occurs whenever disagreements exist in asocial situation over issues of substance, orwhenever emotional antagonisms createfriction between individuals or groups
Types of Conflict SUBSTANTIVE CONFLICT- fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment EMOTIONAL CONFLICT ―Clash of Personalities‖ involves interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment and the like
Levels of Conflict1. INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT - occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another It may be: Substantive Emotional Both
2. INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT - tension experienced within the individual due to actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations
Approach-Approach Conflict – a person must choose between two positive and equally attractive alternatives Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict – a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives Approach-Avoidance Conflict – a person must decide to do something that has both positive and negative consequences
3. Intergroup Conflict – occurs between teams, perhaps ones competing for scarce resources or rewards, and perhaps ones whose members have emotional problems with one another4. Inter-organizational Conflict – most commonly thought of in terms of the competition and rivalry that characterizes firms operating in the same markets
Functional and DysfunctionalConflict FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT - Constructive Conflict - results in benefits to individuals, the team, or the organization DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT -Destructive Conflict - works to the disadvantage of an individual or team
Culture and Conflict People who are not able or willing to recognize and respect cultural differences can cause dysfunctional conflicts in multicultural teams. On the other hand, members with cultural sensitivity can help the team to unlock its performance advantages.
is defined as “the opportunity to improvesituations and strengthen relationships” (BCS, 2004).
Antecedent ConditionsSet the conditions forconflict Perceived Conflict Substantive or emotional difference are sensed Felt Conflict Tension creates motivation to act Manifest Conflict Addressed by conflict resolution or suppression
VerticalLine-staff conflict Conflict occurs between disagreements involves levels andcommonly involves supervisor- personnel between line and staffsubordinate and team leader-team over who has authority andmember disagreements over on matters control over decisionsresources, goals, deadlines or such as budgets, technology, andperformance results. human resource practices. Role Ambiguity Conflicts Horizontal Conflict occurs when occurs between persons or - the communication of working at the same groups task expectations is unclear or upsetting hierarchical level in some way, such as team member receiving different expectations from the leader and other members.
Task and workflow interdependence cause disputes and open disagreements among people and teams that are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals Conflict potential is especially great when interdependence is high-that is, when a person or group must rely on task for contributions from one or more others to achieve its goals. Conflict escalates with structural differentiation * Domain ambiguities develop conflict when individuals or teams lack adequate task direction or goals and misunderstand such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority
Actual or perceived resource scarcity can foster destructive conflict. Power or value asymmetries create conflict when interdependent people or teams differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values
1. Managed interdependence a.) decoupling – taking action to eliminate or reduce the required contact between conflicting parties b.) buffering – used when the inputs of one team are the outputs of another. -- build an inventory between the teams so that any output showdown or excess is absorbed by the inventory and does not directly pressure that target group 2. Appeals to Common Goals Focus the attention of conflicting individuals and teams on one mutually desirable conclusion.
3. Upward Referrals• Uses the chain of command for conflict resolution• Problems are moved up from the level of conflicting individuals or teams for more senior managers to address 4. Altering Scripts and Myths In some situations, conflict is superficially managed by scripts, or behavioral routines, that are part of the organization’s culture. The scripts become rituals that allow the conflicting parties to vent their frustrations and to recognize that they are mutually dependent on one another.
Direct conflict management approaches are based on the relative emphasis that a person places on assertiveness and cooperativeness. Assertiveness Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. Unassertive versus assertive. Cooperativeness Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concern. Uncooperative versus cooperative.
Lose-lose conflict occurs when nobody really gets what he or she wants in a conflict situation. The underlying reasons for the conflict remain unaffected, and a similar conflict is likely to occur in the future. Lose-lose outcomes are likely when the conflict management strategies involve little or no assertiveness.
Avoidance No one acts assertively and everyone simply pretends the conflict doesn’t exist and hopes it will go away Accommodation/smoothing Involves playing down differences among the conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement Compromise Occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other
Win-lose conflict occurs when one party achieves its desires at the expense of and to the exclusion of the other party’s desires. This is a high-assertiveness and low- cooperativeness situation.
Competition Seeks victory by force, superior skill, or domination Authoritative command Uses formal authority to end conflict
Win-win conflict is achieved by a blend of both high cooperativeness and high assertiveness.
Collaboration and problem solving They involve recognition by all conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention. It stresses gathering and evaluating information in solving disputes and making choices. All relevant issues are raised and openly discussed.
Negotiation is the process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences. Workplace disagreements arise over a variety of matters.
Negotiation Goals andOutcomes Substance goals Deal with outcomes that relate to the content issues under negotiation Relationship goals Dealwith outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiation and any constituencies they may represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded
EffectiveNegotiation occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or even improved. Criteria for an effective negotiation Quality Harmony Efficiency
Ethical Aspects of Negotiation Managers and others involved in negotiations should strive for high ethical standards of conduct. The negotiating parties should avoid being side tracked by self-interests, thereby being tempted to pursue unethical actions.
Organizational Settings forNegotiation Two-party negotiation Manager negotiates directly with one other person Group negotiation Manager is part of a team or group whose members are negotiating to arrive at a common decision Intergroup negotiation Manager is part of a group that is negotiating with another group to arrive at a decision regarding a problem or situation affecting both Constituency negotiation Each party represents a broader constituency—for example, representatives of management and labor negotiating a collective bargaining agreement.
Distributive negotiation- focuses on ―positions‖ declared or stakedout by conflicting parties.- Each party tries to claim certain portions ofthe available pie whose overall size isconsidered fix.- Win-Lose Bargaining (I win, you lose)
Approaches to Distributive negotiation“Hard” distributive negotiation- when each party holdsout to get his own way.“Soft” distributive negotiation- when one party or bothparties make concessions just to get things over with.Bargaining zone- the range between one party’sminimum reservation point and the other party’smaximum reservation point.
Integrative negotiation- Sometimes called principle negotiation- Focuses on the ―merits‖ of the issue- Everyone involved tries to enlarge the available pie and find mutually agreed- upon ways of distributing it rather than to stake claims to certain portions of it.- More ―Win-win‖ oriented
How to Gain IntegrativeAgreements Altitudinal foundations1. Willingness to trust the other party2. Willingness to share information with the other party3. Willingness to ask concrete questions of the other party
Behavioral Foundations1. Separate people from the problem.2. Don’t allow emotional considerations to affect the negotiation.3. Focus on the interests rather than positions.4. Avoid premature judgments.5. Keep the identification of alternatives separate from their evaluation.6. Judge possible agreements by set criteria or standard.
Information Foundations- Each party should become familiar with the ―bestalternative to a negotiated agreement‖ or BATNA.- Each party must know what he or she will do if anagreement cannot be reached.
Common Negotiation Pitfalls Escalating Over Too muchFixed pie myth commitment confidence telling Too little listening
Third-Party Roles in NegotiationIn a process called alternative dispute resolution, a neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes. Two primary forms:1. arbitration- the neutral third party acts as a ―judge‖ and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all parties.
2. Mediation- the neutral third party tries to engage the parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument.