Common symptoms of food borne illness

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Common symptoms of food borne illness

  1. 1. FFH 0 Foundation Certificate in Food Hygiene
  2. 2. FFH 1 Why food hygiene? • Food-borne illness can be serious and distressing • Training is a legal requirement • Food-borne illness figures are increasing • Customers will take their business away • Legal action could be taken by enforcement officers • Compensation claims from sufferers
  3. 3. FFH 2
  4. 4. FFH 3 Food hygiene All those practices and procedures that can help to produce safe food
  5. 5. FFH 4 Common symptoms of food-borne illness • Vomiting • Diarrhoea • Nausea • Abdominal and stomach pains • Fever/high temperature
  6. 6. FFH 5
  7. 7. FFH 6 Causes of food-borne illness • Micro-organisms – bacteria (pathogenic) – moulds (only certain types) – viruses • Chemicals – cleaning products, pesticides • Metals – tin, lead, copper • Natural poisons – red kidney beans, toadstools, berries • Physical contamination – glass, screws, plastic
  8. 8. FFH 7 Types of bacteria • Pathogenic – cause illness in humans – difficult to detect • Spoilage – make food perish/rot/spoil – signs easy to detect • Useful – in food production, drug manufacture, food digestion
  9. 9. FFH 8
  10. 10. FFH 9 Sources of pathogenic bacteria • Raw foods – raw meats, poultry, fish and shellfish • Soil, dirt and dust – unwashed vegetables and salads • Pests and domestic pets • Humans – hands, hair, nose and throat, infected cuts • Food waste • Airborne dust • Untreated water and sewage
  11. 11. FFH 10 Bacteria cause illness in different ways • Large numbers (millions) – invade and irritate the stomach and intestine and produce waste products or toxins (poisons) – may produce toxins in the food itself – often difficult to destroy once in the food • Small numbers (as few as 10) – may invade and multiply in the bloodstream
  12. 12. FFH 11 How bacteria multiply • Divide into 2 (binary fission) • As quickly as 10-20 minutes • After several hours can be millions • To multiply they need – food (mainly protein) – moisture – warmth – sufficient time
  13. 13. FFH 12 Common pathogenic bacteria • Salmonella • Clostridium • Staphylococcus • E. coli • Campylobacter
  14. 14. FFH 13 Others • Listeria • Typhoid (caused by a type of Salmonella) • Shigella (causes dysentery)
  15. 15. FFH 14 Salmonella • Sources – poultry, other raw meats, eggs, pests • Key control – thorough cooking • Danger points – knives and boards (colour coding) – hands – food containers and work surfaces
  16. 16. FFH 15 Clostridium perfringens • Sources – soil, dust, raw meats, salads and vegetables (soil) • Key control (spore former) – good temperature control after cooking or heat processing • Danger points – 'dirty' salads and vegetables – wash carefully – cross-contamination from raw foods
  17. 17. FFH 16 Staphylococcus aureus • Sources – humans – skin, hair, hands, nose, throat, cuts – raw (untreated) milk • Key controls – good personal hygiene – hand washing – waterproof dressings on cuts – hygienic habits • Danger points – long times in danger zone – direct handling of high risk food
  18. 18. FFH 17 E. coli • Sources – raw meats and poultry – animal and human sewage • Key controls – thorough heat processing and cooking – separation of raw and high risk foods – disinfection of salads and vegetables • Danger points – undercooked meat products – handling raw and high risk foods together – misuse of colour-coded boards
  19. 19. FFH 18 Campylobacter • Sources – raw meats and poultry – pets – untreated water and sewage • Key controls – thorough cooking – separation of raw meats • Danger points – undercooked meat products – handling raw and high risk foods together – misuse of colour-coded boards
  20. 20. FFH 19 High risk foods • Cooked meat and poultry products • Milk, cream, ice cream • Sauces, gravies • Cooked dairy products • Fish and shellfish – cooked or in some cases raw • Any food containing the above
  21. 21. FFH 20 Managing high risk foods • Control temperature • Ensure heat processing is thorough • Avoid handling • Keep covered or wrapped • Keep separate from raw foods
