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Chapter 6 long term psych


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Chapter 6 long term psych

  1. 1. A2 Physical Education Long Term Psychological Preparation
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes Appreciate the value of long-term psychological planning and interventions Develop applied knowledge and understanding of how to use goal setting over time Experience an applied methodology in performance profiling Understand the concept of motivation and how to explain sports performance through attribution theory Learn how to develop a performance psychologically through modern psychological trends Develop an appreciation of the importance of the group in a successful performance, and how to build cohesion.
  3. 3. What is Goal Setting?  A goal is an objective we set for ourselves, or that is set for us by other influential people  In a sports activity context we may wish to gain selection to a county team, achieve a personal best, to gain the next belt level in Taekwondo!  Goal Setting
  4. 4. Why is Goal Settingimportant? Motivates the performer Enables the performer become more organised and efficient Allows the performer to plan training and performance programmes Provides performers with a structured pathway of development by focusing attention on key elements of performance Helps reduce anxiety and control arousal Builds self-confidence and increases effectiveness
  5. 5. Subjective and ObjectiveGoals What’s the difference? Subjective = general statements of intent – not stated in measurable terms (give an example) Objective = statements that focus on attaining a specific standard of proficiency, usually within a specified time (give an example)
  6. 6. Types of Goal Using the book (p104) make notes on the following:  Outcome goals  Performance goals  Process goals  Short-term goals  Long-term goals  (Adapted from Atherton 2003)
  7. 7. Goal-Setting StructureSMARTER Specific – goals should be clear and concise Measurable – goals need to be assessed through formal processes Agreed – goals should be discussed and agreed with others. Realistic – Goals must be genuine and not beyond the scope of the performer Time-bound - goals should reflect the short and long-term objectives of the performer Exciting – Goals need to provide the performer with stimulus to progress and achieve. Recorded - By recording their goals and creating a pathway for development, performers can see their agreed structure, time plan and processes for evaluation and measurement. Smart Targets
  8. 8. Basic Strategies for GoalSetting Plan and set your goals (short and long-term) Put into place strategies you know Planning and are realistic preparation Evaluate regularly and reward success Seek help of a tutor/coach and Education and agree on goals Acquisition Have a PLAN B at hand should things not go according to plan Implementation and Never lose sight of the long term goal follow-up Never be afraid to amend your short term goals
  9. 9. Factors Affecting SuccessfulGoal Setting Unrealistic Goals Too many goals – conflict Goals are beyond your control Inappropriate time frame No flexibility Inadequate review process Outcome goals overtake performance goals
  10. 10. Performance Profiling To identify areas that require psychological interventions Identify your psychological skills training (the systematic and consistent practice of mental and psychological skills) To aid your motivation and adherence to the programme To allow you to compare with and copy successful/elite performers
  11. 11.  Underdogs Underdogs2 Why do underdogs succeed?? Many people have ‘bad games’ or ‘lose concentration’ or ‘freeze’ in a competitive situation – Why? Yet many don’t seek psychological solutions Mental Imagery, channel anxiety, positive arousal, motivation, self-belief, mental rehearsal, self talk, goal setting, muscle relaxation etc can all be trained to help performance Bend it like Beckham!!
  12. 12.  Complete the motivation tasks.
  13. 13. Motivation Define the term Motivation. Using the text book summarise the following terms:  Intrinsic Motivation  Extrinsic Motivation  Achievement Motivation (Murray and Gill)  Nach  Naf
  14. 14. A Psychological Skills TrainingProgramme Stage 1 – Introduction – learn the importance of the programme and conduct an honest appraisal Stage 2 – Construction- Construct a performance profile and undertake a series of strategies to enhance your desired goals profile goals Stage 3 – Implementation – make the psychological skills training programme a daily routine Stage 4 – Assessment – review and reconstruct your profile On winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup, Clive Woodward undertook an immediate performance analysis including psychological aspects – Why?
