis
                                                   Importance      Difficulty     Frequency
  Levers      Write the tasks into training
              Gather importance, difficulty and frequency to make good training decisions



                                                                                            18 18
O

          Performance Levers                                                                                           F
                                                                                                                       P
                                                                                                                       T
          Overview | Definition

Selection + Sales & Management Levers + Supporting Org Levers
                                                        Train the Sales
                 Select for the                         Position Levers
                 Competencies
                                                                                                 Train the Sales
                                                                                               Management Levers


                                                         Territory        Consultative          What & How to Train
                        Competencies   Sales Planning
    Align                                               Management          Selling

 Compensation                                                                                 How to Diagnose Levers
                          Account       Technology &      Pipeline        Account
                          Selection       Tool Use      Management      Development
                                                                                                   How to Coach

      Remove Policy &                                                                             How to Manage
       SOP Barriers                                                                                Performance

                                  Improve Internal                Track Success
                                      Service                        Metrics


                                                Note: These are just examples and may not be right for your organization

                                                                                                                           19
O

              Performance Levers                                                              F
                                                                                              P
                                                                                              T
              Overview | Definition

What are They in Your World? Start Thinking Now….
Varies by Role But                What Should You Add / Subtract For Your Company?
Will Include…                      Document and discuss ideas with top producers & leaders
   Hiring Competencies            Agree on a hypothesis
   Recruiting | Selection         Perform the analysis | Conduct the research
   Compensation                    – Survey(s)
   Reporting                       – Interviews | Focus Groups
And May Include…                    – Observation
   Product Knowledge
   Setting Goals & Objectives    Your Performance Lever Mix
   Lead Management
   Technology | Tools
   Account Selection
   Consultative Selling Skills
   Pipeline Management
   Account Management
   Account Development
   Follow-up | Follow-through
   Training | Coaching
   Action Planning
   …and more…
                                                                                                  20 20
Performance Levers
           Overview | Definition

High-Level Overview: DIY “How To”
 Performer Analysis (Who To Study)
 Sales & Sales Manager Selection (How to Select, Promote & Develop)
    Assessments, competencies, sourcing, interviewing, selection, tracking, validation
 Performance Lever Identification (What Really Drives Performance)
    Interviews to create hypotheses for Performance Levers (sales reps & sales managers)
    Surveys to confirm / hone Performance Levers
 Best Practices Capture (Details of Each Position/Task Lever)
    Interviews / focus groups / observation to gather Best Practices
 (Re)Design Training for Sales & Sales Managers (Share the Knowledge)
    Learning systems: pre-work, training, post-work, reinforcement, measurement, reporting
 Align Other Levers (Support the Levers Every Way Possible)
    Measure, report, feedback, adjust, repeat


                                                         Which becomes….
                                                                                              21
Performance Levers
                Overview | Definition – The Six Projects

                   Performer
                    Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                     22
Performance Levers
          Overview – Why Go Through All This?

Just a few of the many reasons…
 Better hiring | shorter-ramp up for new hires and promotions
 Geometric growth for incumbents (vs. incremental)
 Greater customer satisfaction & loyalty
 Break out of “80/20 prison”
 Improve “average” performance levels across the organization
 Rewards and incentives that drive the right behavior
 Systemic alignment fosters clarity and focus – people “feel better” (reduced
  frustration and cognitive dissonance)

But most importantly, we do it for the bottom-line results…


                                                                             23 23
Performance Levers
          Overview – Why Go Through All This?

The Outcome | Bottom-line Results (Real Examples):
 A $398MM sales revenue increase, a $9.96MM net profit increase and a
  400% return on investment
 Increased sales per rep by 47% through changes in territory management
  and sales coaching
 Increased sales results 600% over previous year while decreasing net
  operating expenses by 21%
 Improved average profitability per rep by 11% in 4 months
 Improved processing efficiency (order pull-through) by 16% in 6 months.
 Newly-hired and trained 4-month employees outperformed a control
  group of untrained 5-year employees
 Increased loans closed per FTE in the 3-month period after training by 2.3
  per month (average revenue increase of $183K per class or $36.6MM in 12
  months)

                                                                               24 24
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – The Six Projects

                   Performer
                    Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                     25
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

                  Performer
                   Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                     26
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

                                                Performer Analysis
                  Performer
                   Analysis                      WHAT:
                                                  Identify top, average & low producing sales
                                                  reps.
Performance                    Sales & Sales
    Lever                        Manager          Identify top, average & low producing sales
 Alignment                       Selection        managers.

                                                 HOW:
                                                  Analyze a year of sales data & create a
                                                  weighted scoring system across multiple
                                                  metrics/products.
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager                          Lever
                                                  Some discussion & surveys with managers.
  Training                     Identification
                                                 WHY:
                     Best                         Provides a mix of performers to study in various
                   Practices                      ways, to determine true differentiating factors.
                   Capture




                                                                                                     27
Performance Levers
             DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

Example of Performer Categories                                                                n=
                    New = >30 days, <271 days
  Top New Reps                                                 Often “top” includes tiers:     39
                    Top = In the Top Quartile of all metrics
                                                                4% | 10% | 15% | 25%
                    Seasoned = >365 days (many 5+ years)
Top Seasoned Reps                                                                              307
                    Top = In the Top Quartile of all metrics
  Average Reps      Selected randomly, between mean and median production                      298
Low Producer Reps   Selected randomly from the bottom 20%                                      348
Top SM Producers    Top = In the Top Quartile of all metrics, personal production              15
  Top SM Team
                    Top = Top Quartile all metrics, w/o SM results + survey of their Mgr       52
    Managers
                    Top = In Top Producer group personally + Top Quartile all metrics w/o SM
   Top SM Both                                                                                 5
                    results + survey of their Mgr
Average SM (Team) Selected randomly, between mean and median production                        79
Low Performing SM
                  Selected randomly from the bottom 20%                                        32
     (Team)

                                                                                                     28
Performance Levers
           DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

Example of Sales Metrics
                       Metrics                            Quarterly Weighting *
                          Create a weighted scoring system…
                     # of Sales                                  Med-High (2-3)
                     $ Volume                                      Low (1)
            Pull-Through Rate                                        Med (1-2)
           Avg # Sales/Day/Rep                                       High (3-4)
             Avg $ Vol/Day/Rep                                   Med-High (2-3)
             Cross-Sell Percent                                   Med (1-2)

   * Review the last 12 months & the last quarter. Weight the quarter more heavily. Blend the scores.

