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  2. 2. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 1 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 B A R T E N D I N G SEAFARER´S TRAINING -Barware & Glassware so you’ll always now what goes… where! A must for Bartenders! In order to move your way around the bar as quickly as possible, you’ll need the help of expert tools of the trade. Many of these are common sense, but the bottom line is that when used correctly, they will help you deliver a quality product and save you time in the process. Once you master your tools, you’ll be able to move faster than the guy next to you. Move faster than the guy next to you and you’ll bring home more tips. Have we got your attention? Barware The Jigger. Jiggers are the measuring cups of the bartender, used to arrive at an exact amount of liquor. There are 4 separate sizes, ¼ oz., ½ oz., ¾ oz., and 1 oz. typically, you’ll only need two jiggers, as they are double sided with different measurements on each side. Pourers. A pourer is a device that is inserted into the top of all liquor bottles in the bar, for easy access and speed. They come in three speeds: fast, medium and slow. For the busy bar and bartender, the fast pourer will make life much easier than measuring everything into jiggers, in that with practice, a two count (counting to two in your head) while pouring will be the equivalent to 1 oz. of liquor. Know that this count refers to using the fast pourer which is the most commonly used speed, often the only speed. If your count is more or less than an ounce, you will create less than perfect drinks. We recommend to fast pouring into a jigger until you feel comfortable with this tool and your ability to count the correct measurement. Shaker. You’ll use a shaker to make most any cocktail with ice. The shaker is a stainless steel unit in either two or three pieces, the shaker itself, a strainer, and a top. You’ll start off most of your cocktails with the shaker half filled with ice. Add the necessary ingredients and shake firmly. If you have a three piece shaker, you’ll simply remove the cap and pour the drink into the glass, utilizing the strainer already built into the piece. Boston Shaker. The busy bar will often utilize the Boston Shaker as opposed to a three piece shaker in that it’s a bit easier to use and takes less time than fiddling with the different attachments. The Boston Shaker consists of a stainless steel shaker and a mixing glass that is made to fit snugly into the stainless steel portion and form a seal, allowing you to shake the ingredients with both hands securing each end. When you’re finished shaking, twist the two pieces apart, leaving the contents in the shaker, and pour into your glass through a bar strainer. Bar Strainer. As referenced with the Boston Shaker, this instrument will fit over your customer’s glass and allow you to pour only the alcohol, straining out any excess ice.
  3. 3. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 2 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Ice Scoop. As the name implies, use this to fill cups with ice, and we strongly recommend NOT using the glass you’ll serve your drink in to scoop out ice or any glass at all. Most bars will not permit it due to safety hazards. A glass when used this way can easily chip into the ice. Chards of glass in the ice could cause serious damage to a customer as well as liability for a bar. We can’t emphasize enough to always use the Ice scoop! Ice Tongs. Tongs should be used when you’re not preparing a drink in a shaker and when you need to transport ice to your customer’s glass without making a mess of the glass or putting in more ice than necessary. Muddler. This is a small wooden bat used to crush ice and mash fruits, sugar cubes and herbs. Bar Spoon. A bar spoon is usually 12 inches long and is most commonly used to measure 1 teaspoon. Similar to the jigger, they will often come with a different size on each end (1t & ½t). You’ll find yourself using the bar spoon when making layered and stirred drinks. Juice Containers. These are simply, easy to pour containers to store commonly used juices in the world of mixology. Always keep them cold. Salting tray. This is a contraption with rock salt primarily used for margaritas to dress the lip of the glass with salt. First, spread lime juice on the rim, and then twist the lip of the glass around the salting tray and presto, a salted rim. Zester. A zester is a cutting tool used to create twists of lemon and other fruits to garnish special drinks. Bottle Openers & Waiter’s Corkscrew. I’d attach one of these to your belt; you’ll need it so often. I once knew a bartender with a prosthetic arm who’d chosen to add a bottle opener to the end of his prosthetic. Now that’s dedication! Blenders. Used most commonly for tropical and margarita style drinks. Glassware. Here, we briefly cover the most commonly used types of glassware found today. Different owners and styles of bars could deviate from these standards, but what we’ve included will be enough knowledge for you to get your foot in the door anywhere. Beer Glasses: Beer Mug Pilsner Glass, Pint Glass Wine Glasses: Red Wine, White Wine Champagne Glasses: Fluted, Champagne Glass General Cocktail Glasses: Rocks Glass - Used for drinks over ice, chilled drinks, shots & beer or water backs.
  4. 4. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 3 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Double Rocks Glass Used for drinks with a mixer (Jack Daniels & Coke, etc.) or a double over ice. Collins Glass – Used for any tall drinks, doubles with mixers or Collins drinks. Martini Glass – Used for shaken or stirred drinks and sometimes shots; primarily Martinis. Margarita Glass – Used for Margaritas, frozen drinks, and ice cream drinks. Coffee Drink Glasses – Used for any drinks with coffee, as well as hot tea, hot chocolate, etc. Irish coffee Glass. Brandy Snifter – Used for cordials such as Brandy, Cognac, Sambuca, etc. The brandy snifter can also be used for liqueurs and liquor served with or without mixers. Other miscellaneous glasses. The highball. The hurricane. These glasses are used for a variety of drinks including blended, tropical, water, juices or Long Island Ice Teas. Some general tips and glassware etiquette are as follows: • Never hold a glass by the rim (where people put their mouths). • Always handle wine glasses or any stemware by the stem itself. The heat from your hands could warm up the drink inappropriately if serving it by the bowl. • Make sure that all your glasses are spotless. There’s nothing worse than a drink served with remnants of lipstick, detergent taste, or any aroma from the previous drink. Your typical bar Setup – What to expect. Most all bar set-ups are strikingly similar in that we all need the same basic utensils to make drinks, however you’ll need to be aware of the following once you are employed. The Bar Top. This is fairly self-explanatory, however apart from the standard long counter with a back bar, the differing varieties are horseshoe, round and square bar tops. The Speed Rail. As discussed earlier, this is where all well or house brands are kept. The Drain Board. This is where all used glasses sit. You’ll want to empty and rinse all glassware here first, prior to washing. The Wash Sink. After the glasses have been drained and rinsed in the Drain board, you’ll need to move them over to the Wash Sink which should contain warm soapy water for washing. Depending upon the bar you end up in, this may or may not be the exclusive work of a bar back. However, even if it is, part of your job as a bartender is to maintain the bar, and this means washing during slow times to prevent being glassless when you’re hit with an onslaught of customers. The Rinse Sink. Most bars today will have two rinse sinks, one with fresh water, and the other with a cleansing agent. Drying Board. Here, you’ll place cleaned glasses upside down to dry. Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions relating below. Now that you’re more familiar with the differing types of barware and glassware that you’ll need to use in your new career, let’s put that knowledge to use before you begin to fill out your test questions.
  5. 5. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 4 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 We suggest attempting and enjoying one of the following: • Gin Rickey • Black Russian 3-21 What are the four most common measurements found on a jigger (how many ounces)? 3-22 What is the recommended pourer speed to use, fast, medium or slow? 3-23 What's the difference between a regular shaker and a Boston shaker? 3-24 Under what circumstances should you use a glass to scoop ice? 3-25 What is a muddler used for? 3-26 What is the most common measurement served by a bar spoon? 3-27 Prior to salting a Margarita glass, what do you do to the rim? 3-28 What tool do you use to create a lemon twist? 3-29 How many different glasses can you use to server beer and what are they called? 3-30 What type of glass will you most commonly used for mixed drinks over ice? 3-31 What's another type of liqueur to put in a brandy snifter besides brandy? 3-32 Why shouldn't you serve a wine glass with your hand on the bowl? 3-33 Other than the bowl, what's another major “no-no” when handling glasses? 3-34 Other than the standard long counter bar, what other bar varieties are there? - Beer, Here! There’s more to it than you may think. Steeped in a 7,000+ year tradition, Beer is by far the oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage in the world. As a bartender, serving beer is an easy task, but depending upon where you are employed your knowledge of beer may need to be quite extensive. We’ve taken the most important knowledge and condensed it into this chapter. How’s it made? Beer is made from barley grains, malt, hops, yeast and water. The flavor of the beer depends upon the types of barley grains, quantity of hops, type of water and the aging process, all which will dramatically affect the final outcome of the beer. There are two major beer clusters: Lager and Ale. From these two clusters there are several offshoots, but they will all share similar characteristics and it is important to understand how they differ and why. One of the main differentiating characteristics between lager and ale lies in the fermentation process. Lagers are characterized by bottom fermentation at colder temperatures whereas Ales are characterized by warmer, top fermentation processes where the yeast rises to the top of the tanks when the temperature rises to 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit. Ales are typically considered to be more flavorful with a full bodied character. The Lager Cluster Light Lagers - Light Lagers are lighter in overall flavor and in what are considered to be “true” beer characteristics. These beers are popular with many as a result of their lack of bitter after taste. Examples of a light lager beer would be: Bud Light, Coors Light or Corona Light. Dark Lagers – Brewed from the German tradition, these lagers contain more hops and carbonation and as a result, less sweetness. Examples of a dark lager beer would be: Bergh off Genuine Dark Beer or Negra Modelo. Pilsners – This is the most widely produced style of lager and is known for having a malt character, flowery aroma and dry finish. Beers referred to as “Golden Lagers” fall under the Pilsner category. Examples of Pilsners would be: Samuel Adams Golden Pilsner and Steam Whistle Pilsner.
  6. 6. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 5 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Bock Beers – Still falling under the Lager cluster, Bock beers also originated in Germany and are characterized by their strong malt taste with little bitterness. Examples of Bock beer would be: Harpoon Spring Maibock or Pete’s Springfest. The Ale Cluster Lambic Beers – Beers of this variety originate from Belgium and incorporate fruit into the malt in the brewing process which adds to their unique flavor. Examples of Lambic beers would be: Belle-Vue-Kriek or Lindemans Kriek. Porter Beers – These beers are almost black as a result of the amount of barley used, but yet contain a surprisingly light taste as a result of low hop counts. Examples of Porter beers would be: Anchor Porter or Black Jack Porter. Stout Beers – Stout Beers are characterized by the use of heavily roasted malts to produce extra dark to extremely black beers. Examples of Stout beers would be: Red Hook Double Black Stout or Full Sail Stout. Wheat (Weiss or Weizen) Beers – The wheat offshoot of the Ale cluster is a popular summer beer, known for the fresh feeling they deliver. This is the one beer group that is traditionally served with a garnish; a lemon wedge or wheel. Examples of wheat beers would be: Hefeweizen or Samuel Adams Summer Ale. Basic Beer Facts As it relates to beers, pasteurization is the process of heating bottled and canned beer, then cooling it long enough to stop any additional fermentation inside the package. This process is done to increase the shelf life of beer, with the negative side effect being that it can also alter the fresh tasting quality found in draft beer. Cold Filtered beer is a recently developed process that avoids the pasteurization process and in turn the taste degradation this brings along with it. Cold filtering allows a beer to still maintain a long shelf life, while not loosing out in loss of taste. Time Saving Tip. When you are approached by a customer who wants to know what types of beer you serve, always try to narrow down their choices by asking if they’d like a domestic, imported or microbrew and if they like a darker or lighter beer. This will dramatically decrease the time spent listing through all the various beers you carry, will allow you to serve your customer better, and get to other customers quicker! How to Serve Beer In order to keep a fast moving bar exactly that, you’ll want to make sure that you serve it in a way that is to the liking of your customer. In that there’s not too many ways you can improperly serve a beer, this doesn’t take long to commit to memory, but know that the goal in serving beer is to not have the head of the beer billow over the mug or glass. Following a few simple tips will ensure that this doesn’t happen. While it’s important not to make a mess of the bar and your beer glass with excess head, know that all beer should be served with an approximate 2 inches of head. Beer from a keg. When pouring beer from a keg, always hold the glass at a 45 degree angle, approximately 1 inch below the tap until you’ve filled your glass or pint halfway, after which you’ll need straighten the glass and turn off the tap when the head of the beer rises just above the rim of the glass.
  7. 7. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 6 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Beer from a can or a bottle. Here, you’ll start out pouring the beer into the glass almost vertically to initiate the foaming process (the head). When this begins, bring the bottle or can almost perpendicular to the glass and allow the beer to fill the glass slowly until the foam rises just above the rim. Know that in serving beer from a bottle or can, you’ll likely be using a pint glass or similar that will be perfectly suited to containing a full 12 ounces of beer. Should you be serving from a larger beer bottle or can, leave it with your customer directly in front of the glass. Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions relating to Chapter 4. Beer. Yes, there’s more to it than you may have thought, but enjoying a beer is as easy as it was before your new knowledge. With the recommended choices below, be sure to apply the pouring methods discussed above and practice your ability to pour the perfect head of beer with no spillage. We suggest purchasing and enjoying one of the following beers as you begin your test: • Guinness (extremely dark, only for people of that liking) • Pete’s Pale Ale • Hefeweizen (don’t forget the garnish!) 4-35 What are the five universal ingredients of beer? 4-36 What are the two major beer clusters? 4-37 Which beer type is created by warmer fermentation? 4-38 Why do so many enjoy light lagers? 4-39 Of the lager cluster, which is the most widely produced variety? 4-40 Which Ale beer often includes fruit in the brewing process? 4-41 What is the one type of beer that needs be served with a garnish? 4-42 What type of garnish? 4-43 Why is beer pasteurized? 4-44 Do you want to serve beer with a head on it? 4-45 What's a brand example of a light lager? 4-46 What's a brand example of a pilsner? 4-47 What's country do Lambic Ales originate? 4-48 What is the typical color of a Stout Ale?
  8. 8. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 7 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002
  9. 9. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 8 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 - A Day Without Wine Is A Day Without Sunshine Know your wines (and Champagne too!) No Sunshine? Well there’s always wine! We could devote many a chapter to the intricacies of the wine fermentation process, the cultivating of grapes, or the soils known to produce the best wine and why. In fact, many books already exist on this subject, but in the end this will only help your profession if you plan on landing a job in a sophisticated wine bar. This chapter is not set out to school you on the A to Z’s of wines, but rather the ABC’s of wines. Wine drinkers have been known to be particular about their beverage of choice and you should know the basics as it relates to wine to help service this customer as well as guide a novice wine drinker to the most appropriate choice for the occasion. Basic Wine Terms The following terms are used to describe the overall impression of a wine. These will be important, should your client call you on the cuff to explain one choice over another. You should be prepared to both understand and use this terminology. Acidity – Acid is present in all wines and is very important in determining structure, shape and lifespan. Good acid levels can make a wine crisp and refreshing and help to preserve the wine. Aroma – This refers to the smell of the wine as it relates to the grape that produced it. Body – This describes the way the wine feels in your mouth, either light, medium or full. Bouquet – This term describes all of the different things you can smell in a wine. In takes into consideration everything relating to the smell of that wine. Dry – This relates to the amount of sugar in a wine. And in the world of wine, dry is considered the opposite of sweet. A drier wine has less residual sugar than a sweet wine. When drinking dry wines, you may have noticed the dry feeling that this may leave in your mouth. Finish – This is the residual taste the wine leaves in your mouth after you swallow it. Does it linger for a spell or does it change completely? Fruity – The result of more residual sugar being left in the wine. Sweet – The opposite of dry. Wines such as Zinfandels are most always sweet. What Wine is! Fundamentally, wine consists of natural fermented juices from fresh, ripe grapes. Fermentation is the process by which the grape turns into wine with the help of sugar, yeast and carbon dioxide. Don’t think about this too much or you might not enjoy another glass of wine yourself. Nor do you want to find yourself waxing on about fermentation to your novice wine drinker for fear they may gag and exit the bar. As a bartender, however, it is important to have a basic knowledge of how this stuff came to be.
  10. 10. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 9 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Grape Growing. One of the most important distinctions of a great wine rests in the grapes that began the wine process. The goal of the grape grower is to grow ripe grapes that have about ¼ natural sugar in their juice. The ripening process is vital to developing a fine wine. Furthermore, the slower the ripening the better, as this allows the grape the opportunity to develop complex character and flavor. Mother Nature’s Influence on Wine. Grape growers are subject to the laws and whims of Mother Nature. The perfect wine grape needs warm days to ripen, but also cool nights to stretch out the growing season. This is a delicate stage, for cool nights must not ever become frosty which could destroy the grape and ripening process altogether! Wineries have complex heating systems in place to combat this process, but ultimately, much of the success of a growing season is subject to mother nature, hence the terminology of ―a good year‖ often used in describing a wine, as good weather years in particular regions will drastically affect the quality of the wine. The soil is extremely important in wine growing, hence regions such as Sonoma County, CA, Bordeaux, France and Tuscany, Italy are steeped in a long standing tradition of fine wine. Again, Mother Nature is the primary reason for such fine wines, in that land formations that block winds, sun and promote proper drainage will create the end result of a more fertile growing area for the grapes and the final result of a better wine. Vintage. Vintage is a term you should know when referring to wines. Vintage refers to the year that the grapes were grown and harvested, not when the wine was bottled. Frost, hail and rain can all significantly affect the quality of the wine and often cause a vineyard to discard a batch of grapes entirely. These are not the types of details you’ll need to have a profound education in, but it is important to be familiar with the elements that go into creating a quality wine. White Wine Production. First and foremost, all stems are removed and the grapes crushed, giving yeast the access to the sugars in the grape juice, which allows the fermentation process to begin. The juice is pressed off the skins and then allowed to settle in a tank so that the solids sink to the bottom. When fermentation begins, yeasts convert the sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide escapes into the air in the process, but the alcohol remains. What makes White Wine Dry? If all the sugar is consumed through a longer fermentation process, then the wine will be called dry as it has less residual sugar. When is White Wine considered to be Sweet? By stopping the fermentation earlier and specifically before the yeast can consume all of the sugar, the end result is a sweeter white wine as a result of the residual sugar. Red Wine Production. In preparing Red wine, the grapes are crushed, but unlike white wine, all juices and skins are left to sit. Through this process and by including the skins in the fermentation, a color, flavor and tannins are developed. These tannins (a natural substance found in grapes and tea leaves) are what make
  11. 11. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 10 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 a wine taste bitter. Because of this, red wine is a popular choice with most dinners as it helps to cleanse taste buds. Blush Wine Production. Blush wines are made almost the same way as sweet wines, except the process begins with red grapes. Unlike the making of red wine, the juice is pressed at the beginning so there’s only a slight amount of color, resulting in a pinkish hue. It is important to know that the fermentation process is always stopped prior to completion to allow for more residual sugar and the sweet taste. Those blush wines are known for. The Great Grape! The type of grape used in wine making is key to understanding wine. In the U.S., wine is named after the variety of grape used to produce it. For example, a Merlot is a grape variety alike Chardonnay, etc. An important key to remember is that in order for a wine to be called Merlot, it must contain 75% Merlot Grapes, no less. This also applies to Chardonnay and Cabernet wines,etc. The grape is always the starting point for the wine, but as we learned earlier, the fermentation process is where the chemical make-up of the juices is changed even further. Grapes Used In White Wine Chardonnay. This popular white grape is from the burgundy region of France and usually makes a wine that is dry, crisp, refreshing and fruity. Sauvignon Blanc. This grape variety also makes a dry white wine, yet not as fruity as chardonnay, and as such, results in a drier taste. Sauvignon Blanc typically has a more subtle flavor. While Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc are the most popular white wines, you should also be familiar with the following two additional varieties. Johannesburg Riesling. This is a famous white grape used for German wines and makes a wine that tastes very fruity, sweet and refreshing. Chenin Blanc. This grape comes from the Loire Valley in France and is used to make a soft and scented wine with fruity flavors. Chenin Blanc can run the range from semi to very dry. Grapes Used in Red Wine. Cabernet Sauvignon. This grape has been described as very powerful and results in a full bodied wine. The wine is dry and slightly bitter, yet fruity. Merlot. This grape is a close relative to Cabernet Sauvignon, with the original blends coming from the same vineyards and general geographical areas. While it is as dark in color as a Cabernet, it is considered
  12. 12. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 11 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 softer and easier to drink. Gamay. This grape is used for the lighter and fruitier wines from the French region. Zinfandel. This is a red grape that is used to make the wine known as White Zinfandel, however, Zinfandel (not white) should not be confused with White Zinfandel. It is a red wine, slightly sweet in taste. Pinot Noir. This grape results in a red wine, light in color, but bold in taste. The flavor can be intense cherry, raspberry, plum and a little spice. The more expensive Pinots can have a wide range of complex flavors and aromas. Fortified Wines. Fortified wines are wines where brandy has been added to either stop the fermentation process or retain sweetness, or to increase alcohol content. Typically, these types of wines are served with dessert, contain a greater concentration of alcohol and are rich and sweet. Sparkling Wines. Also popular today, the sparkling wine family is not too different than typical wines in the way of grapes; rather the creation process of the wine is what begets the magical bubbles that distinguish a sparkling wine from standard wine families. If your customer is looking for an introductory sparkling wine, we recommend either a Chardonnay or Pinot grapes which are more delicate and fruity. Champagne. It’s important to realize that champagne is really a wine of sorts, from the Champagne region of France. Further, the word 'Champagne' is the trademarked name of a wine region in France and cannot be used to describe sparkling wine from other regions, however this is a French law, not enforceable for Champagnes produced in countries other than France. Q: What makes those wines sparkle? A: By using pressurized bottles, the CO2 is captured and carbonates the wine, creating the tiny bubbles you’ll find in Sparkling wine and champagne. In summary, wine is a complex beverage whose production borders on an art form. Serious wine drinkers will carry this same fastidious nature with them, and while they will most likely frequent wine specialty bars, should you have one in front of you, it will be important to be versed in the basics discussed above. Wine Service. How to Serve Wine - Restaurant Application After removing the cork from the bottle, wipe the lip of the bottle inside and out with a clean napkin. Pour only an ounce of the wine with the label facing your customer and twist the bottle toward your body as you raise it from the glass to prevent any spillage. Allow your customer to taste and approve of the wine prior to filling up the remainder of the glass.