  15. 15. Nach Performers Select challenging Risks Perform better when being evaluated Take Risks Are not troubled by fear or failure Seek success and pride through high- ranking victories
  16. 16. Naf Performers  Seek low risk challenges  Perform worse when being evaluated  Take the easy option  Tend to concede defeat early and give up after failure  Have a drive to avoid shame and failure
  17. 17.  Legend Legendary – look at his face!
  18. 18. Situational Factors Probability of success (Ps) versus the probability of failure Incentive value of success (Is) versus incentive of failure (If) By beating a higher-ranked opponent in tennis you have matched the probability of success to incentive value of winning – by accepting the challenge and being successful, you will have achieved a more valued victory.
  19. 19.  Explain how achievement motivation, sport psychology and coaching are important aspects of successful sport.
  20. 20. Case Study Boxers find it difficult to decide who to fight for the next fight. Why? Why do high-jumpers choose to miss a jump and enter a competition at a higher height? What factors would they need to take into account?
  21. 21. Attribution TheoryLook at the following scenarios and write down what reasons you would give after the event as to why you won or lost: You have been training all winter for the opening athletics meeting of the season. The previous year you had been the regional champion and you were confident that you were going to be champion again this season, even though you had gone up an age group. On this occasion you came third. Your team has won every game in the league and is now in the cup final against your closest rival. You are playing the match at the rival’s home ground, but you win.
  22. 22. Attribution Theory An approach that attempts to categorise the reasons we give for winning and losing – attribution refers to the perceived causes of events and behaviour What questions could we ask as to why a performance occurred the way it did?
  23. 23. Remember The four attributions, or reasons why we may or may not have been successful in a performance are:  Ability – my level of skill, ability and technique  Effort – how hard I work  Luck – circumstances and incidents beyond prediction  Task Difficulty – a measure of the task ahead
  24. 24. Attribution Theory Locus ofCausality
  25. 25. Attribution TheoryPerformers who apply the attribution theory tend to show self-serving bias.Explain
  26. 26. Attribution Theory Explained Attribution Theory Locus of causality Different Types of Attribution
  27. 27. Learned Helplessness Is when an athlete perceives defeat is inevitable and as a result of stable, internal and uncontrollable events. Based on past experiences Need attribution retraining Low confidence levels Poor self-esteem Naf Learned Helpnessness
  28. 28.  Alternatively, performers high in achievement, Nach, display mastery orientation Confident In control of their own destiny Expect success Overcome failure
  29. 29. Attribution Retraining Focus on positive attribution rather than negative Shift focus from internal to external factors
  30. 30. How can you/your coachpositively effect the locus ofcausality? Change tactics Blame equipment Use a positive approach to failure Focus on the perfect model and copy Avoid citing lack of ability as cause of failure Make reasons for losing less personal
  31. 31.  Developing as an athlete!
  32. 32. Characteristics of SuccessfulPerformers. Task: From a psychological standpoint, working in pairs suggest characteristics that lead to successful performers.  Better Concentration  Higher self-confidence  More task-orientated thoughts  More positive thoughts, determination & commitment  Lower Anxiety Levels
  33. 33. What PsychologicalMethodologies can I use? Imagery Mental rehearsal Self-talk Goal-setting Progressive muscle-relaxation techniques Arousal regulation Concentration/attention techniques
  34. 34. Wagon Wheels Wagon wheels can be used to visualize and structure your performance components. These can include, but are not limited to: •Concentration •Courage •Imagery •Self- talk •Determination •Leadership •Consistency in effort •Confidence •Stress management •Communication •Motivation •Mental Preparation
  35. 35. Wagon Wheels
  36. 36. Task Design your own blank Wagon Wheel. You will need to decide the psychological components for analysis. Then, using a scale of 1 – 10 (1 = a low/weak assessment; 10 = as good as you can be) complete a psychological profile for your chosen sport. It should now be possible to see where your psychological strengths and weaknesses lie. Is this subjective or objective? How can we make it better?