                                                                                                        29
Performance Levers
        DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

Example of Analysis – Sales Reps
         Low
         High
         4th Quartile
         Mean Avg.      Sort Descending
         Median         Highlight 4th Quartile
                        Apply Weighting
                        Repeat & Total




                                                 30
Performance Levers
        DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

Example of Analysis – Sales Reps
         Low
         High
         4th Quartile
         Mean Avg.      Sort Descending
         Median         Highlight 4th Quartile
                        Apply Weighting
                        Repeat & Total




                                                 31
Performance Levers
               DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

Example of Analysis – Sales Managers
Consider things like:
 Avg Productivity
   Avg # and $/rep /time
 Engagement: % of team
  producing and/or goal %/rep
 Total Team Sales: $ and #
 Avg Time to 1st Sale (new reps)
 Pipeline Stats & Pull-through %
 Cross-sell Ratios or Penetration
 Trend Indicators (actual # last
  month, avg/month over 13
  weeks, avg/month past year)
 Survey Their Managers
   Remove the “luck” factor
   Remove “inherited territory”
   Remove “one great rep”




                                                   32
Performance Levers
           DIY | How To – Performer Analysis

                                 Partner with Smart People with SAS, SPSS, or Minitab *
                                         to Crunch Data for Validity, as Needed




* Of course, learning research methodology and statistics is a viable option for the brave…
                                                                                              33 33
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection

                  Performer
                   Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                     34
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection

                                                Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                  Performer
                   Analysis                      WHAT:
                                                  Psychometric assessments that measure
                                                  thinking styles, behavioral traits and interest.
Performance                    Sales & Sales
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       HOW:
                                                  Most vendors now offer online assessments.

                                                 WHY:
                                                  The assessments will help you identify
                                                  competencies. You can identify statistically
Sales & Sales                  Performance        validated patterns that predict success, based
  Manager                          Lever
  Training                     Identification     on your top performers.
                                                  You can use the results to further develop &
                     Best                         coach your current leaders.
                   Practices                      You can better identify future leaders, who are
                   Capture
                                                  like your very best today.



                                                                                                     35
Performance Levers
                  DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection

Methods
   Competency Identification
   Interview Methods
   Other Checks
   Psychometric Assessments
   Job Matching
   Blended Models
                      My Favorite?
         Blended w/ Psychometric + Job Matching
Sources:
 Professor Mike Smith, University of Manchester, August 1994
 John E. Hunter and Ronda F. Hunter, Validity and Utility of Alternative Predictors of Job Performance, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 96, No.1, 1984, p. 90
 Robert P. Tett, Douglas N. Jackson, and Mitchell Rothstein, Personality Measures as Predictors of Job Performance: A Meta-Analytical Review,
   Personnel Psychology, Winter 1991, p.703. Michigan State University’s School of Business.                                                                  36
Performance Levers
           DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection

Psychometric Assessments
 Thinking | Cognitive Factors
 Behavioral Traits                                   One-third of the
 Occupational Interests                              Hiring Decision
Get it right:
 Normative vs. Ipsative
 Focus on Predictive Validity
 Use the same Performer Categories from your other Analysis
    Compare top | middle | bottom to look for differentiating factors
 Hire, develop and promote based on those factors, as well as performance
  data (whenever possible)
 Bring in experts

                                                                             37
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification

                  Performer
                   Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Other Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                      38
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification

                                                Performance Lever Identification
                  Performer
                   Analysis                      WHAT:
                                                  Identify the knowledge, skills, behaviors or
                                                  conditions that must exist for ethical, sustained,
Performance                    Sales & Sales
    Lever                        Manager          high performance to occur.
 Alignment                       Selection        Formulate hypotheses about what the levers are
                                                  for frontline sales and sales management roles.
                                                  Confirm and validate the levers through research.

                                                 HOW:
                                                  Through discussion, surveys, interviews, focus
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager                          Lever
                                                  groups, and observation of frontline sales reps
  Training                     Identification     and their managers.

                     Best
                                                 WHY:
                   Practices                      This will confirm where to focus your efforts
                   Capture
                                                  capturing Best Practices, which provides training
                                                  content.


                                                                                                    39
Performance Levers
        DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification

Formulating the Hypotheses
 Start with some known practices
 Talk with:
   Executives
   Other leaders
   Frontline sales reps
   Frontline sales managers
   Sales operations and support staff
   And possibly, customers
 Label the big buckets and detail the tasks
 Don’t get married – you’re just dating
 Build the surveys to confirm the hypotheses

                                                          40
Performance Levers
       DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification
                                            Identify the high-level
Survey Design                          Performance Levers (hypotheses)




    Document the potential tasks for
        the Performance Lever




                                       Ask what you’ve missed




                                                                         41
Performance Levers
       DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification

Survey Design
                            Clearly define Performance Lever




                                                               Define the role




     Add instructions for
    completing the survey



                                                                                 42
Performance Levers
           DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification

Survey Design (Scales)
 Rate the statement provided.
                                     Using empathy statements to acknowledge a prospect’s situation/feelings
 How much do you agree it’s a
  Performance Lever?
 If rated 1-2, next question.
 If rated 3-5:
       Importance & Difficulty
 And in some cases:
       Frequency: Actual & Should




 In addition, you should ask what you missed, by Lever, and a handful of other
  questions – such as normal demographics & Continue | Start | Stop.
                                                                                                           43
Performance Levers
           DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification
                                                       Look Familiar?
                                 Partner with Smart People with SAS, SPSS, or Minitab *
                                         to Crunch Data for Validity, as Needed




* Of course, learning research methodology and statistics is STILL a viable option for the brave…
                                                                                                    44 44
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Best Practices Capture

                  Performer
                   Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                     45
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Best Practices Capture

                                                Best Practices Capture
                  Performer
                   Analysis                      WHAT:
                                                  Document the best practices and differentiating
                                                  behaviors of top performers, which can be
Performance                    Sales & Sales
    Lever                        Manager          replicated and trained.
 Alignment                       Selection
                                                 HOW:
                                                  Through discussion, interviews, focus groups
                                                  and observation of the frontline sales reps and
                                                  managers identified during Performer Analysis.