  13. 13. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 12 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 What Temperature to Serve Wine. Red White Fortified Sparkling Temperature to Serve, Room temperature, or Chilled. Chilled (directly in ice) Serving Recommendations Open prior to serving so the bottle can ― breathe. Color Reddish Orange to deep purple Pale yellow to deep gold Varies Red, white or rose. Characteristics Strong Flavor; heavy body; dry Delicate; not as robust as red; varies from very dry to very sweet Rich, heavy, and sweet Ranges from dry to sweet, Alcohol Content 10%-14% 10%-14% 15%-24% 10%-14% Common Choices Cabernet Sauvignon Chianti Gamay Merlot Pinot Noir Zinfandel Chardonnay Fume Blanc Riesling Sauvignon Blanc Aperitifs (various) Madeira Marsala Port Sherry Brut Doux Wine Serving Tips. 1 – Always uncork red wine at least 5 minutes prior to serving, as it is important for the wine to mix with the air or ―breathe‖ which will boost the flavor. 2 – Red wine should be poured up to 2 inches below the rim of the glass and white 1 inch below the rim. The reason for the difference is to allow the customer the ability to swirl red wine slowly and further let it breathe. 3 - It is customary to first serve an ounce to the gentleman guest, and upon approval, to serve his female guest fully, and then return to the gentleman to fill the remainder. Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions relating. The knowledge of wine will greatly help both you and your customer’s enjoyment of it, as you’ll better be able to recommend the most suitable wine depending on the meal or disposition of the individual. For whatever wine you choose, be sure to practice the serving methods discussed. We suggest attempting and enjoying one of the following wines as you begin your test: • A Chardonnay of your choice if you are more prone to Whites, or if you are planning a lighter meal. • A Merlot of your choice for a meat or heavier meal. Sparkling wine if you are not completing this portion of the test close to lunch or dinner. 5-49 Will good acid levels limit the shelf life of a wine? 5-50 When someone is looking for a wine with a nice finish, what are they looking for? 5-51 In the most basic terms, what is wine? 5-52 In the wine making process, what year does the "vintage" of the wine refer to?
  14. 14. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 13 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 5-53 What needs to be done to the fermentation process to create a sweeter wine? 5-54 What is the biggest difference in the production of red & white wine? 5-55 What is more popular with dinner, red or white wine and why? 5-56 Merlot and Chardonnay are actually the names of what? 5-57 In the red wine family, which is considered easier to drink, Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot? 5-58 What type of wine is most commonly served with dessert? 5-59 What makes sparkling wines, sparkle? 5-60 What temperature should red wine be served? 5-61 How many inches below the rim should white wine be served? 5-62 How many inches below the rim should red wine be served? - Basic Drink Preparation Methods for Bartenders There’s only so many ways to skin a drink, I mean, pour a cat. The goal is to get you working as a bartender, fast! However, the amount of knowledge that you must possess to be a bartender is voluminous, especially when you take into consideration the thousands of potential drink recipes. And furthermore, your clients will expect you to be a walking drink encyclopedia. Firstly, to that, we say, relax! If there’s ever a circumstance where a client is asking for something that you’ve never heard of or don’t know how to make, don’t worry, just ask. Rest assured, the knowledge that this course will deliver will be enough to get you by 95% of the time, however, there’s always the foreign drink requested by the discriminating customer that will leave you (and even most seasoned bartenders) baffled. Not to worry. Simply ask your customer what’s in the drink. Not only will this ensure that you will create the drink exactly as it is expected, but you will give your client the feeling of being all-knowing and important. After all, he just stumped the bartender! Be humble, accept the knowledge and he will surely remember your appreciation for his lesson in the tip. Again, we will teach you the fundamentals in bartending, but even the most seasoned bartender can’t honestly admit to never having been stumped at work when having been requested a drink. Thousands of drinks exist, but yet in our professional experience, less than 100 are most commonly ordered! Clusters Make It Easy! Memorize how to make every drink known to man. Not only is this unpractical, but also in that only about 100 of those 10,000 plus are most commonly ordered, it’s just not necessary. Further, the time you’d spend trying to memorize would get in the way of the profession that awaits you! Rather, we’ve set up a system that divides the most commonly ordered drinks into clusters, with the dominant drink type or drink characteristic representing that cluster being the one distinguishing characteristic of the cluster. This could be the Margarita cluster and all the off- shoots of the basic Margarita, or the more widely encompassing and most commonly ordered Highball Cluster. Once you know these clusters, combined with some simple rules of thumb in the way of alcohol measurements, you’ll be able to make any drink! We call these DME Shortcuts™, but you can just refer to them as the helpers that’ll get you making drinks… easy (and fast)! Apply our rule of thumb quantity rules with the Drink Cluster rules and you’ll be able to ―Cliff
  15. 15. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 14 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Note‖ yourself into making delicious drinks that will segue into the profession of bartending with ease. DME Shortcuts™ - Alcohol Quantity Rules 1 – If a drink contains only one type of alcohol, pour 1 ½ ounces of the called for liquor (or a 3 count speed pour). 2 – If a drink contains two different alcohols, use 1 ounce for the first and ½ ounce for the second. 3 – If a drink contains three or four types of alcohol, use ½ ounce of each. DME Shortcuts™ - Mixer Quantity Rules 1 – If a drink only includes one mixer (e.g. Gin & Tonic), fill the glass with the mixer up to ¼ inch below the rim, no matter the size of the glass. 2 – If a drink includes multiple mixers, use equal parts of the mixers, and again, fill the glass to ¼ inch below the rim, no matter what size glass is used. Wait a minute, can that be too good to be true? Sometimes it can. The fact of the matter is that our DME Shortcuts™ will work with ALMOST any drink ordered today and will produce a properly mixed, nicely tasting beverage. This will also work for you to make your prospective boss drinks, quick, if you are ever tested on an interview, but it is important to recognize, that the distinguished pallet WILL taste subtle differences that go into SOME of the drink recipes out there where our shortcuts don’t apply. As you progress with your drink making, you’ll find the 100 or so most commonly ordered drinks will soon be old hat and you’ll expand your repertoire even further with time. But for starters, our DME™ shortcuts will get you behind the bar gaining on the job experience as soon as possible! We’re about to get into the basic liquor clusters, but before we do, know that while these clusters may differ, the manner in which they can be served do not. The 7 Serving Methods. There are only so many ways to serve a drink. Only 7, in fact! Neat / Straight Up. A drink requested Neat or Straight Up is simple to prepare in that there is no ice, no garnishes, nothing. Just the alcohol and the glass. Drinks such as shots, liqueurs or brandy are the most common instances when you will use this serving method. On The Rocks. A drink requested on the rocks is simply a drink over ice. Here, you’ll have already filled your glass with ice and will then add liquor over the ice. If a mixer is required, add as the recipe dictates. Note that some drink recipes require multiple alcohols or mixers that will first need to be prepared in a shaker, prior to being poured over the rocks. Shaken. Shaken drinks will typically call for ingredients that need an extra push in order for them to mix properly and taste as your customer expects. Simply fill your cocktail shaker no more than half full with ice and add the required ingredients. If
  16. 16. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 15 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 using a Boston Shaker, place your mixing tin over the top of your shaker and shake briskly 7-10 times. With a strainer, pour the mix into your glass! Stirred. For stirred drinks, fill your mixing glass 1/3rd full with ice and add all required ingredients. Use your bar spoon to stir the concoction thoroughly in one direction and serve. Some customers will order their stirred drinks as ―stirred straight up‖ or ―stirred on the rocks‖. For these occasions, stir as directed above, and then pour with a strainer (with or without ice depending on what’s requested) into a glass neat (straight up) or with a strainer over a glass with ice. Combined. Combined drinks are drinks or shots that do not call for any pre-mixing, but combine different liquors in the drink. These are typically shots, or drinks with a seltzer mixture that help to distribute and better mix the end result. Layered. The layered preparation method can be used with either cocktails or shots and as the name implies, involves the combination of several different liquors or liqueurs, layered on top of each other to create an aesthetically pleasing drink. The way this works is by using the heaviest or densest liquors on the bottom and for drinks containing more than two liquors, following that pattern and always placing the least dense liquor on the top, allowing the alcohol to have the appearance of floating on top of each other. Creating the layered drink or shot is considered an advanced bartending technique and one that you should definitely practice prior to creating one for a customer. To create this type of drink, you’ll need to pour the second, third, etc. liquor over the back of the spoon which should be rested at the top layer of the liquor below it. This process needs to be administered slowly so as not to pierce the layer. Since layered drinks are considered to be more advanced, more time consuming for the bartender to mix, and typically consisting of premium liquors, they also tend to be more expensive. Blended or Frozen. For drinks such as the Margarita, you’ll need a blender to prepare. In these instances, you’ll place the ice, alcohol and all mixers into the blender cup, blending until the mixture becomes a slush, firm presentation. Then pour into an already chilled glass and serve. The 8 Mixing Methods. There are only so many ways that these drinks can be mixed; 8, in fact! And these can and will be applied to ALL drink mixtures. These techniques are both universal and easy to master, you’ll just need to associate each technique with the specific drink type you are making. This comes by completing this course and by practicing with the homework assignments. Type of Drink Mixture How to Serve In what glassware Shot Straight up Shot or snifter Chilled Shot Stirred Rocks On the rocks, With Rose’s lime On the rocks,