  22. 22. FFH 21 Microbiology and illness Summary • Symptoms and onset times • Types of food-borne illness (bacterial and non-bacterial) • Bacteriology – multiplication, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria • Sources of bacteria • Toxins and spores • High risk foods
  23. 23. FFH 22 Chemical contamination • Cleaning chemicals • Pesticides • Maintenance – oils, grease, paints • Metals – storage in opened cans, dissolved from cooking containers
  24. 24. FFH 23 Preventing chemical contamination • Careful labelling, use and storage of cleaning products • Professional pest control • Control of maintenance staff • Control use of metallic containers for storage and cooking
  25. 25. FFH 24 Physical contamination • Pests – fur, droppings, bodies • Product – bone, stones, shell • Premises – brick, glass, airborne dust • People – hair, pens, buttons, cigarettes, jewellery • Packaging – string, metal staples, plastic • Process – equipment, maintenance
  26. 26. FFH 25 Preventing physical contamination • Sieving • Metal detection • Clothing standard • Pest control • Maintenance of equipment and building
  27. 27. FFH 26
  28. 28. FFH 27 100o C63o C37o C5o C-18o C d a n g e r z o n e
  29. 29. FFH 28 Dealing with the danger zone • Serve or dispatch as soon as possible • Cool down rapidly, heat up thoroughly – limit bulk • Keep high risk foods below 5o C or above 63o C • Keep time in danger zone to a minimum – no more than 90 minutes • Avoid re-heating
  30. 30. FFH 29
  31. 31. FFH 30 Signs of spoilage Changes in: • Smell • Taste • Colour • Texture – slime – dryness – staleness
  32. 32. FFH 31
  33. 33. FFH 32 Preservation methods • Dehydration • Canning • Vacuum packing • Freezing and chilling • Salting or brining • High sugar concentrations • Pickling and alcohol preserving • Smoking
  34. 34. FFH 33
  35. 35. FFH 34 The safety of preserved foods • Check condition of packaging • Follow storage instructions • Follow date coding – use by – best before • When opened – check storage instructions again – if not used immediately, put into suitable storage container or refrigerate
  36. 36. FFH 35 Product dates • Use by 3rd • Use by 10th • Use by 13th • Use by 22nd • Use by 28th
  37. 37. FFH 36 Storing food in refrigerators • If possible, store raw foods separately • Store raw meat and poultry below other foods • Allow for air circulation • Keep door closed • Do not put hot food in refrigerator
  38. 38. FFH 37 Contamination and prevention of illness - Summary • Food can be contaminated by chemicals, physical objects and micro-organisms • Bacteria can spread easily • Three main controls: cover, separate and avoid handling • Thawing and heat processing must be thorough • Food must not be left in the danger zone • Food must be examined regularly for signs of spoilage
  39. 39. FFH 38 Why is personal hygiene important? • Food handlers touch and handle most foods many times a day • People are sources of contamination • Infected food handlers are dangerous • Customers like to see hygienic staff
  40. 40. FFH 39 Human sources of contamination • Hair • Ear, nose, throat • Skin and hands • Gut • Clothing • Wounds • Jewellery
  41. 41. FFH 40
  42. 42. FFH 41 Clothing standards • Protective clothing – clean, washable, coverage • Headwear – hats, hairnets • Jewellery • Footwear – safety and hygiene
  43. 43. FFH 42 Hygienic food handling • Avoid direct contact with food • Avoid cross-contamination • Wash hands regularly • No smoking • Change protective clothing when contaminated • Do not cough, sneeze or use tissues near food • Taste food hygienically
  44. 44. FFH 43 Hand washing • Regular and thorough • Use proper facilities • Before work and after breaks • Between tasks • After emptying waste or cleaning • After visiting toilet
  45. 45. FFH 44 Conditions to be reported • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach pains • Rash, skin conditions, skin wounds • Contact with sufferers in family • Any unusual symptoms following visits abroad
  46. 46. FFH 45 Control of infected food handlers • Medical advice and tests may be required • Keep away from food handling • Return to work allowed when risk is low • Personal hygiene standards especially important on return to work