Sales & Sales
  Manager
                               Performance
                                   Lever
                                                 WHY:
  Training                     Identification     To share best practices broadly and (re)design
                                                  training around them.
                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                                    46
Performance Levers
        DIY | How To – Best Practices Capture

Data Collection Methods
 Interviews
   In-person, phone, webinar
 Focus Groups                              Getting the Straight Scoop
   In-person, webinar                         What really happens “out there”
                                               Account for the Hawthorne effect
 Field Observation                            Trust, truth and strict confidentiality
   5-10 top performers                        Autonomy, mastery and purpose *
   3 average
   2 in ninth decile
   More, pending time, resources & budget



                         * Thank you, Daniel Pink (author of Drive)
                                                                                          47
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training

                  Performer
                   Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                     48
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training

                                                Sales & Sales Manager Training
                  Performer
                   Analysis                      WHAT:
                                                  (Re)design sales and sales management training
                                                  (learning systems) around your best practices.
Performance                    Sales & Sales
    Lever                        Manager          Ensure that your training includes the right
 Alignment                       Selection        content and produces ethical, sustainable, high
                                                  performance in the real world.

                                                 HOW:
                                                  Develop courses and implement learning and
                                                  transfer systems, incorporating what you’ve
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager                          Lever
                                                  learned in this research.
  Training                     Identification
                                                 WHY:
                     Best                         To improve training, further share best
                   Practices                      practices, and improve work performance of
                   Capture
                                                  frontline sales reps and sales managers.



                                                                                                49
Performance Levers
        DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training

Sales Training is the Easy Part
      Teach Position Performance Levers and Tasks!
Teach sales reps:
 If new, yes, do onboarding and orientations, but then…
 Focus on the major Performance Levers
 Teach the Performance Lever Tasks
 Create and share Performance Support
 Share Knowledge but Focus on Behaviors & Skills
 Build-in extensive Transfer Plans
                Teach Them The Replicable
              Best Practices of Top Performers
                                                           50
Performance Levers
        DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training

As You Develop Sales Manager Training, Remember…
    Frontline Sales Management is the Pivotal Role!
Teach managers:
 What you teach reps (in advance)
 How to diagnose and identify issues with Performance Levers
 How to coach to improve levers (behavioral coaching)
 How to develop motivational action plans (management science)
 How to reinforce, reward, and manage performance
 NOTE: Other Lever – Reward managers for the above behaviors
       Teach Them To Get Results Through Others
                                                                  51
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Performance Lever Alignment

                  Performer
                   Analysis
                                                Performance Lever Project Series
Performance                    Sales & Sales     Performer Analysis
    Lever                        Manager
 Alignment                       Selection       Sales & Sales Manager Selection
                                                 Performance Lever Identification
                                                 Best Practices Capture
                                                 Sales & Sales Manager Training
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager
  Training
                                   Lever
                               Identification    Performance Lever Alignment

                     Best
                   Practices
                   Capture




                                                                                     52
Performance Levers
                DIY | How To – Performance Lever Alignment

                                                Performance Lever Alignment
                  Performer
                   Analysis                      WHAT:
                                                  Review policies, practices, processes,
                                                  procedures, systems, compensations, and other
Performance                    Sales & Sales
    Lever                        Manager          organization factors.
 Alignment                       Selection
                                                 HOW:
                                                  By sharing study results with other
                                                  organizational leaders and discussing how you
                                                  can best support the Performance Levers and
                                                  Best Practices.
Sales & Sales                  Performance
  Manager                          Lever
                                                  If you have an OD team, get them involved.
  Training                     Identification
                                                 WHY:
                     Best                         To align as many other organizational elements
                   Practices                      as possible to support the performance levers
                   Capture
                                                  and best practices – to create an environment
                                                  which supports sales success as much as
                                                  possible.

                                                                                                   53
Performance Levers
         DIY | How To – Performance Lever Alignment

Recommended Initial Focus for Alignment
 Get sales compensation right – rely on experts, if needed
 Get out of the “Sales Prevention Business”
    Ask frontline reps and managers, you’ll hear plenty to fix
 Eliminate restrictive policies designed for situations that occur
  once a quarter
 Conduct a Force Field Analysis* with top sales performers and
  sales managers – remove restraining forces first




                      * Thank you, Kurt Lewin, for Force Field Analysis
                                                                          54
Case Example
Sales Performance Levers Applied to:
 B2B Financial Services
 Wholesale Mortgage Origination Channel
 Low Base | High Commission
Case Example
           B2B Financial Services Company
The Business Situation and Problems
   Good growth rate – Wall Street darling
   Original team was doing very well (top 20% delivering 80% of production)
   New Hires struggling – annualized NH turnover was growing fast
   Sales training was one week in a classroom, all lecture
   There was no reinforcement, planned transfer or evaluation
   Reporting was fragmented, hard to interpret, not actionable
   The best of the new sales people were promoted into management, but…
   No management training and managers each managed their own way
   Coaching was rare
   Performance management was, “You did X last month. You need to do Y next
    month or you’ll be fired”
   If you had industry sales experience, wanted the job, and could fog a mirror,
    the job was yours
   Few understood the complex compensation system.


                                                                                56
                                                                                     56
Case Example
       B2B Financial Services Company

Challenge from the President

 The President told our Performance Development team:

  “I believe in this group and what you were hired to do. But I
  want to be clear. If you can’t deliver on your promises about
  improving performance, you won’t be sitting at this table this
  time next year.”




                                                             57
                                                                   57
Case Example
          B2B Financial Services Company
Performance Projects
 Analysis of past and past results | current state | current results. (Point A)
 Discussion with senior management on strategic direction, goals and
  performance objectives. (Point B)
 Analysis of traits, habits, skills and practices of carefully selected Top, Middle
  and Low Performers…
 Individual Interviews | Multiple Surveys | Focus Groups | Observations
 “Hiring Right” project – what’s the “right stuff” for our roles? How do we
  hire, develop and promote people effectively?
 Process analysis and documentation review for possible Lean projects.
 Review of compensation and incentive programs and practices for sales.
 Review of sales management practices.
 Customer Interviews, Surveys, and Focus Groups.
 So, basically, we ran The Six Projects (and included customer feedback)
                                                                               58
                                                                                       58
Case Example
          B2B Financial Services Company