  17. 17. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 16 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 With any carbonation (soda, tonic, etc.) On the rocks Double Rocks With sweet & sour Mix On the rocks Double Rocks With any juice On the rocks Double Rocks With coffee or hot water Hot Coffee Mixers. The following are the most commonly used mixers and will be stocked by any bar you work in: Soda Water - unflavored carbonated water Tonic Water - bitter carbonated water as a result of lemon and quinine flavoring Soft Drinks – all the most common choices such as cola, diet cola, lemon-lime flavored soda and ginger ale Fruit Juices – Apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, lime, orange, pineapple & tomato Bar Mix (Sweet & Sour Mix) -A mixture of lemon juice and sugar syrup. Dairy products – Milk, half & half & cream Standard Pre-mixes – *Sweet & Sour, *Collins Mix, Bloody Mary Mix, Strawberry Daiquiri / Margarita Mix, Piña Colada Mix, *Simple Syrup *All can be purchased or made you. Depending upon your bar’s protocol, things could be done either way. Recipes… Made Easy Sweet & Sour Mix For 1 Drink – Cut & squeeze ½ lemon and mix the juice with 1 teaspoon. Shake immediately, and shake the drink you mix it with vigorously prior to serving. For larger quantities – Mix 12 ounces lemon juice with 18 ounces cold water and ¼ cup of sugar. Mix, then keep cold for use as needed. Simple Syrup - Because this drink calls for hot water, we don’t recommend making it in single drink quantities unless you are serving a hot drink. Mix 1 pound of sugar with 1 quart of boiling water, reducing the temperature as you add the sugar, and stir until the mixture thickens (a few minutes). Refrigerate to store and use as needed. A+ Bartend Tip. As we’ve discussed before, a bartender, no matter how busy the bar, should never find himself lacking tasks to complete. There’s always something to do, which will help you get that busy shift you want and in general, help the bar’s efficiency and impress your boss! If you find yourself in a slow moment, make some of these commonly used mixes yourself! The 3 Glassware Preparation Methods Chilling. For a chilled glass, simply fill the glass with ice water and let it stand for no more than a minute. Empty the glass and make the drink! Frosting. Most commonly used with beer mugs, the process is what you’d expect it to be. Dip the glass in water, and then freeze it for about ½ hour. The frosty appearance will keep the drink cold and
  18. 18. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 17 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 create a nice an esthetic appeal. The busy beer bar should always have plenty of frosted mugs at the ready. Flavoring. Moving into fancier drink clusters, this technique flavors the rim with whatever garnish you’ll be using for the particular drink you’re making. A lemon wedge or peel rubbed the rim will create a subtle aroma and flavor to the drink. These are the differences that will make your drinks stand out! Doesn’t that simplify things? Honestly, you can do this! There is a very basic routine that all drinks must follow and the above applies to almost all of them! Who needs to memorize thousands of drink recipes?! How about 7 basic serving methods, 8 mixing methods and 3 glassware preparations all using DME alcohol and mixer quantity rules to simplify the process even further! Whoever said bartending was complicated? You can do this! You already are! Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions relating. As we learned, there are only so many ways to prepare a drink. By learning and committing to memory these methodologies, you are peeling away pieces of the onion and furthering your drink making foundation. We can’t suggest making the number of drinks that would cover all the above and still permit you to fill out your test questions with a clear head in one sitting. As such, we implore that you take it upon yourself to, in between the conclusion of this chapter and the beginning of the next, try making additional cocktails that will cover some of the preparation methods not contained in the drinks we suggest below. We suggest: • American Dream or Monkey Brain Shooters (to practice layering) • Bubble Gum or Mind Eraser (to practice the shaken techniques) 6-63 What should you do if one of your customers orders an extremely foreign sounding drink and you don't know how to make it? 6-64 If a cocktail contains only 1 type of alcohol, how many ounces will you typically include? 6-65 If a cocktail contains 2 types of alcohols, how many ounces should you include of each? 6-66 If a cocktail contains 3 or more types of alcohol, how many ounces will you typically include? 6-67 If a cocktail includes multiple mixers, how do you typically determine the amounts of the differing mixers? 6-68 How close to the rim do you fill up a glass with mixer? 6-69 What are the 7 serving methods in drink making? 6-70 What keeps a layered drink from collapsing on top of each other? 6-71 What are the 8 mixing methods? 6-72 What is bar mix or sour mix made of? - Garnishes & Mixers for Bartenders A well-dressed drink - the kind of drink you’d take home to mother. Garnishes can serve the purpose of making the drink look pretty and festive, or can have the very practical application of enhancing flavor and mixing with the ingredients to create a finished and
  19. 19. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 18 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 more enjoyable taste. In the world of the bartender, garnishes are considered to be anything from fruit, vegetables and spices to decorative placements and other add-ons. Fruit Garnishes Lemons, Limes, Oranges, Maraschino Cherries or pineapple. Many share the same preparation while others require zero preparation. Vegetable Garnishes Celery & cocktail onions (pearl onions) Dairy Garnishes Whipped Cream, Shaved Chocolate Decorative Placements Umbrellas, plastic swords, monkeys, etc. These are mostly a function of the style of the bar you’re working in. Spices, Salt, pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon sticks. Garnish Rules at a glance: Any drink mixed with lime juice - Lime Wedge Any drink mixed with tonic water or club soda - Lime Wedge Any drink mixed with sweet & sour or lemon juice - Lemon Wedge or slice Bloody Mary - Celery stalk and lime wedge Cappuccinos and lattes - Shaved Chocolate Coffee Drinks - Whipped Cream and Nutmeg Hot Drinks - Cinnamon Stick Ice cream drinks- Whipped Cream Margarita - Salted Glass rim and lime wedge Old fashioned- Orange slice and cherry Piña colada - 1 Pineapple slice Sambuca - 3 coffee beans Sweet & sour with 1 type of liquor (e.g. Amaretto sour or Midori sour) - Cherry Any drink with lime juice - Lime wedge How to make Garnishes As you know, much in the world of bartending is about the flamboyance, style of presentation, or name of the drink as opposed to how it tastes. Mind you, DME will DEFINITELY be able to distinguish between a well-made Martini and a hack job, however, is there really a need for 5,000+ different types of shots? If it makes your customer happy, I suppose the answer is yes. Getting to the point, Garnishes won’t always help the flavor of your drink, but often, they are part of the tradition of the drink or a need to improve the aesthetic value of the drink you serve. Sometimes, on some unconscious level, this can make a drink seem well worth the money you charge. Perception is reality. The well created garnish is part of the art of bartending. Lemon & Lime Wedges a) Slice the lemon or lime in half-length wise b) Place both halves, fruit side down on your cutting board c) Cut each halve length wise four times from top to bottom, with each slice angled toward the center, creating 8 wedges from each lime Lemon & Lime Slices. (Lemon yellow, lime green.) a) Cut off the ends of the lemon or lime (the nubs on each end) b) Slice the lemon or lime in half, length wise c) Place both halves fruit side down on your cutting board d) Cut each half straight down to create half circles. (Depending upon the size of your lemon you should get 4-6 slices). Lemon Wheels.
  20. 20. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 19 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 These will have the end result of adorning the edge of your customer’s glass and can be either full moons (1 full lemon slice) or half-moons (1 half lemon slice) a) Cut off both ends of the lemon b) Slice the lemon the short way to create full circles (you should end up with 4-6 slices). c) For full moons, make a slit in each slice from the peel to the center (being careful not to slice the peel itself) so it can lodge onto the rim of your customer’s glass d) For Half-moons, cut each slice in half again, and make a slit in each half slice from the peel toward the center (being careful not to slice the peel itself), as you would with full moons Lemon Twists. a) Use a paring knife to peel the outer skin from the lemon lengthwise from top to bottom, the thinner the better (about 1/8th of an inch) b) Cut the strip in half lengthwise to create two twists, which will twist on their own as long as your cut is not too thick Orange Wedges. a) Cut off both ends of the orange b) Cut the orange in half, lengthwise, then cut the orange in half again to end up with four, length wise orange quarters c) Cut each quarter horizontally (short side) into wedges. (Your final number of wedges will vary depending upon the size of the orange, but in general, one quarter should produce around eight wedges Miscellaneous Additional Mixers & Adders – Tabasco Sauce, Worcestershire Sauce, Bitters, Grenadine & Triple sec Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions relating to Chapter. We’d still like you to enjoy a libation as you go through your test questions, however also suggest putting some time toward the listed garnishes, whether you choose to use them in a drink or not. So now is the time to get out your fruits, cutting board and knife! We suggest 1 of the following cocktails to practice some of the more difficult garnish preparations: • Lemon Drop • Tom Collins After completing the test questions and your drink, we would suggest practicing each of the garnishes listed above. 7-73 What are the three glassware preparation methods? 7-74 What garnish is used in a drink mixed with tonic water or club soda? 7-75 What garnish is used in a drink mixed with sweet & sour or lemon juice? 7-76 What garnishes could be used with a standard Margarita? 7-77 To create a Lemon or Lime wedge, do you first slice the fruit lengthwise or the short way? 7-78 What is the first part of the fruit cut when making lemon or lime slices? 7-79 How do you get a lemon twist to "twist"? 7-80 What drink calls for Tabasco sauce, Worcestershire sauce and celery? - The Basic Liquor Groups In the bartending business, you got to start somewhere! Now that you’re familiar with the 7 basic serving methods, 8 mixing methods, the 3 glassware preparation methods, alcohol and mixer quantity rules of thumb and have a working knowledge of
  21. 21. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 20 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 what garnishes go where and when, we’re ready to transition into the basic liquor combinations of 7 primary liquors groups and from there, move into the differing ways that these liquor groups spiral off into 10,000+ drinks. Think of these drink combinations as the primary colors of drink making in that each group we’ve listed below covers the gamut of the drinks you’ll create, including all the serving and mixing possibilities. To simplify things even further, you’ll find that of these 7 primary liquor groups, 9 times out of 10, you’ll find yourself using only 4: vodka, rum, gin and whisky. Bourbon. Bourbon is a sub-category of whiskey, although American made with a minimum of 51% corn. Bourbon is arguably the most popular of the U.S. whiskeys, distilled in Southern U.S. states such as Tennessee. Popular brands of bourbon are: Jack Daniels, Jim Beam, Wild Turkey, Old Grand Dad and Old Crow. Basic Bourbon Combinations Bourbon Shot, Bourbon and club soda Bourbon chilled, Bourbon Collins Bourbon on the rocks, Bourbon and water Bourbon and Coke, Bourbon sour Bourbon and Diet Coke, Bourbon and coffee Bourbon and Sprite, Bourbon and hot water Brandy. Much like wine, the taste and brand of Brandy are very much determined by Mother Nature in that the process of making brandy consists of distilling grapes and other fruits and fermenting in oak barrels. Brandy is most commonly used as a cordial and is considered to be a liqueur. Popular brands of Brandy are: E&J Gallo, Korbel & Christian Brothers Basic Brandy Combinations. Brandy shot, Brandy Collins Brandy on the rocks, Brandy and OJ Brandy and Coke, Brandy and tea Brandy and diet Coke, Brandy and hot water Brandy and Sprite
