IMMIGRANTCITIZENSSURVEYHow immigrants experience integration in15 European citiesProject co-financed underthe European Fund for theIntegration of third-countrynationals
PARTNERSBelgiumKing Baudouin Foundation (KBF)Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)FranceFondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques (Science Po)France Terre d’AsileGermanyResearch Unit of the Expert Council of German Foundations onIntegration and Migration (SVR, Germany)HungaryMTAKI (MTA Etnikai-nemzeti Kisebbségkutató Intézet)Menedék Hungarian Association for MigrantsManaging PartnersKing Baudouin Foundation (KBF)Migration Policy Group (MPG)Co-funders:European CommissionKing Baudouin FoundationFundação CalousteGulbenkian Oak FoundationItalyFondazione Ismu – Initiatives and Studies on MultiethnicityPortugalHigh Commission for Immigration and InterculturalDialogue (ACIDI)SpainUniversity of LeicesterCentro de Investigaciones SociológicasFundacion CIDOBBranding and Design:Project co-financed under the EuropeanFund for the Integration of third-countrynationalsExpertCouncil
EMPLOYMENTHIGHLIGHTS What’s your job situation? What type of organisation do you work for? Does your job use all your skills? Is your education sufficient? What reasons prevent you from participating in a training course? How many years have you worked? What problems have you had finding jobs? How much education do you have? Have you applied to get your qualifications recognised and were yousuccessful?
WHAT TYPE OF ORGANISATION DO YOU WORK FOR? Over half work for a private firm. Many more are self-employed in Budapest,Brussels, and Liège than in the other citiessurveyed. A quarter of surveyed workers in Milan andover half of those in Naples are employed inthe domestic and homecare sectors. Work in the public sector is more common forsurveyed immigrants in Belgian and Frenchcities, Stuttgart and Budapest compared tothe other ICS cities.EMPLOYMENTKey Findings
WHO HAS AT LEAST ONE PROBLEM FINDING A JOB? The majority of the immigrants who hadlooked for a job had encountered one ormore problems, ranging from discriminationand language problems to personalconstraints, the recognition of theirqualifications or problems with contracts. Only in Berlin, Stuttgart and Budapest did themajority report no problems finding a job.EMPLOYMENTKey Findings
WHAT PROBLEMS HAVE YOU ENCOUNTERED WHEN LOOKING FOR WORK? Temporary contracts were the majorproblem for immigrant job-seekers in mostcities. The most frequently reported problem wasthat employers only provided immigrantswith temporary job contracts. The number who cited job security as aproblem ranged from 32% in Antwerp to59% in Faro.Immigrants in southernEuropean cities cited another structuralproblem besides job security: employersoffered no legal contract to between 21and 48% of all immigrants in these cities.EMPLOYMENTKey Findings In contrast, immigrants in northernEuropean cities pointed to the way thatthey were treated on the labour market. Two major perceptions were thatemployers discriminated against them (29-44%, lower in German cities) or did notrecognise their foreign qualifications (31-41%). Immigrants occasionally cited problemsrelated to their individual skills and status.Language ranks among the two biggestproblems for non-native speakers inAntwerp, Budapest, Lisbon, Faro, Stuttgart,and the two Italian cities.
WHAT PROBLEMS HAVE YOU ENCOUNTEREDWHEN LOOKING FOR WORK?For immigrants, the majorproblem is job security
WHAT PROBLEMS HAVE YOU ENCOUNTEREDWHEN LOOKING FOR WORK?
DOES YOUR CURRENT JOB MATCH YOUR SKILLS AND TRAINING? A quarter to a third of surveyed immigrantswho succeeded in finding a job perceivethemselves to be overqualified. In most cities, half of all workers feel that theirjob matches their skills and training.EMPLOYMENTKey Findings
DOES YOUR CURRENT JOB MATCH YOURSKILLSAND TRAINING?
HAVE YOU APPLIED FOR RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS?WERE YOU ACCEPTED? In most cities, only a quarter to a third of foreign-trainedimmigrants actually applied for recognition. Of these, onaverage 70% succeeded in getting their qualification fully orpartially recognised. This pattern generally holds across countries for peopleexperiencing over-qualification or problems with qualifications;relatively few apply, but most that do get full or partialrecognition. Overall, the reported recognition rate is highest in Portugueseand Spanish cities but varies significantly between Lyon andParis, Berlin and Stuttgart, and Antwerp, Brussels, and Liège.EMPLOYMENTKey Findings
HAVE YOU APPLIED FOR RECOGNITION OFQUALIFICATIONS? WERE YOU ACCEPTED?Educated immigrants often get their foreign qualificationsrecognised if they apply, but few apply.