How We Created a Performance Enhancing System
 Vetted the analysis, identified the levers and communicated everywhere
 Created 3-week sales training curriculum for new hires (2 weeks remote + 1
  week in class) – taught all levers, changed behaviors in class & certified
 All new managers went through the program and were certified
 Taught incumbent managers separately and certified
 Developed a coaching program for managers (and yes, certified them)
 Aligned comp, performance management and reporting/metrics
 Started work on the supporting levers
 Constant communication | monitoring with dashboard reports
 Quick feedback loops, performance hotline, adjusted course as needed
 Transitioned leaders to take ownership and accountability
 Top-down, C-level support was critical
                                                                           59 59
Case Example
          B2B Financial Services Company

Some Results
 Reduced average ramp-up time to minimum acceptable performance for
  newly-hired/trained reps from 6 months to 3
 Increased average purchase from $156K to $167K
 Reduced turnover from 44% to 28% (new hire one-year from 78% to 24%)
 Increased size of “top producer” performers from 9% to 14%
 Increased New Customer “Stick Rate” (stat not available)
 Decreased “order” processing time by 16%
 Improved order pull-through from 47% to 54%
But most importantly…
 $398MM Increase in Revenue  $9.9MM Increase in Net Profit  400% Training ROI

                                                                           60
                                                                                  60
Case Example
           B2B Financial Services Company
Real-World Tips & “Gotchas” From This Case
 Analysis of traits, habits, skills and practices of carefully selected Top,
  Middle and Low Performers
    Validate performer status closely: Especially rule out “inherited a great territory”
      and other factors that mask “earned” top-producer status
 Methods: Individual Interviews | Multiple Surveys | Focus Groups |
  Observations  You must see what they’re doing!
 Insert the Voice of the Customer – whenever possible: talk to them and
  listen!
 Be ruthless on process reviews. Streamline!
 Forget “sales experience.” Assess | Hire | Train | Develop
 Listen most closely to the real top producers, those moving up steadily, and
  superstar new hires who leap out of the gate
 Agree on what success looks like, with executives, upfront, and how it will
  be measured

                                                                                        61 61
Appendix
                     Helpful Resources 

http://www.slideshare.net/MikeKunkle/aligning-performance-levers-for-breakthrough-sales-results-082011




                    Aligning Performance Levers For
                       Breakthrough Sales Results
.




          Performance Levers                                    .         .




          Helpful Resources
                                                                .         .




                                                                    .




Analysis
   http://amzn.to/AnalyzingPerformanceProblems
   http://amzn.to/AnalysisImprovingPerformance
   http://bit.ly/FirstThingsFast
   http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/analysis/analysis.html
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_performance_technology
   http://www.pignc-ispi.com/articles/Vol42_05_08.pdf
   http://www.ue295.com/xtranet/html/timeline/harless.html




                                                                        63 63
.




          Performance Levers                                       .         .




          Helpful Resources
                                                                   .         .




                                                                       .




Selection
For those interested in exploring assessments, here are some unbiased
educational resources:
 http://www.uniformguidelines.com/index.html
 http://wdr.doleta.gov/opr/FULLTEXT/99-testassess.pdf
 http://www.shrm.org/about/foundation/research/Documents/assessment
   _methods.pdf
And some companies to research:
 http://rocket-hire.com – Dr. Charles Handler evaluates vendors
 http://www.profilesinternational.com
 http://www.selfmgmt.com/en/default.aspx
 http://www.peopleanswers.com
 http://www.previsor.com
 http://www.thebrooksgroup.com
 http://www.objectivemanagementgroup.com
                                                                           64 64
.




          Performance Levers                           .         .




          Helpful Resources
                                                       .         .




                                                           .




Performance Improvement
   http://bit.ly/Wallace6Pack
   http://bit.ly/BusinessProcessChange
   http://bit.ly/PerformanceConsultantsFieldbook
   http://amzn.to/HandbookImprovingPerformance
   http://amzn.to/HumanCompetence
   http://amzn.to/WhiteSpaceRevisited
   http://amzn.to/CompensatingTheSalesForce
   http://amzn.to/MgtPerformanceImprovementPlans
   http://amzn.to/TrainingAintPerformance
   http://amzn.to/FundamentalsPerformanceTechnology
   http://amzn.to/HandbookHPT
   http://amzn.to/HandbookHPT2
   http://amzn.to/SeriousPerformanceConsulting
   http://amzn.to/PerformanceArchitecture

                                                               65 65
.




          Performance Levers                                     .         .




          Helpful Resources
                                                                 .         .




                                                                     .




Best Practices
   http://amzn.to/MakingTheNumber ~ http://www.makingthenumber.com
   http://bit.ly/BestPracticeKnowledgeManagement
   http://bit.ly/IdentifyingOrgBestPractices
   http://www.csoinsights.com/sales-research-data
   http://www.csoinsights.com/Topics/Sales-Process-Best-Practices
   http://slidesha.re/BestPracticesWorldClassSales
Sales Best Practices Research
 http://www.achieveglobal.com/resources/?cat=1
 http://www.millerheiman.com/research_center/sales_best_practices_study
   /index.html
 http://www.huthwaite.com/en/Resource%20Center/Whitepapers.aspx
 https://sec.executiveboard.com/Public/Default.aspx
 http://www.salesbenchmarkindex.com
 http://salesmanagement.org
                                                                         66 66
.




          Performance Levers                                         .         .




          Helpful Resources
                                                                     .         .




                                                                         .




Sales & Sales Management Training
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/46526471/Basic-Instructional-Design-Principles
   http://www.esresearch.com
   http://bit.ly/MagerSixPack
   http://bit.ly/EvidencedBasedTraining
   http://bit.ly/JobAidsPerformanceSupport
   http://amzn.to/BeyondTransfer
   http://amzn.to/TheFourLevels
   http://amzn.to/MeasureTrainingResults
   http://www.ecsellinstitute.com/6-pillars-philosophy




                                                                             67 67

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Aligning Performance Levers for Breakthrough Sales Results 08-2011