  22. 22. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 21 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Gin. Gin is a distilled grain liquor based mostly on the juniper berry, but with differing brands including barley, corn, malt and rye in the production process. Popular brands of Gin are: Beefeater, Bombay, Gordon’s & Tanqueray Basic Gin Combinations Gin shot, Gin and OJ Gin chilled, Gin and pineapple Gin on the rocks, Gin and grapefruit Gin tonic, Gin and cranberry Gin Collins. Rum. Rum is distilled from molasses (originally sugar cane) and is predominately made in Caribbean countries such as Jamaica, Haiti and Puerto Rico. Rum is aged anywhere between two and ten years with the longer the aging, the darker the rum. Popular brands of Rum are: Mount Gay, Bacardi, Captain Morgan’s and Appleton Estate. Basic Rum Combinations Rum shot, Rum and OJ, Rum chilled, Rum and pineapple, Rum on the rocks, Rum and grapefruit Rum and Coke, Rum and cranberry, Rum and diet Coke, Rum and coffee, Rum and Sprite Scotch. Alike Bourbon, Scotch is also considered to be whisky although is spelled with no e, as opposed to American and Canadian whiskeys. Scotch whisky is made from either barley or grains and grouped in one of 4 areas of Scotland. Popular brands of blended Scotch are: Chivas Regal, Ballantines, Grant’s and Johnny Walker. Basic Scotch Combinations Scotch shot, Scotch and club soda, Scotch chilled, Scotch and water, Scotch on the rocks, Scotch Collins
  23. 23. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 22 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Tequila. Tequila, from the Tequila region of Mexico is produced from the heart of the Agave plant, with its juices mixed with sugar cane and yeast, then fermented. It’s important to note that Mezcal, while similar to Tequila, has enough subtle differences to put it in a class all its own. Specifically, Mezcal is made in another region and from a specific species of the Agave plant. Perhaps most notably, Mezcal is known for the worm you can find in the bottom of the bottle, consumed only by the daring. Popular brands of Tequila are: Jose Cuervo, Sauza and Patron. Basic Tequila Combinations: Tequila shot, Tequila and OJ, Tequila chilled, Tequila and tomato, Tequila on the rocks, Tequila and coffee, Tequila and Rose’s lime Vodka. Vodka is created by a distillation process similar to other alcohols using a variety of grains, but most commonly through potatoes. After the distillation process, the liquid is then filtered through charcoals, sometimes, as much as 3 or more times! The most universal alcohol, you’ll find yourself using Vodka in a wide variety of drinks. Popular brands of Vodka are: Sky, Stoli, Ketel One and Absolut. Basic Vodka Combinations Vodka shot, Vodka tonic, Vodka chilled, Vodka sour, Vodka on the rocks, Vodka and OJ, Vodka and Sprite, Vodka and cranberry, Vodka and ginger ale, Vodka and tomato, Vodka and club soda, Vodka and pineapple, Vodka Collins Vodka and grapefruit.
  24. 24. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 23 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 A PER I T I F S. ―WINE BASED‖. VERMOUTHS: Made from dry or sweet wine with an addition of absinthe, Quinine, fennel, nutmeg and mistelles.Cinzano, Martini, Stock, Cora (best), Noilly prat. SERVICE: Old fashion. WHITE=Dry. RED=Sweet. ROSÉ=Half dry, half sweet. I T A L Y : Cinzano, Martini France. Quinquinas: Made from a base of white and red wines. Plant extracts (Quinine) Herbs, Roots. It should be aged 2 to 5 years. Dubonet, Saint Raphael. A L C O H O L B A S E D. The Bitters. Made from a basic ingredient of pure alcohol plus bitter plant extracts, aromatic and medicinal herbs. Italy. Campari. France. Picon. Service. Highball glass, ice, swizzle sticks, orange decoration; mix with orange juice or soda Anis based: Pastis. Made from a basic ingredient of the flour of the anis plant and neutral alcohol. France: Pernot, Ricard, Berger. Greece. Ouzo. Shot glass, or cordial glass. Lebanon. Arak. Cordial glass, or shot glass. Service: highball glass with ice, swizzle stick and orange wheel. S p i r i t s. There are three main stages to the fabrication of spirits:
  25. 25. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 24 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 The mash= crushing of the natural ingredients. The fermentation= Transformation of sugar into alcohol. Distillation.=Transformation into a spirit. There are two types of distillations. Pot still (traditional): The mash is heated in the still (alembic) by direct heat to obtain the distilled liquid (product). This lengthy process provides a more refined product. Patent still (industrial) : The mash or ―wash‖ is heated in an alembic style by vapor system. The distilled liquid may be reprocessed (rectified) a number of times depending on the degree of distillation desired. During the process, the liquid is re-circulated continuously. N.B. All spirits aged in oak casks keep aging as long as they remain in the casks. When they are drawn from the casks and bottled, the aging stops. The quality of the product doesn´t change in the bottle. The four main conditions to keep a bottled product intact:  The bottle must stay unopened.  The bottle must be stored in a vertical position.  The bottle should be stored in a dark room away from any light sources.  The bottle must be kept in an area at constant temperature. Sudden changes in temperature must be avoided. Alcohol: Resulting from the distillation of a mash of any cereals or potatoes or fruit which can be rectified as many time as needed to produce ethyl alcohol. 94% Alcohol: three distillations. 40% Alcohol: One distillation. Service. Highball glass or shot glass, swizzle stick, garnish, ice and mix. Vodka. Resulting from the distillation of cereals, beets, or potatoes, this will then be filtered through active charcoal filters which renders it odorless as well as colorless. From Russia. (wheat). Smirnoff, Stolichnaya, Moskoskaya. From France: Grey goose. From Poland. Wyborowa, Belvedere. From Finland. Finland. From Sweden. Absolut, Different flavors. From U.S.A. Smirnoff Blue, Skyy. From Canada. Smirnoff red, troika, Russian prince, Polar ice, Iceberg. Service. Shot glass, Old fashion. ( straight up or on the rocks). Rum. Resulting from the distillation of a mash of sugar cane syrup or mash of sugar cane molasses. White rum: one distillation. Then bottled. From Cuba. Havana club. From Canada. Bacardi, carioca, Captain Morgan and Lomb’s. Amber rum: One distillation, then aged for a maximum of two years in oak casks. From Barbados: cock sport. From Haiti. Barbancourt. From Martinique: St James. From Canada: Same as whites. Dark rum: One distillation, then aged for a minimum of three years in oak casks. Certain rums are aged up to fifteen years. From Jamaica: Myer´s planter punch, Appleton state. From Canada: Same as white (Smell coconut).
  26. 26. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 25 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Service. Old fashion or straight up. Tequila: Resulting in the double distillation of a mash containing the sap and the fruit of the agave tequilana plant. This plant is common to the town of tequila Mexico. Certain Tequilas may be aged up to four years in oak casks. Blue Tequila: Don Julio, 100% agave. White tequilas: Sauza, Puerto Nuevo, Bang Bang. Gold Tequilas: Jose Cuervo. Service: Shot glass, salt on the rim. Cocktails: Margarita, Tequila Sun rise, sombrero. Mezcal: resulting in the single distillation and mash of the pulp from the center of maguey Which is a plant of the genus agave, which is from the region of Oaxaca ( Mexico) Bonus of a worm in the bottle. G i n s. Geneva or Holland Gin. Resulting from the pot-still distillation of a mash of cereals (malted barley, barley, rye, corn) That is distilled a second time with the addition of juniper-berries. Gins from Canada: Croix d’or De kypper. Service: Shot glass or Highball; Mix with water or Seven up. London dry gin. Resulting from the patent-still distillation of a mash (rye, corn) which is distilled 3 more times and a fifth time with the addition of juniper berries, coriander seeds, iris root and other aromatic plants. The fifth distillation is carried out in the traditional method (pot-still). Dry gin from England. Beefeater- Tanqueray- . Dry gins from USA. Newport. Dry gins from Canada. Gordons- Seagram`s – Shenley. Service. Highball – Cocktails. WHISKIES. A spirit which is the by-product of the distillation of different cereals (malt, Barley, corn, rye) Aged in oak casks. Specific types. Scotch Whisky Malt, grain, Blended. Canadian whisky or rye. Canada. Bourbon Whiskey. USA. Irish Whiskey. Ireland. Scotch Whisky. Malt or pot-still Whisky: The main ingredients being water, yeast and malted barley‖ that is then dried over slowly burning peat moss. From there, it will twice distilled in the traditional ―pot-still method and then aged for minimum of three years.
  27. 27. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 26 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 12 Years. Glenfidfich- Glenlivet- Glen moray. 10 years. Talisker- Glen morangie. Service. Straight-up, shot glass, highball, old fashioned. Canadian whisky. Resulting in the double industrial distillation of a mash of water, yeast, rye and other cereals and aged a minimum of 3 years in oak casks. 12 years. Gibson, Canadian nub classic. 10 years. Crown royal. 8 years. Schenley. 6 years. Canadian club. Seagram’s. Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions relating. We’d encourage you to re-read this chapter at least once, as there is a lot of detail contained within. Most importantly, do your best to thoroughly cement in your mind the differing combinations that can be found with each of the primary liquor groups.We suggest preparing and enjoying one of the following cocktails as you proceed: • White Russian • Zombie 8-81 What are the 4 most common alcohols you'll find yourself using 9 times out of 10 when making cocktails? 8-82 In what region of what country is Bourbon made? 8-83 Name two popular brands of Bourbon. 8-84 Bourbon is a sub-category of what primary liquor group? 8-85 What is the first step in the creation of Brandy? 8-86 Name two popular brands of Brandy. 8-87 In describing a wider group of alcohols, Brandy is considered to be a: 8-88 Gin is derived mostly from distilling of the _ berry. 8-89 Name two popular brands of Gin. 8-90 What region of the world is most Rum made in? 8-91 What makes some rum darker than others? 8-92 Scotch is considered a Whisky or a Whiskey? 8-93 Name two popular brands of Scotch. 8-94 Tequila is produced from what type of plant? 8-95 What is Mezcal's most distinguishing characteristic? 8-96 Name two popular brands of Tequila. 8-97 Vodka is most commonly distilled through what? 8-98 What is the most universally used liquor in drink making?