  47. 47. FFH 46 Treating cuts, scratches or spots • Medical attention may be necessary • Clean the wound • Use waterproof dressing • Prevent dressing from getting into food – cover with disposable glove – may need to be detectable: • brightly coloured • metallic strip
  48. 48. FFH 47 Personal hygiene Summary • Food handlers should wear appropriate overclothing whenever they work with food • Hygienic food handling is essential • Hand hygiene is the most effective personal hygiene control • All illnesses with the risk of infection must be reported • Wounds must be treated promptly and covered fully
  49. 49. FFH 48 Why clean? Mainly to remove harmful contamination: • Bacteria • Physical contamination • Waste food – food supply for pests – harbourage for bacteria
  50. 50. FFH 49 Other reasons to clean • Presents a good appearance • Helps to reveal signs of pest infestation • Helps to maintain equipment in good working order • Legal standards
  51. 51. FFH 50
  52. 52. FFH 51 Cleaning • Removes dirt, grease, food, soil • Does not destroy bacteria • Requires: – heat/hot water – physical effort – brush, cloth, scourer – detergent
  53. 53. FFH 52 Disinfection • Destruction of bacteria to a safe level • Two main methods – heat – steam or water at 82o C or hotter – chemical disinfectants • Cannot easily disinfect dirty surfaces • Essential for all food-contact and hand-contact surfaces
  54. 54. FFH 53 Cleaning + disinfection 1. Pre-clean – wash or wipe 2. Main clean – hot detergent wash 3. Rinse 4. Disinfect – allow contact time 5. Final rinse 6. Dry
  55. 55. FFH 54 Using a sanitiser 1. Pre-clean – wash or wipe 2. Apply sanitiser – allow contact time 3. Rinse 4. Dry
  56. 56. FFH 55
  57. 57. FFH 56 Cleaning and disinfection Summary • Cleaning removes visible dirt and soil • Disinfection destroys bacteria • Sanitising = cleaning + disinfection • Food-contact and hand-contact surfaces are a priority for disinfection • Different chemicals have different uses • Instructions and schedules must be followed
  58. 58. FFH 57 Consequences of a pest infestation • Customer complaints • Loss of reputation and business • Food stocks damaged and contaminated • Spread of disease • Damage to buildings and equipment • Complaints/investigation from enforcing officers • Legal action • Loss of staff morale
  59. 59. FFH 58 Food pests Creatures living in or feeding on food • Rodents – rats and mice • Birds – pigeons, starlings, sparrows, seagulls • Insects – flies, cockroaches, moths, ants, wasps • Stored product pests – beetles, mites, weevils
  60. 60. FFH 59 Signs of pests • Live and dead pests • Fur, feathers • Droppings, eggs and egg cases • Damaged food and spillages, gnawed cabling/pipes • Smear marks and prints • Noise, smell
  61. 61. FFH 60 Pest control • Prevent access – proofing • Reduce attraction – food – moisture – warmth – shelter and nesting • Treatment and monitoring of infestations – professional expertise
  62. 62. FFH 61 Preventing access for pests • Fly screens • Block gaps around service access • Gutter guards • Door strips and plates • Check food deliveries • Keep doors and windows closed • Maintain drainage systems
  63. 63. FFH 62
  64. 64. FFH 63 Reducing the attraction • Food – pest-proof containers, examine foods, clean up spillages • Moisture – clean up wet spillages, avoid storing liquids uncovered, report leaks and drips • Warmth – keep temperatures down, check warm areas more often • Shelter and nesting – control waste, avoid clutter, clean regularly
  65. 65. FFH 64 Pest control treatments • Maintain cleanliness in the area unless instructed otherwise • Continue to report signs of infestation • Do not touch bait or treatment equipment • If touched, wash hands immediately • Do not disturb or remove any treatment device
  66. 66. FFH 65 Food pests Summary • Food handlers should look for and report signs of pests • Prevention is better than treatment • Basic good cleanliness and tidiness is vital • Treatment should always be professionally controlled
  67. 67. FFH 66
