What knowledge enables inclusion Mike Blamires, Principal Lecturer Canterbury Christ Church University
Summary:   This presentation considers issues underlying the theory and practice of enabling inclusion in the context of m...
Inclusion and rights <ul><li>assumes </li></ul><ul><li>Students have a right to be part of the mainstream </li></ul><ul><l...
What is inclusion ? What is inclusion for ?
On The Treadmill: The Complexity of Educational Inclusion <ul><li>“ The term is open to confusion i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Integration or Inclusion ? <ul><li>The Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE, 1989) uses the terms inclusion and...
Integration or Inclusion ? <ul><li>“ Well, Miss M she’s really great and ma new schools its so good and everybody is like ...
Integration or Inclusion ? <ul><li>“ I don’t fit in at school. Nobody wants me near them, because they think, “It can happ...
Learning Components of a social model of learning (Etienne Wenger 1997) practice Learning  as doing community Learning  as...
Extending horizons: A developmental model of inclusion:
Enabling Learning Perhaps a catch phrase ?
The Bio/Psycho/Social Model Norwich 1990 Psychological factors Social factors Biological factors
That a person has difficulties does not always mean they are incapable of ever learning or that they should not have the o...
Stefan, would you  like to stop talking  with Freda and  Vanya and get on  with your work  ?
Is it a good career move to   have a label of autism,    dyspraxia or Roma ? E thical  D imensions…  L abels and  B aggage...
Managing Complex Change Change Confusion Anxiety Resistance Frustration Treadmill Thousand (2000) adapted from Knoster, T....
Confusion <ul><li>Some answers may need questioning.. </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups may experience similar exclusiona...
The complexity of educational Inclusion <ul><li>The term is open to confusion i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>It  is about learning...
Confusion : Extended concepts of inclusion <ul><li>This broadening of the the concept of inclusion and exclusionary proces...
Different groups may experience similar exclusionary forces Confusion “ Special educational  needs” Disability Socio Econo...
Confusion and Conflation ? <ul><li>“ It is important that the distinction between more specific disability and broader all...
Resistance : Good practice for one subgroup of learners is good practice for all <ul><li>School effectiveness proponents f...
Resistance : So how do these adaptations benefit all ? <ul><li>Error free learning identified as a factor in the education...
Resistance : Who is included in the all ? <ul><li>School effectiveness currently refers to the maximum not the minority </...
On The Treadmill: What strategies should be in the action plan ? <ul><li>Dilemmas of difference </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, D...
An inclusive approach to education involves: •  creating an ethos of achievement for all pupils within a climate of high e...
“ We are as interested in the youngster who has survived despite all the odds and successfully takes his or her place in s...
Features of good practice in developing an inclusive ethos included: •  a school ethos that consistently reflected a set o...
Features of good practice in developing an inclusive ethos included: •  a pro-active and positive approach to managing beh...
Features of good practice in developing an inclusive ethos included: •  opportunities for all pupils to experience success...
Features of good practice in leadership and management included: •  a clear vision and strategy for the development of inc...
Features of good practice in leadership and management included: •  use of data on attendance, exclusions, participation i...
Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: •  well-developed systems to review and monitor the range a...
Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: •  a clear strategy to monitor and evaluate the impact of f...
Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: •  a wide range of extra-curricular activities, planned and...
Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: •  a wide range of extra-curricular activities, planned and...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Strategy 1: Clarity of what is expected Strategy 2: Predictability / Novelty Strategy 3: Feedback (Reward System) Strategy...
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Inclusion

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Some perspectives on inclusion.

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Inclusion

  1. 2. What knowledge enables inclusion Mike Blamires, Principal Lecturer Canterbury Christ Church University
  2. 3. Summary:   This presentation considers issues underlying the theory and practice of enabling inclusion in the context of mainstream secondary and primary schools and their support services.