WHAT PROBLEMS HAVE YOU ENCOUNTERED IN ACCESSINGFURTHER TRAINING? These immigrants that cannot pursue jobtraining report more challenges than themajority of people in the same country withbalancing training, work, and family. Across 11 ICS cities, the three major reasonswere the cost of trainings, conflicts with work,and family responsibilities.EMPLOYMENTKey Findings
HAVE YOU APPLIED FOR RECOGNITION OFQUALIFICATIONS? WERE YOU ACCEPTED?Immigrants havegreater problemsbalancingtraining, work, and family life thanmost people doin the country
LANGUAGESHIGHLIGHTS What’s your mother tongue? What other languages do you speak well? Did you have any problems that discouraged you from learningthe country’s language(s)? Have you taken a language or integration course in the country? How has this course helped you personally?
DID YOU HAVE A PROBLEM LEARNING THE LANGUAGE? Learning the language was more of aproblem for non-native speakers inPortuguese, Italian and French cities than inGerman cities or Madrid. Around 60 to 70% of immigrants inPortuguese, Italian and French cities mentionone or more reasons undermining languagelearning, in contrast with 24 to 30% in Germancities and Madrid.LANGUAGESKey Findings
DID YOU HAVE A PROBLEM LEARNING THELANGUAGE?Immigrants generallyspeak more languagesthan the averageperson in their countryof residence.
WHAT WERE THE MAJOR PROBLEMS LEARNING THE LANGUAGE? What are the biggest obstacles for non-native speakers to learn the language of thecountry in which they live? Is it a lack ofinformation, the costs, low-quality courses,personal motivation or time? In most cities, no one reason predominated.More than one in three non-native speakersfound that they did not have time to study inBudapest, French, Italian, Portuguese, andSpanish cities. Half said they did not have time to study inItalian and Portuguese cities.LANGUAGESKey Findings
WHAT WERE THE MAJOR PROBLEMS LEARNINGTHE LANGUAGE?For immigrants – like formost people – time isthe major problem forlearning a newlanguage.Getting information onlearning opportunities maybe more difficult forimmigrants than generalpublic.
HAVE YOU STARTED OR COMPLETED AN INTEGRATION ORLANGUAGE COURSE? For immigrants – like for most people in thecountry – time is the main problem forlearning a new language. The comparison suggests that time to studywas a much greater problem for non-nativespeakers in Italian and Portuguese cities. Getting information on learning opportunitiesis more of a problem for non-native speakersin the Belgian, French, Hungarian, Italian, andPortuguese cities.LANGUAGESKey Findings
HAVE YOU STARTED OR COMPLETED ANINTEGRATION OR LANGUAGE COURSE?Wide range of immigrantsparticipated in language orintegration courses.
HAS THE LANGUAGE OR INTEGRATION COURSEHELPED YOU? Participants in most courses wereoverwhelmingly positive about their effect onlanguage learning and other integrationoutcomes. Courses helped most participants not onlylearn the basics of the language, but alsospecific vocabulary that they needed fortheir jobs or skills.LANGUAGESKey Findings
HAVE YOU STARTED OR COMPLETED ANINTEGRATION OR LANGUAGE COURSE?Participants highly valuecourses for learninglanguage and often forsocio-economic integration.
CIVIC AND POLITICALPARTICIPATIONHIGHLIGHTS In this country, are you part of a political party or group? Tradeunion? Immigrant or other organisation? Do you know an association run by immigrants? Have you heard of the immigrant consultative body? Did you vote in the last national or local election in this country? Why did you not vote? Would you vote if there was a general election tomorrow (andyou had the right to)? Does this country need more parliamentarians with an immigrantbackground and why?
