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Factors affecting food & nutrition

Age: During the growth period, the BMR is high, therefore during infancy the energy need per Kg of body weight is highest than during adulthood. The period at which the basal metabolism reaches its highest level is between the ages of 1-2 years. A gradual decline occurs between the age of 2-5 years, with a more rapid decline until adult age.  Sex: The BMR is higher in adolescent boys and adult males as compared to adolescent girls and adult females though it is not due to direct influence of sex differences, but are due to the differences in body composition. Males have a greater amount of muscles and glandular tissues which is metabolically more active whereas, females have greater adipose tissues which is metabolically less active, Hence energy requirement of males is higher than of females. 

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CHIRAYU COLLEGE OF NURSING, BHOPAL
SUBJECT- NUTRITION
TOPIC- FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD & NUTRITION
PROGRAM & PLACEMENT- B.Sc. NURSING I YEAR
PREPARED BY
MR. MIGRON RUBIN
LECTURER
OBJECTIVE
To explain about factors affecting food & nutrition
FACTORS
Age:
During the growth period, the BMR is high, therefore during infancy the
energy need per Kg of body weight is highest than during adulthood.
The period at which the basal metabolism reaches its highest level is between
the ages of 1-2 years.
A gradual decline occurs between the age of 2-5 years, with a more rapid
decline until adult age.
Sex:
The BMR is higher in adolescent boys and adult males as compared to
adolescent girls and adult females though it is not due to direct influence
of sex differences, but are due to the differences in body composition.
Males have a greater amount of muscles and glandular tissues which is
metabolically more active whereas, females have greater adipose tissues
which is metabolically less active, Hence energy requirement of males is
higher than of females.
Climate:
It is known that the BMR is lower in tropics then in temperate zones.
Hence the energy cost of work is slightly higher when the temperature
falls.
Body Size:
It will have an important effect on energy needs because a larger body has
a greater amount of muscles and glandular tissue to maintain, thus
requiring higher energy allowances.
A tall thin individual has a greater surface area than an individual of the
same weight who is short and fat and the former will therefore, have a
higher basal metabolic rate.

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Factors affecting food & nutrition

  • 1. CHIRAYU COLLEGE OF NURSING, BHOPAL SUBJECT- NUTRITION TOPIC- FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD & NUTRITION PROGRAM & PLACEMENT- B.Sc. NURSING I YEAR PREPARED BY MR. MIGRON RUBIN LECTURER
  • 2. OBJECTIVE To explain about factors affecting food & nutrition
  • 3. FACTORS Age: During the growth period, the BMR is high, therefore during infancy the energy need per Kg of body weight is highest than during adulthood. The period at which the basal metabolism reaches its highest level is between the ages of 1-2 years. A gradual decline occurs between the age of 2-5 years, with a more rapid decline until adult age.
  • 4. Sex: The BMR is higher in adolescent boys and adult males as compared to adolescent girls and adult females though it is not due to direct influence of sex differences, but are due to the differences in body composition. Males have a greater amount of muscles and glandular tissues which is metabolically more active whereas, females have greater adipose tissues which is metabolically less active, Hence energy requirement of males is higher than of females.
  • 5. Climate: It is known that the BMR is lower in tropics then in temperate zones. Hence the energy cost of work is slightly higher when the temperature falls.
  • 6. Body Size: It will have an important effect on energy needs because a larger body has a greater amount of muscles and glandular tissue to maintain, thus requiring higher energy allowances. A tall thin individual has a greater surface area than an individual of the same weight who is short and fat and the former will therefore, have a higher basal metabolic rate.
  • 7. Secretion of Endocrine Glands: The thyroid gland in particular exerts a marked influence on the energy requirement. If it is overactive (hyper-thyroidism), the BMR will increase If the activity of the gland decreases (hypo-thyroidism), the BMR will be reduced.
  • 8. Status of health: During the periods of fever as well as malnutrition, the BMR of an individual is affected. Illness involving an elevation of body temperature markedly increases the basal heat production thus increasing the BMR, hence increased energy requirement.
  • 9. Altered Physiological States: During pregnancy and lactation, the energy needs are increased because of an elevated BMR. In pregnancy; this additional energy is needed to support the growth of foetus and maternal tissues. During lactation energy is required for synthesis of milk.
  • 10. Effect of food: A certain amount of work is expended in the digestion of food, its absorption transfer to the tissues and utilization. The increased heat production as a result of the ingestion of food is known as the specific dynamic action of the food. Protein when eaten alone has been shown to increase the metabolic rate by 30%. On the basis of the mixed diets, which are usually consumed, the specific dynamic action of food is approximately 10% of the energy requirement.
  • 11. Extent of Physical activity: Any kind of physical activity increases the energy expenditure above the basal energy need. Energy for the performance of all types of physical activities ranks next to basal metabolism in amount of energy expended.
  • 12. Sleep causes a reduction of about 10% in the BMR depending on the number of hours spent in sleeping and its manner i.e. restless/ peaceful. The energy need is determined by the nature and duration of physical activity. Sedentary work, which includes once work, book keeping, typing, teaching, etc., calls for lesser energy than moderate work (more active and strenuous occupations) such as nursing. homemaking, or gardening.