  3. 4. Inclusion and rights <ul><li>assumes </li></ul><ul><li>Students have a right to be part of the mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>They also have a right to positive evaluation and respect </li></ul><ul><li>But there is also a third implied right to.. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Individually relevant learning </li></ul><ul><li>Lunt & Norwich 1999 </li></ul>
  4. 5. What is inclusion ? What is inclusion for ?
  5. 6. On The Treadmill: The Complexity of Educational Inclusion <ul><li>“ The term is open to confusion i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>It is about learning in the same place on the same curriculum as others (Bailey,1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson’s(1997) view that it is not necessarily about being in the same place and curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Booth & Ainscow’s (1998) view that it is not a state at all but an unending process of increasing participation </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas’s (1997) view that it about accepting all children </li></ul><ul><li>Sebba & Sachdev’s (1997) view that it about schools responding and restructuring their provision </li></ul><ul><li>Florien’s(1998) view that opportunity to participate in inclusion is about active involvement and choice and not something done to the disabled” </li></ul><ul><li>Lunt & Norwich 1999 </li></ul>Treadmill Vision Skills Resources Incentives + + + =
  6. 7. Integration or Inclusion ? <ul><li>The Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE, 1989) uses the terms inclusion and inclusive education instead of integration and integrated education to reflect new understanding of disability issues and equality opportunity: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ While integration may be construed as something done to disabled people by able bodied people according to their standards and conditions, inclusion better conveys a right to belong to the mainstream and a joint undertaking toend discrimination and work towards equal opportunities for all children.’ </li></ul>
  7. 8. Integration or Inclusion ? <ul><li>“ Well, Miss M she’s really great and ma new schools its so good and everybody is like understanding and part of it is like am Maxine the new girl with the lap top and everything and like everyone just accepted that from thestart and they just, like lots of people use lap tops and like they just like they ask you why you’ve got one and everything but then they just take it as a normal thing.”( Maxine starting a new mainstream school , Davis & Watson, 1999). </li></ul>
  8. 9. Integration or Inclusion ? <ul><li>“ I don’t fit in at school. Nobody wants me near them, because they think, “It can happen to me.” Most of the time I get very lonely. Not most of the time, all of the time, I’m really lonely and sad” </li></ul><ul><li>( Young woman , Tisdall, 1990 ). </li></ul>
  9. 10. Learning Components of a social model of learning (Etienne Wenger 1997) practice Learning as doing community Learning as belonging meaning Learning as experience identity Learning as becoming
  10. 11. Extending horizons: A developmental model of inclusion:
  11. 12. Enabling Learning Perhaps a catch phrase ?
  12. 13. The Bio/Psycho/Social Model Norwich 1990 Psychological factors Social factors Biological factors
  13. 14. That a person has difficulties does not always mean they are incapable of ever learning or that they should not have the opportunity to experience or learn.
  14. 15. Stefan, would you like to stop talking with Freda and Vanya and get on with your work ?
  15. 16. Is it a good career move to have a label of autism, dyspraxia or Roma ? E thical D imensions… L abels and B aggage Is the label a signpost to understanding ?
