Building Academic Vocabulary


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Building Academic Vocabulary

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Building Academic Vocabulary

  1. 1. Building Academic Vocabulary
  2. 2. Building Academic Content Knowledge <ul><li>The strongest increase in both innate intelligence and learned intelligence is effective schooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective schooling can provide the most direct approach to building academic content knowledge through a variety and depth of experiences like field trips and out-of-class experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>However, an indirect approach to building background knowledge can also lead to remarkable results. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Six Principles for Building an Indirect Approach: #1 <ul><li>1) Students store background knowledge in “memory records” based on eight “propositions” related to an event in which the student is directly involved. </li></ul><ul><li>The student stores knowledge associated with the following “I” questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what I did; how I felt; what I did to something; where I did something; what I did for or gave to someone; what happened to me during the event; what someone else did for me ; how I felt at the end of the event. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Six Principles for Building an Indirect Approach: #2 <ul><li>2) Helping students store their experiences in permanent memory can be enhanced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students need minimally four exposures to new content, no more than two days apart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The four exposures cannot be mere repetition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The four exposures must provide a variety of elaborations of the new content without requiring students to access another knowledge set. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Six Principles for Building an Indirect Approach: #3 <ul><li>3) The target for instruction must be content-specific information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A student’s background knowledge outside the target content area can be a valuable tool as the student personalizes the new information. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Six Principles for Building an Indirect Approach: #4 <ul><li>4) Teachers must build opportunities for students to build academic knowledge through multiple exposures to the surface-level or basic terminology or concepts for a content area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers cannot build “more” background knowledge until their students have acquired the basic information. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Six Principles for Building an Indirect Approach: #5 <ul><li>5) Vocabulary acquisition builds background knowledge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words are labels students store in their memory packets for single objects and for groups or families of objects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only if the student has a memory packet can that student apply background knowledge to new experiences through words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A store becomes a grocery store, a convenience store, a department store, etc., only for the student with an expanded memory packet. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Six Principles for Building an Indirect Approach: #6 <ul><li>6) Virtual experiences enhance background knowledge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A student’s ability to read allows one type of virtual experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equally important is the use of spoken language for virtual experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversation is an important instructional tool that should be used in the required repetitive process to allow students to build background information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Characteristics of Effective Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>“ High frequency” word lists, used my many, have inherent problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These lists do not address the difficulty, appropriateness, or relevance of a word to a concept. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective vocabulary instruction begins with this most important declaration: Dictionary definitions should not be the first exposure for students to new words. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Effective Vocabulary Instruction (cont’d) <ul><li>Students must have multiple exposures to words and word meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching word parts supports student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Students must be provided the opportunity to discuss the words they are learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Content-specific terms are most helpful in building academic vocabulary. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Marzano’s six steps emphasize that while content-specific teachers address content-specific vocabulary, all teachers should use the six-step process. </li></ul>