  68. 68. FFH 67 Premises and equipment • Surfaces – condition, ease of cleaning • Equipment – easy to clean • Layout and workflow – efficient, spacious, convenient, separate areas • Services and facilities – wash hand basins, sinks, refuse storage, drainage, lighting, ventilation • Pest proofing
  69. 69. FFH 68 Work surfaces • Smooth • Non-absorbent (impervious) • Easy to clean • Hardwearing • In good condition
  70. 70. FFH 69 Equipment • Can be taken apart • Easy to clean • Non-toxic • Impervious • No cracks, gaps or difficult corners
  71. 71. FFH 70 Layout and workflow • Space for different activities • Efficient • Safe • Access to equipment • Clear flow from raw to cooked • Separate areas – raw foods, refuse, washing, changing rooms etc. • Colour coding of equipment, clothing and areas
  72. 72. FFH 71 Services and facilities • Wash hand basins – suitable for use, water, drying facilities etc. • Sinks – equipment, food • Refuse storage – indoor and outdoor • Drainage channels, gullies • Lighting – to help effective cleaning • Ventilation – reduce temperature, condensation, dust etc. • Control of air temperature – heating, air conditioning
  73. 73. FFH 72 Premises and equipment Summary • Structure and layout can aid cleaning • Good layout can minimise cross- contamination • Faults must be reported as soon as possible
  74. 74. FFH 73
  75. 75. FFH 74
  76. 76. FFH 75 Food safety law Food (includes drinks and water) must be: • safe • free from contamination • of reasonable quality • fit for human consumption
  77. 77. FFH 76 Legal requirements • General structure – clean, good repair, size and layout • Toilets, wash hand basins • Lighting, ventilation, drainage • Floors, walls, ceilings, work surfaces • Sinks – food and cleaning
  78. 78. FFH 77 Mobile and temporary premises, vehicles, stalls, vending machines and domestic premises: • Similar standards where practicable or other suitable measures Legal requirements
  79. 79. FFH 78 Equipment • Clean • Good condition • Designed to minimise contamination
  80. 80. FFH 79 Food waste • Must not accumulate • Closed containers – good construction, easy to clean and disinfect • Removal and storage • Prevent pest access
  81. 81. FFH 80 Water • Ice, washing of food etc. – use safe water • Any steam used in or near food must be produced from safe water
  82. 82. FFH 81 Personal hygiene • High standard of personal hygiene – habits! • Overclothing as appropriate • Infected food handlers must report to supervisor – must be excluded if risk is significant
  83. 83. FFH 82 Protection of food • Raw ingredients – don't accept if contaminated • Food protected from contamination • Pest prevention and control • Spoiled, unfit or waste food must be labelled or otherwise identifiable
  84. 84. FFH 83 Temperature control • Applies to high risk foods • Cold foods – below 8o C • Hot foods – above 63o C • Allowances made during service, cooling or re-heating – e.g. cold foods 4 hours, hot foods 2 hours
  85. 85. FFH 84 Training of food handlers • Supervision • Instruction • Training • Appropriate to the job • Should be kept up to date
  86. 86. FFH 85 Enforcement powers and actions • Give advice • Send a letter • Serve a notice • Prosecute • Close down business • Seize food
  87. 87. FFH 86 Who can be prosecuted? • Owners • Managers • Supervisors • Food handlers Penalties • Fines • Imprisonment • Barred from working with food
  88. 88. FFH 87 HACCP • Management responsibility • Needs to be documented • Different systems and methods to suit the business
  89. 89. FFH 88 Hazard anything in the food which could harm the consumer Analysis an organised step by step approach Critical concentrating on the most important dangers Control specific standards and checks to protect food safety Point(s) specific part(s) of the food production process
  90. 90. FFH 89 Food safety control Summary • Controls are the responsibility of everyone in the food business • The law places legal duties on food handlers as well as proprietors • HACCP is a method which helps to ensure all hazards are controlled as far as possible • Food safety depends on knowledgeable food handlers

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