  16. 17. Managing Complex Change Change Confusion Anxiety Resistance Frustration Treadmill Thousand (2000) adapted from Knoster, T. (1991) Vision Skills Resources Incentives Action Plan + + + + = Skills Resources Incentives Action Plan + + + = Vision Resources Incentives Action Plan + + + = Vision Skills Resources Action Plan + + + = Vision Skills Incentives Action Plan + + + = Vision Skills Resources Incentives + + + =
  17. 18. Confusion <ul><li>Some answers may need questioning.. </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups may experience similar exclusionary forces Inclusive schools are effective schools Good practice for one subgroup of learners is good practice for all </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise is not needed for inclusion </li></ul>Confusion Skills Resources Incentives Action Plan + + + =
  18. 19. The complexity of educational Inclusion <ul><li>The term is open to confusion i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>It is about learning in the same place on the same curriculum as others (Bailey,1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson’s(1997) view that it is not necessarily about being in the same place and curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Booth & Ainscow’s view that it is not a state at all but an unending process of increasing participation </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas’s view that it about accepting all children </li></ul><ul><li>Sebba & Sachdev’s view that it about schools responding and restructuring their provision </li></ul><ul><li>Florien’s view that opportunity to participate in inclusion is about active involvement and choice and not something done to the disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Lunt & Norwich 1999 </li></ul>
  19. 20. Confusion : Extended concepts of inclusion <ul><li>This broadening of the the concept of inclusion and exclusionary processes has been extended beyond areas of SEN and disability to include other groupings. </li></ul>Confusion Skills Resources Incentives Action Plan + + + =
  20. 21. Different groups may experience similar exclusionary forces Confusion “ Special educational needs” Disability Socio Economic Depravation Teenage Mothers Learners with HIV Aids Travellers Ethnic Minorities Gender Inclusion Exclusion Skills Resources Incentives Action Plan + + + =
  21. 22. Confusion and Conflation ? <ul><li>“ It is important that the distinction between more specific disability and broader all encompassing meaning are not blurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Different disadvantaged groups can have distinct identities related to their social and personal conditions and even may have multiple identities.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lunt & Norwich 1999 </li></ul>Confusion Skills Resources Incentives Action Plan + + + =
  22. 23. Resistance : Good practice for one subgroup of learners is good practice for all <ul><li>School effectiveness proponents focus upon the capability of promoting learning for the majority </li></ul><ul><li>Effective schools for all proponents assume that school and teaching changes geared to those with difficulties and disabilities will benefit those without difficulties. </li></ul>Resistance Vision Skills Resources Action Plan + + + =
  23. 24. Resistance : So how do these adaptations benefit all ? <ul><li>Error free learning identified as a factor in the education of pupil’s with Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>The teaching of Braille as a method of reading </li></ul><ul><li>The use of chubby pencils </li></ul><ul><li>The provision of an electric wheelchair and ramps </li></ul>Resistance Vision Skills Resources Action Plan + + + =
  24. 25. Resistance : Who is included in the all ? <ul><li>School effectiveness currently refers to the maximum not the minority </li></ul><ul><li>The modal not the exceptional is the focus of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are not identified as effective when their lowest attaining pupils go on to make significant attainment gains </li></ul><ul><li>Lunt & Norwich 1999 </li></ul>Resistance Vision Skills Resources Action Plan + + + =
  25. 26. On The Treadmill: What strategies should be in the action plan ? <ul><li>Dilemmas of difference </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, Dyson & Millward (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>if you treat someone differently they may lose out </li></ul><ul><li>but if you treat them the same they may also lose out </li></ul>Treadmill Vision Skills Resources Incentives + + + =
  26. 27. An inclusive approach to education involves: • creating an ethos of achievement for all pupils within a climate of high expectation; • valuing a broad range of talents, abilities and achievements; • promoting success and self-esteem by taking action to remove barriers to learning; • countering conscious and unconscious discrimination that may prevent individuals, or pupils from any particular groups, from thriving in the school; and • actively promoting understanding and a positive appreciation of the diversity of individuals and groups within society.
