Chapter 5


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Chapter 5

  1. 1. IT 215 Analysis and Design Techniques
  2. 2. Chapter 5 – Development Strategies <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Web-Based Software Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>In-House </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Software Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Completion of Analysis Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to Design </li></ul><ul><li>Design Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Codes During Design </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Choices Today vs. Yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Packages vs. Custom </li></ul><ul><li>In-House vs. Outsource </li></ul><ul><li>On-Shore vs. Off-Shore </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
  4. 4. Web-Based Software Trends <ul><li>Software as Service </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Impact </li></ul>
  5. 5. Outsourcing <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fees </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul>
  6. 6. In-House <ul><li>Make vs. Buy </li></ul><ul><li>In-House Development </li></ul><ul><li>Package Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Customization </li></ul><ul><li>User Applications </li></ul>
  7. 9. Role of Analyst <ul><li>Company Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Make/Buy </li></ul><ul><li>In/Out </li></ul><ul><li>Package/Custom </li></ul><ul><li>Mix </li></ul>
  8. 10. Software Acquisition <ul><li>Evaluate Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Options </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/Benefit Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul>
  9. 11. Financial Analysis Tools <ul><li>Payback Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Return on Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Net Present Value </li></ul>
  10. 12. Cost-Benefit Analysis <ul><li>Cost-Benefit Analysis Checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List each development strategy being considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify all costs and benefits for each alternative. Be sure to indicate when costs will be incurred and benefits realized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider future growth and the need for scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include support costs for hardware and software </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Cost-Benefit Analysis <ul><li>Cost-Benefit Analysis Checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze various software licensing options, including fixed fees and formulas based on the number of users or transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply the financial analysis tools to each alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study the results and prepare a report to management </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. A Software Acquisition Example <ul><li>Step 1: Evaluate the Information System Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify key features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider network and web-related issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate volume and future growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify hardware, software, or personnel constraints </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. A Software Acquisition Example <ul><li>Step 1: Evaluate the Information System Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a request for proposal or quotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Request for proposal (RFP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Request for quotation (RFQ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 18. A Software Acquisition Example <ul><li>Step 2: Identify Potential Vendors or Outsourcing Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet is a primary marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another approach is to work with a consulting firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another resource is the Internet bulletin board systems that contains thousands of forums, called newsgroups </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. A Software Acquisition Example <ul><li>Step 3: Evaluate the Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match each package against the RFP features and rank the choices </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. A Software Acquisition Example <ul><li>Step 4: Perform Cost-Benefit Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and calculate TCO for each option you are considering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you purchase software, what you are buying is a software license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you purchase a software package, consider a maintenance agreement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. A Software Acquisition Example <ul><li>Step 5: Prepare a Recommendation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You should prepare a recommendation that contains your recommendation and lists the alternatives, together with the costs, benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of each option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At this point, you may be required to submit a formal system requirements document and deliver a presentation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. A Software Acquisition Example <ul><li>Step 6: Implement the Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation tasks will depend on the solution selected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the new software becomes operational, you must complete all implementation steps, including loading, configuring, and testing the software; training users; and converting data files to the new system’s format </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Completion of Analysis Tasks <ul><li>Requirements document </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul>
  20. 24. Transition to Design <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Logical vs. Physical Design </li></ul>
  21. 25. Design Guidelines <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-Offs </li></ul>
  22. 28. Prototyping <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Other Modeling Tools </li></ul>
  23. 34. Codes During Design <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul>
  24. 36. Using Codes During System Design <ul><li>Overview of Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because codes often are used to represent data, you encounter them constantly in your everyday life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They save storage space and costs, reduce transmission time, and decrease data entry time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reduce data input errors </li></ul></ul>
  25. 37. Using Codes During System Design <ul><li>Types of Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block sequence codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetic codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Category codes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviation codes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 38. Using Codes During System Design <ul><li>Types of codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant digit codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivation codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cipher codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-checking codes </li></ul></ul>
  27. 39. Using Codes During System Design <ul><li>Developing a Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep codes concise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep codes stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make codes unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use sortable codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid confusing codes </li></ul></ul>
  28. 40. Using Codes During System Design <ul><li>Developing a Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make codes meaningful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a code for a single purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep codes consistent </li></ul></ul>