WOULD YOU VOTE IF THERE WAS A GENERAL ELECTION TOMORROW? What percentage answered yes to thehypothetical question of whether theywould vote if there was a generalelection tomorrow? Non-EU citizens werealso asked whether they would vote ifthey could. In Spanish, Portuguese and French cities,interest in voting is as high amongsurveyed non-EU immigrants as it wasamong the general population whenasked for the 2008 European ValuesStudy (85%, 72% and 90% respectively).CIVIC AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATIONKey Findings Seventy to 80 per cent of surveyedimmigrants show interest in voting,though slightly less than the generalpopulation, in Italian cities and Belgiancities (where voting is mandatory). Smaller majorities are interested inBudapest (63%). The majorities in favourwere slightly larger among naturalisedimmigrants in Italian and Portuguesecities and much larger in Budapest andBelgian cities. Interest was high among bothnaturalised and non-naturalisedimmigrants in French and Spanish cities.
WOULD YOU VOTE IF THERE WAS A GENERALELECTION TOMORROW?Most immigrants want tovote(often as much asnationals do)
DO YOU THINK WE NEED MORE MPs WITH ANIMMIGRANT BACKGROUND? Most immigrants want more diversity in politics –and many would even use their vote toencourage it. Surveyed immigrants were asked a questionfrom the 2006 Eurobarometer on Discriminationin the EU about whether they think that theircountry definitely or probably needed moreMembers of Parliament (MPs) with an immigrantbackground.CIVIC AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATIONKey Findings
WOULD YOU VOTE IF THERE WAS A GENERALELECTION TOMORROW?Most immigrants want morediversity in politics – andmany are willing to vote insupport of it.
DO YOU THINK WE NEED MORE MPs WITH ANIMMIGRANT BACKGROUND? When asked why, 80 to 95% answered that MPs with an immigrantbackground would better understand them, better represent them, andwould be symbolically important for the country. Sixty to 92 per cent evensaid that they would be more likely to vote for diverse candidates. Support for immigrants as candidates was just as high among naturalisedimmigrants, including likely voters (those who would vote in an electiontomorrow). The cities where support for these specific arguments was the lowest werein Germany. There, for instance, only a minority of surveyed immigrants would vote forMPs with an immigrant background (not taking into account their politicalviews) just to increase ethnic diversity in the Bundestag.CIVIC AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATIONKey Findings
DO YOU THINK WE NEED MORE MPs WITHANIMMIGRANT BACKGROUND?
ARE YOU A MEMBER OF A TRADE UNION OR A POLITICAL PARTY OR GROUP? Immigrants’ self-reported participation in politicaland civic organisations is uneven, varying from city tocity and organisation to organisation. The city results for surveyed immigrants arecompared with the national results for the generalpopulation from the European Values Study (2008). Often, fewer immigrants report that they aremembers of these types of organisations. In a fewcities, just as many (or even more) report that theyare members than the general population in thecountry.CIVIC AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATIONKey Findings
ARE YOU A MEMBER OF A TRADE UNION OR APOLITICAL PARTY OR GROUP?Immigrants’ broaderparticipation in civiclife is uneven fromcity to city andorganisation toorganisation.
KNOWLEDGE AND MEMBERSHIP OF ORGANISATIONS Immigrants’ relationship with immigrant organisations alsovaries significantly from country to country and city to city. Surveyed immigrants said that they knew of or participated inan immigrant or ethnic organisation (broadly defined asgroup in support of immigrants’ social, cultural, or politicalinterests). Not many more immigrants were members of an immigrantorganisation than of trade unions or political organisations.Generally, membership of immigrant organisations was notsignificantly higher across most ICS cities.CIVIC AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATIONKey Findings
OWLEDGE AND MEMBERSHIP OFORGANISATIONSWhether immigrants know or participate in an immigrant NGOdepends heavily on their local and national context.
FAMILY REUNIONHIGHLIGHTS How many people live in your household? What’s your marital status? / What’s the nationality of your spouse? Since you moved here, have you ever had a partner or child livingoutside the country? Have you ever applied for family reunion? / When did you apply? What happened to your application? What problems did you have applying? How has reuniting with your family helped you personally? Would you like to apply for family reunion? Why not? How might reuniting with your family help you personally?