  • 1. Aligning Performance Levers For Breakthrough Sales Results Mike Kunkle August 2011
  • 2. Performance Levers The Plan Agenda  Overview:  Background, Definition, Six-Project Approach, Why It’s Worth the Effort  Walk-through of the Six Projects  Case Example  Appendix with Helpful Resources “Everybody's got plans... until they get hit.” Mike Tyson 2 2
  • 3. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  A sad but true tale “Karen, we need sales training!” Karen reviews sales training. 3
  • 4. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  A sad but true tale Karen selects sales training. Note: Miller Heiman is a fine company. This is neither an endorsement nor a condemnation. 4
  • 5. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  A sad but true tale Karen delivers sales training. Training Expenses 5
  • 6. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  A sad but true tale “Karen, what happened!?” 6
  • 7. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  A sad but true tale A Xerox According to a Sales Performance International study, most sales professionals forget at least study 50% of what they learned in training programs in less than five weeks. For over 44% of 6,000 showed “Karen, what happened!?” sales professionals surveyed, they forget in less than one month. Further, salespeople only that 87% of remember 16% of content from sales training workshops after only 90 days. the knowledge According to ES Research Group, 85-95% learned in sales of sales training results in no long-term training is lost within impact in performance. 12 weeks. A study at Columbia University found that up to 95% of what is taught in training programs is Something needs to change! wasted through a failure to transfer learning to the workplace. 7
  • 8. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  An alternative Performance Lever Alignment Performer Organization Analysis Function Performance Sales & Sales Lever Manager Alignment Selection Position The Six Performance Lever Projects Task Sales & Sales Performance Manager Lever Training Identification Real Sales Best Practices Performance Capture Improvement 8
  • 9. Performance Levers Overview | Definition Performance Levers  Critical competencies, knowledge, skills, behaviors and conditions which must be present for ethical, sustained high-performance to occur.  Conditions include other organizational elements such as compensation, processes, policies, systems, technology, tools, culture, and more. Examples: Appointment Setting Competencies Knowledge Skill/Behaviors Conditions  Assertiveness  How products work  Tracking lead results  Compensation  Attitude  How to organize leads  Setting appointments  Processes, Policies & Procedures  Energy Level  How to set appointments  Opening a sales call  Systems, Technology & Tools  Verbal Skill  How to use collateral  Probing for needs  Performance Management  Sociability  Sales process stages  Presenting solutions  Reporting  Independence  How to get answers  Negotiating  And more… 9
  • 10. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  Imagine an 8-cylinder engine, firing on all 8 cylinders. 1 8 2 7 3 6 4 5 10 10
  • 11. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  What happens if it’s only firing on 4 cylinders? 1 8 2 7 3 6 4 5 11 11
  • 12. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  What if more than one system isn’t working right? System 1  Engine System 2  Drive Train 12 12
  • 13. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  How is this different in organizations? System 1 System 2  Hiring  Learning | Development System 3  Compensation System 4  Processes System 5  Coaching | Management System Et Cetera  And More… 13 13
  • 14. Performance Levers Overview | Definition  How is this different in organizations? It’s Not! 14 14
  • 15. Performance Levers Overview | Definition Types of Levers It’s “Systems Thinking”  Organization (Company) Organization  Function (Department) Function  Position (Role / Job) • Task (subset) Position Task Competencies Knowledge Skill/Behaviors Conditions  Assertiveness  How products work  Tracking lead results  Compensation  Attitude  How to organize leads  Setting appointments  Processes, Policies & Procedures  Energy Level  How to set appointments  Opening a sales call  Systems, Technology & Tools  Verbal Skill  How to use collateral  Probing for needs  Performance Management  Sociability  Sales process stages  Presenting solutions  Reporting  Independence  How to get answers  Negotiating  And more.. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_Thinking 15 15
  • 16. O Performance Levers F P T Overview | Definition Sales Training + Levers = Sales Effectiveness Sales Training Sales Effectiveness *  Is an important part of “sales effectiveness”  Includes much more than training  Preceded by a training needs analysis  Preceded by a performance gap analysis  Based on learning objectives  Based on performance objectives  Improves workplace behaviors and  Improves knowledge, skills, or attitudes outcomes  Requires instructional design and/or  Also requires performance consulting skills training delivery skills  Output includes courses, curricula, training  Output includes learning systems, events (e-learning, self-directed, processes, policies, technology, systems, classroom/instructor-led, field training) best practices and more  Tactical: Focused on who, what, why, how,  Strategic: Focused on organizational when & where alignment to support high performance * Also referred to as Sales Force Effectiveness, Sales Enablement or Sales Performance Development 16
  • 17. O Performance Levers F P T Overview | Definition Where to Start? I used to consider…  What can you control (or most strongly influence)?  Within that span:  What is the easiest win? (low-hanging fruit)  Where is the biggest gain? (most mileage)  What is the biggest pain? (biggest problem solved) Logical… but these days, to get started… 17 17
  • 18. O Performance Levers F P T Overview | Definition …I Suggest This: Get sourcing, selection, and promoting right:  Identify the right competencies by role (sales/mgt) Selection  Upgrade processes for sourcing and hiring employees  Upgrade processes for developing and promoting employees Do a Position-level Performance Lever analysis:  Put strong focus here - on the Position levers Position  Identify Levers, capture Best Practices and upgrade learning systems  Get this right for frontline Sales & Sales Management Roles Levers  Align as many supporting organizational levers as you can  Show results  Then start “tying strings” (aligning) to other levers and functions Pure training task analysis: Identify Levers, capture Best Practices and: Task  Conduct a great task analysis Importance Difficulty Frequency Levers  Write the tasks into training  Gather importance, difficulty and frequency to make good training decisions 18 18
  • 19. O Performance Levers F P T Overview | Definition Selection + Sales & Management Levers + Supporting Org Levers Train the Sales Select for the Position Levers Competencies Train the Sales Management Levers Territory Consultative What & How to Train Competencies Sales Planning Align Management Selling Compensation How to Diagnose Levers Account Technology & Pipeline Account Selection Tool Use Management Development How to Coach Remove Policy & How to Manage SOP Barriers Performance Improve Internal Track Success Service Metrics Note: These are just examples and may not be right for your organization 19