  37. 37. How Do we Learn? Can you remember how you learnt to ride a bike? Can you remember how you learnt to kick a football? How did you learn to do a forward roll?
  38. 38. Task: You have ten minutes in which to learn how to juggle with 3 balls. You will be allowed different forms of assistance in completing this task.
  39. 39. 3 Stages of LearningDeveloped by Fitts and PosnerCognitive Associative AutonomousBeginning Intermediate Advanced oror Novice or Practice Fine-tuning 41
  40. 40. Cognitive Stage Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues Large # of Errors  Increase corrective Attention to every detail feedback of activity  Use short verbal cues Unable to screen out irrelevant information  Use demonstrations, Inconsistent performance videotape, etc. Slow, jerky,  Lots of opportunities to explore skill uncoordinated 42
  41. 41. Associative Stage Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues„ Fewer errors „ Distribute corrective feedback„ Motor program develops „ Stress correct fundamentals„ Performer discovers „ Accommodate differences in environmental the rate of skill development regularities „ Lots of opportunity for„ Anticipation develops practice„ Learns to monitor own feedback 43
  42. 42. Autonomous Stage Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues„ Motor program become „ Focus on strategy units of action „ Work on mental focus„ Decreased attention „ Develop learner diagnosis demands of skill„ Confidence increases, self-talks shifts to „ Encourage, motivate, strategy support„ Performance gains are slower 44
  43. 43. Performance Changes across theLearning StagesCHANGES IN RATE OF IMPROVEMENT Change in the rate of improvement is faster during the cognitive stage 45
  44. 44. Visualisation The process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen. Visualisation Take a minute and close your eyes. Think of something you want to achieve. Visualise it happening. Now right down the feelings that it brings about.
  45. 45.  Case Study One  Case Study Two Derek Randall  David Beckham
  46. 46. Ritual  Ritual has always been a significant psychological tool in sport.  Ritual reflects culture and serves to unite and build a commonWhat other rituals do you know of? spirit with a singleDo you have any pre-match rituals? uniting cause.
  47. 47. Memory Short Term  Long Term Memory Short term Sensory Store  Where all our can process a limitless experiences and amount of information in a short space of time movement (20-30) seconds programmes are Important information is stored. passed to the Short Term  Schema Theory can Memory distinguish non-elite ‘Work Space’ from elite performers Short Term Memory Test
  48. 48. Group Cohesion – by the end of the lesson youshould be able to answer the following: What is Group Cohesion? Why do some groups but not others become Cohesive? How does Cohesion develop over time? What are the positive and negative TEAM COHESION consequences of cohesion?
  49. 49. Group Cohesion according toCaron (1980) Groups exhibit the  ‘a dynamic process following: reflected in the  A Collective Identity tendency for a group  A Sense of shared to stick together and purpose remain united in the  Structured patterns of pursuit of its goals communication and objectives The total field of forces that cause members to remain in a group
  50. 50. Cohesion can be split into twoareas: Task Cohesion Social CohesionTask: Use the video to help you define the two without
  51. 51. Building Group Cohesion Forming  Group meets or is assembled  Heightened tension may Storming develop as roles are defined or tasks established Norming  Rules and standards of behaviour are agreed as Performing cohesion is built  The group matures and works together
  52. 52. Factors affecting thedevelopment of Cohesion Environmental  Age, club membership, Factors location, employment or ethos  Belief in the group, desire Personal Factors to win, social relationships  Influence of Leadership Factors coach/manager  The group as a whole, Team Factors targets set, ability and role of each member Group Cohesion?
  53. 53. TaskMake notes on strategies andmethods for enhancing group cohesion pages 132 and 133
  54. 54.  What is Group Cohesion? Why do some groups but not others become Cohesive?
  55. 55.  How does Cohesion develop over time? What are the positive and negative consequences of cohesion?