HAVE YOU REUNITED WITH YOUR PARTNER? Today, most first-generation immigrantssurveyed in the 15 cities do not currentlyneed to reunite with a partner or children.FAMILY REUNIONKey Findings
HAVE YOU REUNITED WITH YOUR PARTNER?Only limited numbersof first-generationimmigrants were everseparated from apartner or children
HAVE YOU REUNITED WITH YOUR CHILDREN? The vast majority are either single, havealways lived with their partner or children, orwere the ones that reunited. Whether these people will need familyreunion in the future will depend on how theirlives and families change over time. Only a limited number of people whoimmigrated from outside the EU were or areseparated from their families.FAMILY REUNIONKey Findings
HAVE YOU REUNITED WITH YOUR CHILDREN?The majority ofseparated families havealready reunited in mostsurveyed countries.
WHY DO YOU NOT WANT TO REUNITE WITH YOUR PARTNER ORCHILDREN? Most immigrants surveyed have their own reasons for not reunitingtheir family; several did not know or cited a specific reason. Two major personal reasons were that some immigrants do notwant to settle in the country or their family does not want tomove. These family reasons were regularly given in Budapest andcities in Italy, Portugal, and, to a lesser extent, Belgium and Spain.But two other major reasons were related to policy. Many separated immigrants do not know if they meet the familyreunion requirements, particularly in cities in Belgium, Italy, andPortugal. Others say that they cannot meet the requirements,again in these cities as well as the two Spanish cities.FAMILY REUNIONKey Findings
WHY DO YOU NOT WANT TO REUNITE WITH YOURPARTNER OR CHILDREN?Most separated immigrants today do notwant to apply for their family, somebecause of family choices but othersbecause of policy obstacles.
WHAT PROBLEMS DID YOU HAVE REUNITING WITH YOUR FAMILY? Around half the immigrants who did apply for family reunion alsocited problems with the family reunion procedure, specifically therequirements, documents, or discretion of the authorities. Former applicants said that authorities had too much power to ‘dowhatever they wanted’ during the procedure, particularly in Frenchcities (38%), Italian cities (34%) and Portuguese cities (28%). The documentation required was another important obstacle forfamily reunion in specific countries such as Belgium (24%) andGermany (50%). Applicants in German and Italian cities had themost problems, while applicants in Spanish cities reported thefewest.FAMILY REUNIONKey Findings
WHAT PROBLEMS DID YOU HAVE REUNITINGWITH YOUR FAMILY?Documents andpowers ofauthorities citedas majorproblems forapplicants incertain countries.
HOW HAS FAMILY REUNION HELPED YOU? Successful sponsors perceived severalpositive effects of family reunion on theirfamily life and social integration. Nearly all enjoyed a much easier family lifethanks to family reunion. Most felt moresettled in the country.FAMILY REUNIONKey Findings
HOW HAS FAMILY REUNION HELPED YOU?Family reunion helpsimmigrants improvefamily life, sense ofbelonging andsometimes otherintegration outcomes.
LONG - TERMRESIDENCEHIGHLIGHTS Have you ever applied for long term residence? When did you apply? What happened to your application? What problems did you have applying? How has becoming a long-term resident helped you personally? Do you want to become a long-term resident? Why not? Why do you not want to become a long-term resident? How might becoming a long-term resident help you personally?
HAVE YOU EVER APPLIED FOR LONG TERM RESIDENCE? Foreign residents in ICS cities acquired someform of long-term residence after residing inthe country for six or more years. This figure excludes foreign residents whonaturalised as citizens.LONG TERM RESIDENCEKey Findings
DO YOU WANT TO BECOME A LONG-TERM RESIDENT? Overall, between 80 and 95% of immigrantssurveyed in most ICS countries are or want tobecome long-term residents.LONG TERM RESIDENCEKey Findings
DO YOU WANT TO BECOME A LONG-TERMRESIDENT?80 and95% ofimmigrants are orwant tobecomelong-termresidents.Most temporary migrants in newcountries of immigration alsowant to become long-termresidents.