  28. 28. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 27 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 8-99 Name two popular brands of Vodka. - Make Drinks? It's easy… Basic Drink Clusters – Know these and it’ll make your job a breeze. Continuing in our efforts to simplify the bartending process and speed your employment as a full time bartender, we’ve developed and grouped popular drinks into 12 Drink Clusters that share many of the same attributes. You’ll find that if you commit to memory how to concoct the chief drink of that cluster and then concentrate on learning just the names of the individual drinks within the cluster, you should be able to intuitively jog your memory of what it takes to make the remaining drinks in the cluster when called upon. Because many of the names of the drinks within these 13 clusters hint at the ingredients they contain, that, combined with your knowledge of the chief drink will make learning how to make 76 drinks as easy as learning 13! The Highball Cluster. The Highball Cluster simply refers to drinks over ice served in a double rocks or rocks glass and will represent the most commonly ordered drinks by your customers. Luckily, they are also easy to make. We’ve listed some extremely popular examples below which you should take time to commit to memory, but obviously many more abound. With this cluster being the most abundant, there are not as many similarities between the drinks other than the preparation method and glass used to serve the drink. Additionally, this is the one cluster that has no chief drink for you to reference. Luckily, making these drinks is relatively simple, and the names do hint at what is contained within them. Drink Alcohol Mix Preparation Glass Garnish Vodka Tonic, Vodka, Tonic On The Rocks Double Rocks / Lemon Wedge. Gin Rickey, Gin, Lime Juice Carbonated Water On The Rocks Double Rocks / Lime Wedge. Seven & Seven, Seven & Seven Bourbon, Lime, Soda On The Rocks, Double Rocks, sherry Presbyterian. Whisky, Ginger Ale, Club Soda On The Rocks Double Rocks/ Lemon Twist. Madras. Vodka, Cranberry Juice, Orange Juice On The Rocks Double Rocks / Lime Wedge. Sex on the Beach. Vodka, Peach Schnapps, Cranberry Juice, Orange Juice On The Rocks Double Rocks / Rocks None Melon Ball Vodka, Melon Liqueur Orange Juice On The Rocks Double Rocks / Rocks None Bloody Mary Vodka Tomato Juice, Lemon Juice, Worcestershire® Sauce, Tabasco® Sauce Shaken Collins Glass Celery Stick, Lime Wedge Bourbon Sling. Bourbon, Sour Mix, Shaken, Double Rocks / Rocks Lemon Twist Gin Fizz. Gin, Bar Mix Carbonated Water Shaken Double Rocks / Rocks None A+ Bartending Tip. In order to better service the customer and increase your sale, it’s a good idea when taking cocktail orders to always ask the customer what type of liquor they would like. Chances are better than not that they will name a more expensive call brand. The Martini Cluster Perhaps the quintessential bar drink, the Martini is also one of the simplest drinks to make as far as what you’ll need to remember. There are very few derivations from the base Martini. However, as it is simple in the way of ingredients, the Martini calls for more attention to be paid to the
  29. 29. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 28 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 combination of these ingredients. The Martini aficionado will surely taste the most subtle difference in taste. Note that unless otherwise requested, a customer ordering a Martini is to be served a Gin Martini. This is a fundamental rule of the Martini, however if your customer seems at all unsure, better to ask first, as the tastes of a Gin Martini as opposed to a Vodka Martini are quite distinct. Drink Alcohol Mix Preparation Glass Garnish Martini Gin or Vodka, 2 dashes of dry vermouth None Stirred / Shaken Martini Glass (Chilled) Olive Dry Martini Gin or Vodka, 1 dash of dry vermouth None Stirred / Shaken Martini Glass (Chilled) Olive Extra Dry Martini Gin or Vodka (no vermouth) None Stirred / Shaken Martini Glass (Chilled) Olive Dirty* Martini Gin or Vodka, 2 dashes Dry Vermouth Splash Olive Juice Shaken Martini Glass (Chilled) Olive* Misc. Notes: a) Stirred is the commonly recognized Martini preparation method, but it is the customer’s request. Be sure to ask how they would like it prepared. b) *A Dirty Martini includes a splash of the juice of the garnish and helps to stifle the initial impact of the alcohol for your customer and produce a smoother delivery. With all dirty martini’s, include the chosen garnish (there is such a thing as a Broccoli Dirty Martini!) in with your mixture and shake 3-4 times, then pour, using the garnish in the shaker with your drink. c) When someone orders a Gibson, they are asking for a Martini, the only difference being that the garnish is a pearl onion as opposed to an olive. Follow all the same rules as when making a standard Martini, and know that alike a Martini, a Gibson can contain either vodka or gin. The Manhattan Cluster. Alike the Martini, the Manhattan Cluster is also a small drink cluster and easily made. Drink Alcohol, Mix Preparation Glass, Garnish. Manhattan Bourbon,2 dashes of sweet vermouth, None, Stirred / Shaken Cocktail (chilled) Cherry. Dry Manhattan Bourbon, 2 dashes of dry vermouth, None Stirred / Shaken Cocktail (chilled) Olive Perfect Manhattan Bourbon, 1 dash sweet vermouth, 1 dash dry vermouth, None Stirred / Shaken Cocktail (chilled) Lemon twist The Long Island Cluster. The famed Long Island is a combination of liquors, which together, create a pleasant and potent end result. Depending upon what region of the country or world you’ll end up working, you’ll encounter some variations of the basic theme of the Long Island Ice Tea, however, remember that these are all part of the same cluster for a reason. They share the same preparation, glass and almost the same garnish attributes, with the only substantial difference being the Alcohol or mix. Drink Alcohol Mix Preparation Glass Garnish Long Island Iced Tea. Vodka, rum, gin, tequila, Sweet & Sour Mix, splash coke Rocks Highball Lemon Wedge Florida Iced Tea. Vodka, rum, gin, tequila, Sweet & Sour Mix, splash OJ Rocks Highball Lemon Wedge California Iced Tea. Vodka, rum, gin, tequila, Sweet & Sour Mix, splash grapefruit Rocks Highball Lemon Wedge. Hawaiian Iced Tea. Vodka, rum, gin, tequila, Sweet & Sour Mix, splash Pineapple Juice Rocks
  30. 30. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 29 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Highball Lemon Wedge. Adios Mother. Vodka, rum, gin, tequila, blue Curacao Sweet & Sour Mix, splash lemon lime soda Rocks Highball Cherry. Tokyo Iced Tea. Vodka, rum, gin, melon liqueur, Sweet & Sour Mix, splash lemon lime soda Rocks Highball Lemon Wedge The Russian Cluster. Drawn from The White Russian, this popular family delivers a tasty, creamy, sweet tasting drink, always mixed with coffee liqueur. Drink Alcohol. Mix Preparation Glass, Garnish. White Russian. Vodka, coffee liqueur Half & Half, Rocks, Double Rocks, None Black Russian. Vodka, coffee liqueur, None, Rocks, Brandy Alexander, Brandy, brown crème de cacao, Half & Half, Rocks, Double Rocks, or cocktail Nutmeg Brave Bull. Tequila, coffee liqueur None, Rocks Colorado Bulldog. Vodka, coffee liqueur, Half & Half, splash cola, Rocks, Double Rocks, None Mind Eraser. Vodka, coffee liqueur, Club soda, Rocks, Double Rocks, None. Mudslide Vodka, coffee liqueur, Irish Cream, Half & Half, Rocks, Double Rocks, None. Smith & Kern. Coffee liqueur, Half & half, splash cola, Rocks, Double Rocks, None. Smith & Wesson. Vodka, coffee liqueur, Half & half, splash cola, Rocks, Double Rocks, None. The Kamikaze Cluster. The Kamikaze drink cluster, or simply, the Kamikaze, is also known to be a shot, so be sure to ask your customer exactly which they are ordering. All vodka based drinks, the distinguishing characteristics of individual drinks can often be found in the name as you will see. Drink Alcohol Mix, Preparation Glass, Garnish. Kamikaze Vodka, triple sec, Lime Juice, Shaken, Martini, Lime Wedge. Cosmopolitan Vodka, triple sec, Lime Juice, splash cranberry, Shaken, Martini, Lime Wedge. Chambord Kamikaze. Vodka, splash Chambord, Lime Juice, Shaken, Martini, Lime Wedge. Chambord Lemon Vodka, splash Chambord, Lemon Juice, Sugar, Shaken, Martini, Lemon Wedge, sugar glass rim. Lemon Drop Vodka, triple sec, Lemon Juice, Sugar, Shaken, Martini, Lemon Wedge, sugar glass rim. Orange Kamikaze Vodka, triple sec, Lime Juice, splash Orange Juice, Shaken, Martini, Lime Wedge. Vodka Gimlet, Vodka, Lime Juice, Shaken, Martini, Lime Wedge. The Margarita Cluster. There are quite a bit more Margarita options than Martinis, but they are important to know. The list may look daunting, but keep in mind that much of the preparation remains the same. You’ll be using the same mix, same glass and either blending or serving the drink on the rocks. The other variations are detailed below. Drink Alcohol, Mix, Preparation Glass, Garnish Margarita Tequila, triple sec, Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s, Lime, Rocks or blended, Margarita Salted glass rim with a lime wedge Banana Margarita Tequila, crème de banana Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or
  31. 31. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 30 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 blended Margarita None. Blue Margarita. Tequila, blue Curacao Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or blended Margarita None. Cadillac Margarita. Tequila Cuervo 1800, Grand Marnier Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or blended Margarita Salted glass rim with a lime wedge Melon Margarita. Tequila, melon liqueur Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or blended Margarita None. Peach Margarita. Tequila, peach schnapps Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or blended Margarita None. Raspberry Margarita. Tequila, raspberry liqueur Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or blended Margarita None. Strawberry Margarita. Tequila, strawberry liquor Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or blended Margarita None Tuaca Margarita. Tequila, Tuaca Sweet & sour & float of Rose’s Lime Rocks or blended Margarita None. Test Questions & Hands on Homework Whew! That was a lot of information we realize, and of all the chapters in this course, we’d most strongly recommend going over this one a few times. When you get these basic clusters and their offshoots down, you will find it all the more easy to assimilate additional drink mixtures into your base of knowledge. There’s no way that you can practice each of these drink preparation methods in one sitting, however it will be important for you to do so on your own time. For now, we suggest preparing and enjoying one of the following: • Long Island Iced Tea • Margarita • Martini 9-100 How many drink clusters are there? 9-101 How will remember the names of the drinks in the clusters help to remember how to make the drink? 9-102 What is the most common drink cluster? 9-103 What is the chief drink of the highball cluster? 9-104 What two alcohols are in a Sex on The Beach? 9-105 What three elements go into a Gin Fizz? 9-106 What alcohol goes into a Martini if a customer simply requests a "Martini, Shaken with 2 Olives"? 9-107 How is a Dirty Martini different than a standard Martini? 9-108 What other type of alcohol can be included in a Martini? 9-109 What differentiates a Gibson from a standard Martini? 9-110 What is the main alcohol base in the Manhattan family? 9-111 What garnish is used to make a perfect Manhattan? 9-112 What are the four base alcohols included in almost all Long Island Iced Teas? 9-113 What mix is used most commonly with all Long Island Iced Tea varieties? 9-114 What glass is commonly used to make Long Island Iced Tea varieties? 9-115 What Long Island Iced Tea base alcohol is excluded and what is it substituted with for a Tokyo Tea?