  • 20. O Performance Levers F P T Overview | Definition What are They in Your World? Start Thinking Now…. Varies by Role But What Should You Add / Subtract For Your Company? Will Include…  Document and discuss ideas with top producers & leaders  Hiring Competencies  Agree on a hypothesis  Recruiting | Selection  Perform the analysis | Conduct the research  Compensation – Survey(s)  Reporting – Interviews | Focus Groups And May Include… – Observation  Product Knowledge  Setting Goals & Objectives Your Performance Lever Mix  Lead Management  Technology | Tools  Account Selection  Consultative Selling Skills  Pipeline Management  Account Management  Account Development  Follow-up | Follow-through  Training | Coaching  Action Planning  …and more… 20 20
  • 21. Performance Levers Overview | Definition High-Level Overview: DIY “How To”  Performer Analysis (Who To Study)  Sales & Sales Manager Selection (How to Select, Promote & Develop)  Assessments, competencies, sourcing, interviewing, selection, tracking, validation  Performance Lever Identification (What Really Drives Performance)  Interviews to create hypotheses for Performance Levers (sales reps & sales managers)  Surveys to confirm / hone Performance Levers  Best Practices Capture (Details of Each Position/Task Lever)  Interviews / focus groups / observation to gather Best Practices  (Re)Design Training for Sales & Sales Managers (Share the Knowledge)  Learning systems: pre-work, training, post-work, reinforcement, measurement, reporting  Align Other Levers (Support the Levers Every Way Possible)  Measure, report, feedback, adjust, repeat Which becomes…. 21
  • 22. Performance Levers Overview | Definition – The Six Projects Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 22
  • 23. Performance Levers Overview – Why Go Through All This? Just a few of the many reasons…  Better hiring | shorter-ramp up for new hires and promotions  Geometric growth for incumbents (vs. incremental)  Greater customer satisfaction & loyalty  Break out of “80/20 prison”  Improve “average” performance levels across the organization  Rewards and incentives that drive the right behavior  Systemic alignment fosters clarity and focus – people “feel better” (reduced frustration and cognitive dissonance) But most importantly, we do it for the bottom-line results… 23 23
  • 24. Performance Levers Overview – Why Go Through All This? The Outcome | Bottom-line Results (Real Examples):  A $398MM sales revenue increase, a $9.96MM net profit increase and a 400% return on investment  Increased sales per rep by 47% through changes in territory management and sales coaching  Increased sales results 600% over previous year while decreasing net operating expenses by 21%  Improved average profitability per rep by 11% in 4 months  Improved processing efficiency (order pull-through) by 16% in 6 months.  Newly-hired and trained 4-month employees outperformed a control group of untrained 5-year employees  Increased loans closed per FTE in the 3-month period after training by 2.3 per month (average revenue increase of $183K per class or $36.6MM in 12 months) 24 24
  • 25. Performance Levers DIY | How To – The Six Projects Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 25
  • 26. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 26
  • 27. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Performer Analysis Performer Analysis  WHAT: Identify top, average & low producing sales reps. Performance Sales & Sales Lever Manager Identify top, average & low producing sales Alignment Selection managers.  HOW: Analyze a year of sales data & create a weighted scoring system across multiple metrics/products. Sales & Sales Performance Manager Lever Some discussion & surveys with managers. Training Identification  WHY: Best Provides a mix of performers to study in various Practices ways, to determine true differentiating factors. Capture 27
  • 28. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Example of Performer Categories n= New = >30 days, <271 days Top New Reps Often “top” includes tiers: 39 Top = In the Top Quartile of all metrics  4% | 10% | 15% | 25% Seasoned = >365 days (many 5+ years) Top Seasoned Reps 307 Top = In the Top Quartile of all metrics Average Reps Selected randomly, between mean and median production 298 Low Producer Reps Selected randomly from the bottom 20% 348 Top SM Producers Top = In the Top Quartile of all metrics, personal production 15 Top SM Team Top = Top Quartile all metrics, w/o SM results + survey of their Mgr 52 Managers Top = In Top Producer group personally + Top Quartile all metrics w/o SM Top SM Both 5 results + survey of their Mgr Average SM (Team) Selected randomly, between mean and median production 79 Low Performing SM Selected randomly from the bottom 20% 32 (Team) 28
  • 29. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Example of Sales Metrics Metrics Quarterly Weighting * Create a weighted scoring system… # of Sales Med-High (2-3) $ Volume Low (1) Pull-Through Rate Med (1-2) Avg # Sales/Day/Rep High (3-4) Avg $ Vol/Day/Rep Med-High (2-3) Cross-Sell Percent Med (1-2) * Review the last 12 months & the last quarter. Weight the quarter more heavily. Blend the scores. 29
  • 30. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Example of Analysis – Sales Reps Low High 4th Quartile Mean Avg. Sort Descending Median Highlight 4th Quartile Apply Weighting Repeat & Total 30
  • 31. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Example of Analysis – Sales Reps Low High 4th Quartile Mean Avg. Sort Descending Median Highlight 4th Quartile Apply Weighting Repeat & Total 31
  • 32. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Example of Analysis – Sales Managers Consider things like:  Avg Productivity  Avg # and $/rep /time  Engagement: % of team producing and/or goal %/rep  Total Team Sales: $ and #  Avg Time to 1st Sale (new reps)  Pipeline Stats & Pull-through %  Cross-sell Ratios or Penetration  Trend Indicators (actual # last month, avg/month over 13 weeks, avg/month past year)  Survey Their Managers  Remove the “luck” factor  Remove “inherited territory”  Remove “one great rep” 32
  • 33. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performer Analysis Partner with Smart People with SAS, SPSS, or Minitab * to Crunch Data for Validity, as Needed * Of course, learning research methodology and statistics is a viable option for the brave… 33 33
  • 34. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 34
  • 35. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection Sales & Sales Manager Selection Performer Analysis  WHAT: Psychometric assessments that measure thinking styles, behavioral traits and interest. Performance Sales & Sales Lever Manager Alignment Selection  HOW: Most vendors now offer online assessments.  WHY: The assessments will help you identify competencies. You can identify statistically Sales & Sales Performance validated patterns that predict success, based Manager Lever Training Identification on your top performers. You can use the results to further develop & Best coach your current leaders. Practices You can better identify future leaders, who are Capture like your very best today. 35
  • 36. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection Methods  Competency Identification  Interview Methods  Other Checks  Psychometric Assessments  Job Matching  Blended Models My Favorite? Blended w/ Psychometric + Job Matching Sources:  Professor Mike Smith, University of Manchester, August 1994  John E. Hunter and Ronda F. Hunter, Validity and Utility of Alternative Predictors of Job Performance, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 96, No.1, 1984, p. 90  Robert P. Tett, Douglas N. Jackson, and Mitchell Rothstein, Personality Measures as Predictors of Job Performance: A Meta-Analytical Review, Personnel Psychology, Winter 1991, p.703. Michigan State University’s School of Business. 36
