Cardiac Catherization IP 2 MICHELLE STAHL BIOLOGY 144 SECTION04 MARCH 4, 2012
Introduction Coronary circulation is the blood flow to the heart that supplies the heart with oxygen and nutrients. Without this the heart muscles would begin to die. Heart muscle unlike other muscles cannot heal itself. As heart tissue dies off the heart doesn’t contract as well, and cannot keep up with the demands of the body. Cardiac catherization seeks to remove blocked blood vessels in the heart to restore blood flow to the heart. Blocked blood vessels are most often caused by coronary artery disease.
Coronary Circulation Two branches off the aorta called the right and left coronary arteries supply blood to the heart (David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15). The right coronary artery travels along the atrioventricular sulcus and has two branches. The posterior interventricular artery travels along the posterior interventricular sulcus and supplies the walls of both ventricles . (David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15).
Coronary Circulation continued The marginal artery travels along the lower border of the heart and has branches that supply the walls of the right atrium and the right ventricle(David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15). The left coronary artery has a branch called the circumflex artery that follows the atrioventricular sulcus between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It supplies blood to the wall of the left atrium and the left ventricle (David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15).
Coronary Circulation Continued The anterior interventricular artery is a branch of the left coronary artery and travels in the anterior interventricular sulcus. This artery supplies blood to the walls of both ventricles (David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15). Smaller branches of the arteries usually have connections that serve as alternative pathways for blood called collateral circulation (David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15).
Coronary Circulation continued Cardiac veins drain blood that have passed through the capillaries in the heart. The veins follow the arteries in the coronary system. They join the coronary sinus: a large vein that empties into the right atrium so blood can be sent to the lungs to pick up oxygen (David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15).
Coronary Artery Disease Over time plaque (a substance made up of cholesterol and lipids) can build up on the arterial walls narrowing the openings and reducing blood flow. This plaque can rupture and cause clots that further block arteries. Sometimes the arteries become completely blocked and the heart cannot get blood, as a result the muscles in that region of the heart begin to die.(The Mayo Clinic staff [Mayo Clinic], 2010, para. 1-2)
Cardiac Catherization Cardiac catherization is a procedure to treat heart disease or diagnose it A thin flexible tube called a catheter is sent into a blood vessel in the groin, neck, or arm then travels through the blood vessels to the heart . A dye is injected into the tube and can show blockages on x-rays. Your doctor can then diagnose or treat these blockages.(Medicine Net, 2012)
Cardiac Catherization Small tools or medicines can also be inserted or injected to remove blockages. A uninflated balloon can also be threaded though and inflated to enlarge the opening. Stents, an expandable tube or coil, can also be placed to hold an artery open. These procedures help restore blood flow to the affected area.
CardiaccatherizationThe doctor willmake anincision in theupper thigh toaccess thefemoral arterypictured here.This will be theinsertion pointfor the catheter(Aprevealed, 2012).
CardiaccatherizationThe catheterwill then bepushed up thecommon iliacartery picturedhere(Aprevealed, 2012)
CardiacCatherizationNext thecatheter willtravel into theabdominalaorta on its wayto the heart(Aprevealed, 2012)
CardiacCatherizationHighlighted inblue is the Leftcoronary arteryand itsbranches. Fromhere the doctorgoes to the siteof the blockage(Aprevealed,2012).
The Causes of Heart Disease Blocked blood vessels prevent the flow of blood to the heart. When the flow of blood is not reaching the heart tissues are starved of oxygen and nutrients. As the heart beats continuously the tissues begin to die, dead tissue cannot heal. As more areas of the heart die it contracts less forcibly and cannot meet the demands of the body for blood(David, Jackie, & Lewis, 2010, Chapter 15).
Risks factors for Cardiovascular disease A sedentary lifestyle. A diet high in fats and cholesterol. Smoking constricts blood vessels. Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels from high blood sugars. High blood pressure. Heredity or family history of heart disease.
Risks for Cardiovascular Disease Age as you get older plaque naturally builds up in your blood vessels. Men are at more risk and women after menopause. High blood cholesterol or blood lipids. Obesity puts strain on the entire body, the heart has to pump harder to push blood through. High stress(Mayo Clinic, 2012)
References Anatomy & Physiology Revealed 3.0 (Version 3.0) [Computer software]. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mhhe.com/sem/apr3/ David, S., Jackie, B., & Lewis, R. (2010). Hole’s Human Anatomy & Physiology (12 ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. MedicineNet.com. (2012). Heart Disease and Cardiac Catheterization. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/cardiac_catheterization/article.htm The Mayo Clinic staff. (2010). Coronary artery disease. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/coronary-artery-disease/DS00064