  32. 32. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 31 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 9-116 What is the most common base mixer for the Russian cluster? 9-117 What alcohol is contained in every drink in the Russian cluster? 9-118 What is the difference between a Smith & Kern and a Smith & Wesson? 9-119 What mix is added to a Mind Eraser? 9-120 What one drink of the Russian Cluster requires a garnish and what is it? 9-121 What type of glass should all Kamikaze's be served in? 9-122 Name all ingredients in a Lemon Drop. 9-123 Name all ingredients in a Cosmopolitan. 9-124 What tool will you use when making a Margarita Rocks With salt? 9-125 What two mixes are used with all in the Margarita Cluster? 9-126 What two drinks in the Margarita Cluster call for a garnish? 9-127 And what are those garnishes? 9-128 For a Banana, Peach, Melon or Strawberry Margarita, what type of alcohol gives it that fruit's flavor? - The Shot & Shooter Cluster Because Bartenders Give Shots too! Whoever said getting a shot was painful? Perhaps the easiest of all your tasks as a bartender from the preparation standpoint, straight, or neat shots are as easy as pouring liquor straight from the bottle into the shot glass, however it’s not always that simple. Some liquors when served as shooters need be chilled and others layered. Shot recipes abound and in time, you’ll likely find yourself making up your own! We’ve listed additional shot recipes in the reference, however have chosen a popular group of combined, shaken and layered shots to feature in the reference table below which you should use to practice at home and commit to memory. The Shot & Shooter Cluster Drink Alcohol Mix Preparation Glass Garnish *3 Wise Men Jack Daniels, Jim Beam, Old Granddad None Combined Shot None Blow Job Kahlua, Bailey’s Irish Cream, None, Layered, Shot, Whipped Cream Cement Mixer Bailey’s 3 dashes Rose’s lime Layered Shot None Fourth of July Grenadine, Vodka, Blue Curacao None Layered Shot None Anti-Freeze Vodka, Midori None Shaken Shot None M&M Kahlua, Amaretto None Layered Shot None *Tequila Slammer Tequila Lemon Lime Soda Combined Shot None Prairie Fire Tequila 2-3 dashes Tabasco® Layered Shot None Slippery Nipple Sambuca, Bailey’s Dash of grenadine Layered Shot None * For both of these shots, after combining ingredients, quickly slam the shot onto the bar with your hand over a napkin on top of the glass. Jello Shots Becoming more and more popular at bars and at home parties, Jello Shots combine your favorite liquor into a jello mixture and are served in small containers like miniature Dixie cups. Test Questions & Hands on Homework. The most difficult thing about the shooter cluster is getting them all down, but this really isn’t necessary. They are so simply made that you’ll commit your staples to memory and when requested for something foreign to you, simply consult chapter 17 for easy access recipes. (We strongly
  33. 33. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 32 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 recommend all bars to carry a copy of our home study kit. Given the simplicity in preparing the majority of shooters, we feel your time would be best utilized in working to prepare a layered or shaken shooter. We’d recommend one of the following: • Anti-Freeze • Blow Job • Fourth of July 10-129 What Method is used to prepare a Fourth of July Shot? 10-130 What Method is used to prepare an Anti-Freeze shot? 10-131 What do you garnish a Blow Job with? 10-132 What three alcohols are in a Three Wise Men shot? 10-133 What alcohol is in a screaming Orgasm? Specialty Drinks Cream & Tropical Drinks Specialty drinks will never be on the typical list of your most commonly served drinks, however, as the name of the chapter insinuates, these are special occasion drinks. What this means to you is that you won’t be making them often, however when you do, your customers will want to be served something commensurate with their celebration. In other words, you’ve got to make it good! Cream Drinks . Cream drinks are a richer drink, usually enjoyed after dinner and not often ordered in succession as a result of the filling effect of the cream. The common theme in the Cream Drink Cluster is the cream mix. We’ve included some of the most popular Cream Drinks below: Popular Cream Drinks at a Glance Drink Alcohol Mix Preparation Glass Garnish Chocolate Rum, brown crème de cacao, clear crème de menthe Cream Rocks Double Rocks None Grasshopper Green crème de menthe, clear crème de menthe Cream Shaken Martini None Almond Joy (Toasted Almond) Kahlua, Amaretto Cream Rocks Double Rocks None Root Beer Float Kahlua, Galliano Cream Rocks Highball Whipped Cream Screaming Orgasm Vodka, Bailey’s, Amaretto Cream, splash club soda Rocks Double Rocks None Tropical Drinks . Unless you’re working at a themed bar or a cruise ship, chances are tropical drinks won’t be included in your staple of regulars, however, in my opinion , knowing how to make a good Piña Colada is paramount to being a true bartender. Drink Alcohol Mix Preparation Glass Garnish Piña Colada Light Rum Coconut Milk, Crushed Pineapple Blended Highball Pineapple, Straw Mai Tai Light Rum, Triple Sec Simple Syrup, Sweet & Sour Mix Rocks Highball Cherry Hurricane Light Rum, Dark Rum OJ, Cranberry Juice, 4 dashes grenadine Rocks Highball Orange slice Planters Punch Rum, float of Jamaican rum OJ, pineapple juice, Rose’s lime, grenadine Rocks Highball Pineapple wedge Alabama Slammer Amaretto, sloe gin, Southern Comfort OJ Rocks Highball Orange Slice Blue Hawaiian Rum, blue curaçao, float of Jamaican Rum Sweet & Sour, Pineapple juice Blended
  34. 34. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 33 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Highball Pineapple wedge Test Questions & Hands on Homework Please find your test questions relating to Chapter 11. These more exotic drink clusters are also important to have committed to memory. We’d recommend preparing one of the following: • Almond Joy • Hurricane • Piña Colada . 11-134 When are cream drinks most often ordered? 11-135 What garnish goes with a Piña Colada? 11-136 What are all the ingredients of a Hurricane? 11-137 What glass should you use for all the popular tropical drinks listed? Chapter 12 - Wake Up Bartenders! Coffee & Other Hot Drinks You’ll find yourself regularly making hot drinks if you work at a ski resort or similar, or at a typical bar for customers stopping by after a meal. Drink Alcohol Mix Preparation Glass Garnish Hot Toddy Whisky Sugar, water, 2 cloves Hot Coffee mug Lemon Twist Hot Buttered Rum. Rum Hot water, 1t butter, 1t brown sugar Hot Coffee Mug Nutmeg, Cinnamon stick Irish Coffee. Irish whisky, Coffee, sugar, cream, Hot Coffee Mug None Mexican Coffee. Kahlua Coffee, sugar, cream Hot Coffee Mug None Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions. The most appropriate time to try one of these drinks would be on a cold evening or after dinner. We’d recommend preparing one of the following: • Hot Toddy • Mexican Coffee 12-138 What alcohol is in a Hot Toddy? 12-139 What are all the ingredients in a Mexican Coffee? - No Hangover, Please Non-alcoholic Drinks. We should start by clarifying the common misunderstanding that Virgin Drinks and non-alcoholic drinks are one in the same. Not true. Virgin Drinks are simply drinks where the alcohol is excluded, for example, to make a Virgin Margarita or a Frozen Daiquiri, simply remove the alcohol from the recipe. You can apply this practice to any drink out there. Non-alcoholic drinks on the other hand are drinks specifically designed to be served without alcohol. This is not the type of point that would be the difference in you obtaining a job, but it is still the type of knowledge you should commit to memory. It is important to have a few non-alcoholic drinks up your sleeve that you can offer to a
  35. 35. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 34 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 designated driver, non-drinker or child. Drink Mix Preparation Glass Garnish. Roy Rogers Cola, 2-3 dashes grenadine Rocks Highball Cherry Shirley Temple, Lemon, Lime, Soda, ginger ale, 2-3 dashes grenadine, Rocks, Highball, Cherry Yellow Jacket Pineapple, Orange & Lemon Juice Shaken Highball, None Cranberry Cooler Cranberry juice, Lemon, Lime, Rocks, Highball, None Other Popular Drinks. By focusing on the 7 drink clusters detailed in earlier chapters and practicing their subtle varieties, you will have a strong working knowledge of how to make 76 drinks by focusing only on the unique qualities of 13! Not bad, eh? As you learned earlier, the fast track to getting behind the speed rail at your new place of employment, however, there are, some, drinks that you really should commit to memory. You didn’t think you’d get off that easy, did you? Every bar will differ, Don’t be concerned when you take a look at the 200+ differing drinks we’ve listed. There is no need to memorize all these drinks! However, we would suggest that you have fun and explore this chapter and try to add another 10 or so from this list on top of the 76 listed above to your repertoire of ―no brainers‖. Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions. These are refreshing drinks to enjoy almost any time. We’d recommend preparing one of the following: • Roy Rogers • Yellow Jacket Before proceeding, we do strongly recommend re-reading Chapters before due to the vast amount of important information that these chapters contain. We’ve reached the end of the drink memorization processes, let’s just make sure you’ve got it down before moving forward! 13-140 What's the difference between a Virgin drink and a non-alcoholic drink? 13-141 What are all the ingredients in a Shirley Temple? - Keep The Change The difference between a good Bartender and a great Bartender. What you’ve learned so far, when applied, will give you the skills to effectively set the tone for a rewarding and profitable relationship with your customer, however, the points listed below can be seen as ―the icing on the cake‖. A truly great bartender will be spotted by his customers instantly, and this type of first impression will cultivate a walk in customer into a regular. Good for the bar, good for you. Place all drinks directly in front of your guest and always serve on cocktail napkins. Furthermore, be sure to replace soggy or dirty napkins. If serving beer in a mug, make sure its frosted. If you see your customer reaching for a match, light their cigarette for them. Empty ash-trays whenever possible and make sure matches and cigarettes are completely extinguished. Don’t gossip. Never complain about fellow employees, supervisors, guests or bosses. This will always come back to haunt you and could cost you your job. Wipe up spilled drinks immediately and replace them at no cost no matter who was at fault. If your customer is unhappy with their drink, for whatever reason, replace it at no charge. Do your