  • 37. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Manager Selection Psychometric Assessments  Thinking | Cognitive Factors  Behavioral Traits One-third of the  Occupational Interests Hiring Decision Get it right:  Normative vs. Ipsative  Focus on Predictive Validity  Use the same Performer Categories from your other Analysis  Compare top | middle | bottom to look for differentiating factors  Hire, develop and promote based on those factors, as well as performance data (whenever possible)  Bring in experts 37
  • 38. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Other Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 38
  • 39. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification Performance Lever Identification Performer Analysis  WHAT: Identify the knowledge, skills, behaviors or conditions that must exist for ethical, sustained, Performance Sales & Sales Lever Manager high performance to occur. Alignment Selection Formulate hypotheses about what the levers are for frontline sales and sales management roles. Confirm and validate the levers through research.  HOW: Through discussion, surveys, interviews, focus Sales & Sales Performance Manager Lever groups, and observation of frontline sales reps Training Identification and their managers. Best  WHY: Practices This will confirm where to focus your efforts Capture capturing Best Practices, which provides training content. 39
  • 40. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification Formulating the Hypotheses  Start with some known practices  Talk with:  Executives  Other leaders  Frontline sales reps  Frontline sales managers  Sales operations and support staff  And possibly, customers  Label the big buckets and detail the tasks  Don’t get married – you’re just dating  Build the surveys to confirm the hypotheses 40
  • 41. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification Identify the high-level Survey Design Performance Levers (hypotheses) Document the potential tasks for the Performance Lever Ask what you’ve missed 41
  • 42. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification Survey Design Clearly define Performance Lever Define the role Add instructions for completing the survey 42
  • 43. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification Survey Design (Scales)  Rate the statement provided. Using empathy statements to acknowledge a prospect’s situation/feelings  How much do you agree it’s a Performance Lever?  If rated 1-2, next question.  If rated 3-5:  Importance & Difficulty  And in some cases:  Frequency: Actual & Should  In addition, you should ask what you missed, by Lever, and a handful of other questions – such as normal demographics & Continue | Start | Stop. 43
  • 44. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Identification Look Familiar? Partner with Smart People with SAS, SPSS, or Minitab * to Crunch Data for Validity, as Needed * Of course, learning research methodology and statistics is STILL a viable option for the brave… 44 44
  • 45. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Best Practices Capture Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 45
  • 46. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Best Practices Capture Best Practices Capture Performer Analysis  WHAT: Document the best practices and differentiating behaviors of top performers, which can be Performance Sales & Sales Lever Manager replicated and trained. Alignment Selection  HOW: Through discussion, interviews, focus groups and observation of the frontline sales reps and managers identified during Performer Analysis. Sales & Sales Manager Performance Lever  WHY: Training Identification To share best practices broadly and (re)design training around them. Best Practices Capture 46
  • 47. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Best Practices Capture Data Collection Methods  Interviews  In-person, phone, webinar  Focus Groups Getting the Straight Scoop  In-person, webinar  What really happens “out there”  Account for the Hawthorne effect  Field Observation  Trust, truth and strict confidentiality  5-10 top performers  Autonomy, mastery and purpose *  3 average  2 in ninth decile  More, pending time, resources & budget * Thank you, Daniel Pink (author of Drive) 47
  • 48. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 48
  • 49. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Manager Training Performer Analysis  WHAT: (Re)design sales and sales management training (learning systems) around your best practices. Performance Sales & Sales Lever Manager Ensure that your training includes the right Alignment Selection content and produces ethical, sustainable, high performance in the real world.  HOW: Develop courses and implement learning and transfer systems, incorporating what you’ve Sales & Sales Performance Manager Lever learned in this research. Training Identification  WHY: Best To improve training, further share best Practices practices, and improve work performance of Capture frontline sales reps and sales managers. 49
  • 50. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales Training is the Easy Part Teach Position Performance Levers and Tasks! Teach sales reps:  If new, yes, do onboarding and orientations, but then…  Focus on the major Performance Levers  Teach the Performance Lever Tasks  Create and share Performance Support  Share Knowledge but Focus on Behaviors & Skills  Build-in extensive Transfer Plans Teach Them The Replicable Best Practices of Top Performers 50
  • 51. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Sales & Sales Manager Training As You Develop Sales Manager Training, Remember… Frontline Sales Management is the Pivotal Role! Teach managers:  What you teach reps (in advance)  How to diagnose and identify issues with Performance Levers  How to coach to improve levers (behavioral coaching)  How to develop motivational action plans (management science)  How to reinforce, reward, and manage performance  NOTE: Other Lever – Reward managers for the above behaviors Teach Them To Get Results Through Others 51
  • 52. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Alignment Performer Analysis Performance Lever Project Series Performance Sales & Sales  Performer Analysis Lever Manager Alignment Selection  Sales & Sales Manager Selection  Performance Lever Identification  Best Practices Capture  Sales & Sales Manager Training Sales & Sales Performance Manager Training Lever Identification  Performance Lever Alignment Best Practices Capture 52
  • 53. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Alignment Performance Lever Alignment Performer Analysis  WHAT: Review policies, practices, processes, procedures, systems, compensations, and other Performance Sales & Sales Lever Manager organization factors. Alignment Selection  HOW: By sharing study results with other organizational leaders and discussing how you can best support the Performance Levers and Best Practices. Sales & Sales Performance Manager Lever If you have an OD team, get them involved. Training Identification  WHY: Best To align as many other organizational elements Practices as possible to support the performance levers Capture and best practices – to create an environment which supports sales success as much as possible. 53
  • 54. Performance Levers DIY | How To – Performance Lever Alignment Recommended Initial Focus for Alignment  Get sales compensation right – rely on experts, if needed  Get out of the “Sales Prevention Business”  Ask frontline reps and managers, you’ll hear plenty to fix  Eliminate restrictive policies designed for situations that occur once a quarter  Conduct a Force Field Analysis* with top sales performers and sales managers – remove restraining forces first * Thank you, Kurt Lewin, for Force Field Analysis 54