  27. 28. “ We are as interested in the youngster who has survived despite all the odds and successfully takes his or her place in society, as we are in the youngster who successfully leaves us to go to the likes of Oxford or Cambridge. We are not particularly interested in short term gains through high profile one-off projects, more in the long game and using as many strategies as possible to meet the needs of our pupils.” Secondary headteacher
  28. 29. Features of good practice in developing an inclusive ethos included: • a school ethos that consistently reflected a set of clearly articulated values; • a strong feeling amongst pupils, parents, staff and visitors that they were valued; • a clear sense that pupils were known and treated as individuals by staff; • a strong sense of pride in the school on the part of pupils; • good relationships between staff and pupils, and amongst pupils; • expectations of high standards in every aspect of school life based on the principle that only the best will do;
  29. 30. Features of good practice in developing an inclusive ethos included: • a pro-active and positive approach to managing behaviour and discipline, based on encouraging self-awareness, self-respect and co-operation, and focused on improving the conditions for learning; • a balance between pupils’ rights and their responsibilities to the school community; • the allocation of an appropriate degree of responsibility to pupils within the school, for their own learning and, where appropriate, for supporting others; • concern to ensure equality of treatment and opportunity and to value the contribution that diversity in language, religion, race, culture and special educational needs can make to the life of the school;
  30. 31. Features of good practice in developing an inclusive ethos included: • opportunities for all pupils to experience success and a sense of achievement, to develop their self-esteem; • full participation of individuals and groups with special needs in social as well as curricular activities; and • high levels of consultation with pupils and parents on important aspects of school life and on the extent to which the school was meeting its aims
  31. 32. Features of good practice in leadership and management included: • a clear vision and strategy for the development of inclusion, pursued effectively through strong leadership from the headteacher and other staff throughout the school; • an open and accessible management style that sought to involve staff and pupils in decision making; • good knowledge of individuals on the part of senior promoted staff; • effective use of the school’s staffing and resources to support and extend learning opportunities, with a focus on outcomes for children, and innovation and flexibility in the way these were achieved; • concern to monitor the impact of such innovation on individuals and different groups of pupils;
  32. 33. Features of good practice in leadership and management included: • use of data on attendance, exclusions, participation in extra-curricular activities and attainment to evaluate progress in inclusion and to identify priorities for further action; • priorities for the future that were clearly articulated in realistic development planning, shared and understood by the staff; • a strong belief in building effective partnerships with other agencies which support children and families; • a strong commitment to involving parents and the wider community in supporting effective learning and teaching; and • procedures to ensure that the views of parents were sought, taken seriously and acted upon where practicable.
  33. 34. Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: • well-developed systems to review and monitor the range and balance of the curriculum offered in meeting the needs of pupils; • curriculum planning which ensured a high but appropriate level of challenge for all pupils; • effective links between, for example, pre-school centres and primary schools, primary and secondary schools, secondary schools and further education colleges, and among adjacent primary, secondary and special schools, including joint delivery of courses where appropriate; • effective support for pupils at transition stages in their education to ensure smooth progression; • good use of staffing, including inter-agency support teams, to offer flexible, alternative provision;
  34. 35. Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: • a clear strategy to monitor and evaluate the impact of flexible provision; • the promotion of healthy lifestyles as an underpinning principle of the curriculum; • ways of ensuring that the learning opportunities offered by the school met the needs of pupils from all cultures represented in the school, used the different cultural experiences of pupils and their families, and made clear links to the context of the community; • good links between the schools and the community through involvement in community events and with community groups;
  35. 36. Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: • a wide range of extra-curricular activities, planned and provided to encourage pupils’ personal and social development; and •ways of ensuring that all pupils could access extra-curricular and residential activities where parents had financial hardship or there were barriers of disability.
  36. 37. Features of good practice in managing the curriculum included: • a wide range of extra-curricular activities, planned and provided to encourage pupils’ personal and social development; and •ways of ensuring that all pupils could access extra-curricular and residential activities where parents had financial hardship or there were barriers of disability.
  37. 45. Strategy 1: Clarity of what is expected Strategy 2: Predictability / Novelty Strategy 3: Feedback (Reward System) Strategy 4: Interaction/ group work Available time for tasks Strategy 6: negotiation/conflict (Choice) Strategy 7: level of work (Complexity) Strategy 8: Modality Strategy 9: Language demand The 9 Key Strategies (?) Strategy 5: Blamires 1998 Consider which strategies may be useful in enabling the learning of a child experiencing difficulty in your classroom

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