  36. 36. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 35 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 best to keep the glasses clean at all times. NEVER serve a glass with your finger touching the rim, or in the case of wine, your hand touching the bowl. Never be overly friendly with a customer when they are with others unknown to you. There is a fine line here that you will have to be aware of when you better get to know the guest, but in general, keep the chatter brief unless they continue it and you have the time. Never mention a customer’s last visit unless they bring it up themselves. Do your best not to let any individual customer wait at the bar for an extended period of time. Try to monitor the order in which customers enter the bar and serve them accordingly. Always do your best to keep a spotlessly clean bar. If you are ever not attending to a customer, find something to clean, straighten up, or prepare. Test Questions & Hands on Homework. Please find your test questions . As we’ve already covered the majority of the substance when it comes to drink making, we’d suggest in reviewing these test questions that you focus on a particular drink cluster, preparation method and garnish combination that you feel you know the least. Now is the time to make mistakes, not on the job. As such, we leave which drink you’d like to prepare and enjoy up to you! 14-142 What should you do if a customer spills a drink? 14-143 In what instance should you mention a customer's last visit? 14-144 What should you do if the things are slow at the bar? 14-145 What types of people should you not talk about with your guests? - Get Ready to Change Lives! (No, Really!) The Bartender’s Code It’s fun, it’s exciting, you can earn a lot of money, yes, but in life, with all this good, typically comes a bit of extra responsibility. We’ve always felt proud to carry on this responsibility, because as victims of drunk driving accidents know better than anybody, if something could have been changed to have things turn out differently, by all means they would have changed it. The fact of the matter is, YOU can make a difference! You are at the helm of the ship as a bartender and have the responsibility of being knowledgeable of who is drinking what and how much. Even if you’re working on a busy night, by using the pointers spelled out in this course, you’ll be able to spot a drunk, potentially dangerous customer, and take action before the unthinkable happens. What not to do. Each state has different laws governing the responsibility of the bartender when it comes to serving drinks to intoxicated individuals and minors, but the bottom line is this: don’t serve more drinks to someone already drunk, and if you’re concerned at all that they might be getting behind the wheel of a car, do whatever you can to make sure that they don’t! And most definitely do not serve alcohol to minors. Check their ID even if you’re not sure. (You may very well be flattering them!) Serving alcohol to minors is a serious offense and could result in the loss of the liquor license of
  37. 37. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 36 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 the bar in addition to fines. Should someone ever discover that you and or your place of business was somehow to blame for alcohol related injury or death, or even if they could make it seem as though you were, there could be much more serious fines resulting in civil and or criminal lawsuits against you and the bar owner. These are serious facts which you, as a bartender, must be aware of. Server Training Programs. Some states require a server-training program to ensure that you are fully aware of your responsibility as a bartender and thereby help to protect yourself, the establishment, and the public at large. As far as getting a job, this is nothing for you to be directly concerned with in that your new boss will be very familiar with all the guidelines in your particular State as he has the most to lose. Furthermore, he will most likely pay for your certification. Server-Training certification is typically not required prior to your first day of work, but rather can be completed within months after the initial date of hire, with varying time periods from state to state. Again, don’t concern yourself with this process now, your new boss will take care of it. Forget about the liability of the bar or yourself, think about the lives you can save by being proactive and adhering to basic safety guidelines. Common signs of drunkenness. Now that we’ve hit you with all the heavy legal ramifications associated with your new job, it’s important for you to have the skills to recognize a drunk! If they’re very drunk, the signs are typically obvious, but given the gravity of the circumstances surrounding what could happen to you or your bar, it’s important for you to be aware of the following and to look out for the signs: • Drinking Alone • Drinking Too Fast • Loud Speech • Argumentative • Complaining Persistently • Argumentative in General • Crude, or inappropriate comments • Obscenities • Falling Asleep or falling down • Spilling drinks • Stumbling , swaying or bumping into things • Slurred speech • Crying, depressed or moody • Disparate changes in behavior Most of these are fairly obvious, but we can’t stress enough the need for you to have the ability to spot these signs and act accordingly. Approximate Blood Alcohol Concentration (B.A.C.) The legal DUI / DWI levels vary from state to state, but you should know that the range is between .08 - .10 and you should be aware of how many drinks can get someone to that level. Review the BAC chart below and do your best to familiarize yourself with it. #Drinks/Hour Body Weight in Pounds 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Caution 1 .04 .03 .03 .03 .02 .02 .02 .02
  38. 38. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 37 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 2 .08 .06 .05 .05 .04 .04 .03 .03 3 .11 .09 .08 .07 .06 .06 .05 .05 Driving Impaired 4 .15 .12 .11 .09 .08 .08 .07 .06 5 .19 .16 .13 .12 .11 .09 .09 .08 Legally intoxicated 6 .23 .19 .16 .14 .13 .11 .10 .09 7 .26 .22 .19 .16 .15 .13 .12 .11 8 .30 .25 .21 .19 .17 .15 .14 .13 9 .34 .28 .24 .21 .19 .17 .15 .14 10 .38 .31 .27 .23 .21 .19 .17 .16 11 .40 .34 .30 .27 .24 .22 .20 12 .38 .33 .29 .26 .24 .22 13 .40 .36 .32 .29 .26 .24 14 .38 .34 .31 .28 .26 15 .37 .33 .30 .28 These calculations should only be used as a general guideline for estimating blood or breath alcohol levels. The predicted alcohol levels listed may not be valid for a variety of reasons. How to handle drunk & disorderly clientele. While most everyone comes to a bar for socializing, fun, and with good intentions, alcohol, when used excessively can bring out the worst in people which can in turn affect the overall mood of the bar as well as the safety of themselves and others. It’s important to recognize the first signs of drunkenness and for you to control the situation. If someone's drinking is getting out of hand, try one or all of the following in an attempt to foster a more bar friendly and safe atmosphere: Slow down their drink orders. Place water directly in front of their drink as a not so subtle hint. Mix drinks with a lower alcohol content. Offer alcohol-free drinks on the house. Offer food. Talk to their friend or partner, who may be more able to get through to them. Cut them off completely and stop serving them any type of alcohol. If your customer is rude, unruly and dangerous, don’t hesitate to have security or the police escort them out of the building. If the individual is intent on driving and none of your other tactics have worked, you may want to let them or their partner / friend know that there are mandatory breathalyzer stops set up all around the bar that they cannot avoid. This little white lie could do a tremendous amount of good. Remember that just because you will never tangibly know the impact you make by being a responsible bartender, doesn’t mean you shouldn’t continue this practice. By abiding to the unspoken code of the profession, recognizing when a customer could be a hazard to themselves and others and doing something about it, you’ll be effecting untold lives but will never know. You’ll never be recognized, thanked or rewarded in any way for following this code other than by the gratitude you choose to give yourself at the end of each shift. You are an unknown hero in this respect; changing untold lives by being a responsible bartender. Test Questions & Hands on Homework.
  39. 39. Miguel Diaz Medina Page 38 of 42 14 June 1993 Maritime hotel management Last up-date 10 August 2002 Please find your test questions relating . This is it! The rest of the course is about you applying your skills at your new place of employment! You’ve come a long way and need to appreciate this. As we stated at the conclusion of chapter 14, now is the time for you to focus on your weaknesses. Challenge yourself with perhaps some of the blended drinks, or even to create the perfect Martini! Whatever area you feel you need the most work on, right now is the time to do it. Take stock of your skills and choose a drink cluster, preparation method or single drink, and take the time to perfect it! - Time to get to the Party… I mean, to work! How to land the ideal bartending job Congratulations! You’ve made it through the course and completed the homework, yes? Well then make yourself a drink (tip yourself well), sit back, take a breather and give yourself some recognition, as you’ve already completed one of the most difficult tasks in becoming a bartender You say you haven’t done these things!? If you’ve already made yourself a drink, empty it out, by all means! Of course, we jest, however cannot be serious enough in stating that the information contained in this course has been designed to prepare you with the necessary skills to get bartending as soon as humanly possible, however we would never recommend trying to get a job somewhere without your passing grade and the confidence in your own abilities as a bartender. We know how that this course will deliver, but you need to participate as well. If you haven’t successfully obtained a passing grade and don’t feel confident enough to enter the world of bartending, then we strongly recommend reading through the course again. We know that at times, this will seem like work, because it is! But remember the benefits that will come at the end of your efforts—this should hold you through. We know you can do it!!! Your Future. As a student, we know you’re serious about this fun, exciting and rewarding line of work, however the worst thing you could do would be to apply for a job with sub-par, un-practiced bartending skills. Below, we’ll provide some on-going tips for you to get that dream job, but if you land it and management soon discovers that your ability to make drinks is not as you’d indicated, then it will be the quickest job you’ve ever had, and you’ll have ruled out a viable opportunity for when you do hone down your skills in the future! If by this point you still think that bartending is a breeze of a position, you are both right and wrong. Bartending is, in fact, hard work, the hardest part being learning how to do it, and chances are you’ve already figured that out! That’s half the battle! The second hardest part is to land the job you want. After that, it’s money and fun with a job where the party comes to you (and your only working part time)! Time to Get That Job! Right now you’ve got the stuff that management is looking for, you just have to find the management that’s looking for you and prove it to them! As diligent as you have been in learning the craft of bartending, you must be equally diligent when seeking out your dream job. Here are some tips to get you there! Breaking into the bartending world will take commitment on your part and you should be prepared for this. The most lucrative bartending positions are also the hardest to get and are typically the most fast paced. Even armed with the knowledge contained within the course, we still would not recommend you to apply to one of these fast paced bars immediately, as you’d be better advised to