  • 55. Case Example Sales Performance Levers Applied to:  B2B Financial Services  Wholesale Mortgage Origination Channel  Low Base | High Commission
  • 56. Case Example B2B Financial Services Company The Business Situation and Problems  Good growth rate – Wall Street darling  Original team was doing very well (top 20% delivering 80% of production)  New Hires struggling – annualized NH turnover was growing fast  Sales training was one week in a classroom, all lecture  There was no reinforcement, planned transfer or evaluation  Reporting was fragmented, hard to interpret, not actionable  The best of the new sales people were promoted into management, but…  No management training and managers each managed their own way  Coaching was rare  Performance management was, “You did X last month. You need to do Y next month or you’ll be fired”  If you had industry sales experience, wanted the job, and could fog a mirror, the job was yours  Few understood the complex compensation system. 56 56
  • 57. Case Example B2B Financial Services Company Challenge from the President  The President told our Performance Development team: “I believe in this group and what you were hired to do. But I want to be clear. If you can’t deliver on your promises about improving performance, you won’t be sitting at this table this time next year.” 57 57
  • 58. Case Example B2B Financial Services Company Performance Projects  Analysis of past and past results | current state | current results. (Point A)  Discussion with senior management on strategic direction, goals and performance objectives. (Point B)  Analysis of traits, habits, skills and practices of carefully selected Top, Middle and Low Performers…  Individual Interviews | Multiple Surveys | Focus Groups | Observations  “Hiring Right” project – what’s the “right stuff” for our roles? How do we hire, develop and promote people effectively?  Process analysis and documentation review for possible Lean projects.  Review of compensation and incentive programs and practices for sales.  Review of sales management practices.  Customer Interviews, Surveys, and Focus Groups.  So, basically, we ran The Six Projects (and included customer feedback) 58 58
  • 59. Case Example B2B Financial Services Company How We Created a Performance Enhancing System  Vetted the analysis, identified the levers and communicated everywhere  Created 3-week sales training curriculum for new hires (2 weeks remote + 1 week in class) – taught all levers, changed behaviors in class & certified  All new managers went through the program and were certified  Taught incumbent managers separately and certified  Developed a coaching program for managers (and yes, certified them)  Aligned comp, performance management and reporting/metrics  Started work on the supporting levers  Constant communication | monitoring with dashboard reports  Quick feedback loops, performance hotline, adjusted course as needed  Transitioned leaders to take ownership and accountability  Top-down, C-level support was critical 59 59
  • 60. Case Example B2B Financial Services Company Some Results  Reduced average ramp-up time to minimum acceptable performance for newly-hired/trained reps from 6 months to 3  Increased average purchase from $156K to $167K  Reduced turnover from 44% to 28% (new hire one-year from 78% to 24%)  Increased size of “top producer” performers from 9% to 14%  Increased New Customer “Stick Rate” (stat not available)  Decreased “order” processing time by 16%  Improved order pull-through from 47% to 54% But most importantly… $398MM Increase in Revenue  $9.9MM Increase in Net Profit  400% Training ROI 60 60
  • 61. Case Example B2B Financial Services Company Real-World Tips & “Gotchas” From This Case  Analysis of traits, habits, skills and practices of carefully selected Top, Middle and Low Performers  Validate performer status closely: Especially rule out “inherited a great territory” and other factors that mask “earned” top-producer status  Methods: Individual Interviews | Multiple Surveys | Focus Groups | Observations  You must see what they’re doing!  Insert the Voice of the Customer – whenever possible: talk to them and listen!  Be ruthless on process reviews. Streamline!  Forget “sales experience.” Assess | Hire | Train | Develop  Listen most closely to the real top producers, those moving up steadily, and superstar new hires who leap out of the gate  Agree on what success looks like, with executives, upfront, and how it will be measured 61 61
  • 62. Appendix  Helpful Resources  http://www.slideshare.net/MikeKunkle/aligning-performance-levers-for-breakthrough-sales-results-082011 Aligning Performance Levers For Breakthrough Sales Results
  • 63. . Performance Levers . . Helpful Resources . . . Analysis  http://amzn.to/AnalyzingPerformanceProblems  http://amzn.to/AnalysisImprovingPerformance  http://bit.ly/FirstThingsFast  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/analysis/analysis.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_performance_technology  http://www.pignc-ispi.com/articles/Vol42_05_08.pdf  http://www.ue295.com/xtranet/html/timeline/harless.html 63 63
  • 64. . Performance Levers . . Helpful Resources . . . Selection For those interested in exploring assessments, here are some unbiased educational resources:  http://www.uniformguidelines.com/index.html  http://wdr.doleta.gov/opr/FULLTEXT/99-testassess.pdf  http://www.shrm.org/about/foundation/research/Documents/assessment _methods.pdf And some companies to research:  http://rocket-hire.com – Dr. Charles Handler evaluates vendors  http://www.profilesinternational.com  http://www.selfmgmt.com/en/default.aspx  http://www.peopleanswers.com  http://www.previsor.com  http://www.thebrooksgroup.com  http://www.objectivemanagementgroup.com 64 64
  • 65. . Performance Levers . . Helpful Resources . . . Performance Improvement  http://bit.ly/Wallace6Pack  http://bit.ly/BusinessProcessChange  http://bit.ly/PerformanceConsultantsFieldbook  http://amzn.to/HandbookImprovingPerformance  http://amzn.to/HumanCompetence  http://amzn.to/WhiteSpaceRevisited  http://amzn.to/CompensatingTheSalesForce  http://amzn.to/MgtPerformanceImprovementPlans  http://amzn.to/TrainingAintPerformance  http://amzn.to/FundamentalsPerformanceTechnology  http://amzn.to/HandbookHPT  http://amzn.to/HandbookHPT2  http://amzn.to/SeriousPerformanceConsulting  http://amzn.to/PerformanceArchitecture 65 65
  • 66. . Performance Levers . . Helpful Resources . . . Best Practices  http://amzn.to/MakingTheNumber ~ http://www.makingthenumber.com  http://bit.ly/BestPracticeKnowledgeManagement  http://bit.ly/IdentifyingOrgBestPractices  http://www.csoinsights.com/sales-research-data  http://www.csoinsights.com/Topics/Sales-Process-Best-Practices  http://slidesha.re/BestPracticesWorldClassSales Sales Best Practices Research  http://www.achieveglobal.com/resources/?cat=1  http://www.millerheiman.com/research_center/sales_best_practices_study /index.html  http://www.huthwaite.com/en/Resource%20Center/Whitepapers.aspx  https://sec.executiveboard.com/Public/Default.aspx  http://www.salesbenchmarkindex.com  http://salesmanagement.org 66 66
  • 67. . Performance Levers . . Helpful Resources . . . Sales & Sales Management Training  http://www.scribd.com/doc/46526471/Basic-Instructional-Design-Principles  http://www.esresearch.com  http://bit.ly/MagerSixPack  http://bit.ly/EvidencedBasedTraining  http://bit.ly/JobAidsPerformanceSupport  http://amzn.to/BeyondTransfer  http://amzn.to/TheFourLevels  http://amzn.to/MeasureTrainingResults  http://www.ecsellinstitute.com/6-pillars-philosophy 67 67