HOW MANY YEARS DOES IT TAKE IMMIGRANTS TO APPLY FORLONG-TERM RESIDENCE? In most ICS countries, the average applicantfor long-term residence applied not longafter the minimum required period ofresidence. Applicants usually applied after five years’residence in most countries. .LONG TERM RESIDENCEKey Findings
HOW MANY YEARS DOES IT TAKE IMMIGRANTSTO APPLY FOR LONG-TERM RESIDENCE?The average person applies not long after theminimum period of residence
WHAT PROBLEMS DID YOU HAVE APPLYING FOR LONG-TERMRESIDENCE? Several people applying for long-termresidence had to overcome obstacles withthe policies and the ways that they areimplemented in different cities.LONG TERM RESIDENCEKey Findings
WHAT PROBLEMS DID YOU HAVE APPLYING FORLONG-TERM RESIDENCE?Policies and theway they areimplementedcreate problemsfor peopleapplying
HOW HAS LONG-TERM RESIDENCE HELPED YOU? People who became long-term residents saidthat this secure residence status helped themfeel more settled, often get better jobs, andsometimes get better educated andinvolved.LONG TERM RESIDENCEKey Findings
HOW HAS LONG-TERM RESIDENCE HELPEDYOU?Long-termresidencehelps mostimmigrantsget betterjobs andfeel moresettled
CITIZENSHIPHIGHLIGHTS Have you ever applied to become a citizen? When did you apply? Which procedure did you use? What happened to your application? What problems did you have applying? How has becoming a citizen helped you personally? Do you want to become a citizen? Why not? How might becoming a citizen help you personally?
DO YOU WANT TO BECOME A CITIZEN? Most temporary residents are not onlyinterested in becoming long-term residents inthe countries where they live.CITIZENSHIPKey Findings
DO YOU WANT TO BECOME A CITIZEN?Around 3 out of 4immigrants are or wantto become citizens
WHY DO YOU NOT WANT TO BECOME A CITIZEN? The few temporary residents who do notwant to naturalise often do not see the valueof citizenship or have other reasons that arespecific to their country. In all other countries, one major reason (42-57%) is that the foreigners who do want tonaturalise, especially long-term residents, donot see the difference between their currentstatus and citizenship.CITIZENSHIPKey Findings
WHY DO YOU NOT WANT TO BECOME ACITIZEN?Major reasons not to naturaliseare difficult procedures inFrance and restrictions ondual nationality in Germany.The few uninterested incitizenship often either do notsee the difference with theircurrent status or face specificpolicy obstacles.
MOST IMMIGRANTS ARE OR WANT TO BECOME CITIZENS Overall, around three out of four non-EUimmigrants in most ICS cities said that theyare or want to become citizens.CITIZENSHIPKey Findings
MOST IMMIGRANTS ARE OR WANT TOBECOME CITIZENSNaturalisation is more common among establishedimmigration countries and among facilitated groups inHungary and Spain.
AFTER HOW MANY YEARS LIVING IN THE COUNTRYDID YOUAPPLY FOR CITIZENSHIP? In several cases, immigrants who are eligiblefor naturalisation take years to apply. Applicants who meet the residencerequirement must not only be interested inapplying, but also fulfil all the other legalrequirements.CITIZENSHIPKey Findings
AFTER HOW MANY YEARS LIVING IN THECOUNTRY DID YOU APPLY FOR CITIZENSHIP?Immigrantswho areeligible fornaturalisationoften takeyears toapply.
AFTER 20+ YEARS IN THE COUNTRY, HAVE YOU BECOME ACITIZEN? The ICS results raise concerns over the fulllong-term inclusion of foreign residents inseveral countries. Immigrants who are not citizens of theircountry of residence or other EU countriesare mostly absent from national politics,possibly exposed to the threat of expulsion,and, in several EU countries, excluded frompublic sector jobs, some professions, and fullsocial rights.CITIZENSHIPKey Findings
AFTER 20+ YEARS IN THE COUNTRY, HAVEYOU BECOME A CITIZEN?
DID YOU HAVE PROBLEMS APPLYING FOR CITIZENSHIP? When surveyed immigrants did apply forcitizenship, they reported the most problemswith the policy or implementation in cities inFrance, Portugal, Italy and Belgium,especially Antwerp.CITIZENSHIPKey Findings
DID YOU HAVE PROBLEMS APPLYING FORCITIZENSHIP?
HOW HAS CITIZENSHIP HELPED YOU? Once immigrants naturalise, they feel theeffects of citizenship in their own lives, theirjobs, and often their local communities.CITIZENSHIPKey Findings
HOW HAS CITIZENSHIP HELPED YOU?Citizenship helps immigrants feel more settled, get better jobs, and evenget more educated and involved.
IMMIGRANTCITIZENSSURVEYHow immigrants experience integration in15 European citiesBranding and Design: