The Promise of Civic Learning and the Civic opportunity Gap. <br />Joseph Kahne<br />Civic Engagement Research Group at Mi...
Contact Information<br />Joseph Kahne, Mills College<br />jkahne@mills.edu<br />www.civicsurvey.org<br />Cover photos cour...
The Civic Mission of Schools<br />The qualifications of self-governance are not innate. They are the result of habit and l...
Courtesy UCLA Idea<br />We should be concerned<br />
Late 1990s – Present<br /><ul><li>Concern about low levels of youth civic/political participation
Concern about inequitable civic/political engagement</li></li></ul><li>Concern: Low Levels of <br />Civic Values<br />
Concern: Low Levels of <br />Interest in Current Events<br />
Concern: Low Levels of <br />Political Campaign Work<br />
Concern: Low Levels of Political Engagement<br />2010<br />Less than 23% of 1-29 year olds voted<br />
Concern: Low Levels of Engagement<br /><ul><li>9% of youth could list two ways a democratic society benefits from civic pa...
55% judged disengaged</li></li></ul><li>Concern Inequitable EngagementPolitical Influence<br />The policy preferences of t...
Concern Inequitable EngagementUnequal Voting Rates<br />In the General Election:<br /><ul><li>16% of 18-29 year olds had a...
14% of 18-29 year olds did not have a high school degree, but they were 6% of the voters </li></li></ul><li>Concern Inequi...
Youth Participation Gap<br />Of  young adults under 30 : <br />41% with some college experience were not very engaged.<br ...
Late 1990s – Present: Response to Declining Youth Participation<br />Can Schools Help?<br />
The Study<br /><ul><li>502 Students
7 high schools from 7 different California school districts
API scores ranged from bottom 20% to top 10%
% of students receiving free lunch ranged from 1% to 83%
Followed  students for 3.5 years
Diverse Outcomes</li></li></ul><li>Two Visions for Promoting the Civic Mission of Schools<br />Information/ Discussion-Bas...
Information and Discussion-Centered – The Theory<br />Civic Learning Outcomes<br />Civic Learning Opps<br />Learning about...
Experience-Centered The Theory<br />Civic Learning Outcomes<br />Civic Learning Opps<br />Simulations<br />Service Learnin...
Civic Outcomes<br />Political Interest<br />Interest in Diverse Perspectives<br />Intention to Vote<br />Commitment to Par...
Findings:Experience - Centered Opps<br />Civic Outcomes<br />Voluntary Activity<br />Civic Skills<br />Political Action & ...
Summary of Findings<br />
Ruth Fremson/The New York Times 4/27/10<br />Civic Learning Opportunities Matter<br />
Student Access to Civic Education Promising Practices<br /><ul><li>36% of students reported never participating in a simul...
34% of students reported never doing service learning in high school
68% said they learned a lot about the structure and function of government
58% said they often discussed current events
46% said they were often in classes where a wide range of views were discussed</li></li></ul><li>Youth Participation Gap<b...
Inequitable Access to Civic Learning OppsRace/       Ethnicity<br />Compared with white students, Latino students report:<...
Less open classroom climates
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Democracy for Some: Closing the Civic Opportunity Gap by Joseph Kahne, Ph.D., Mills College

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  • Democracy for Some: Closing the Civic Opportunity Gap by Joseph Kahne, Ph.D., Mills College

    1. 1. The Promise of Civic Learning and the Civic opportunity Gap. <br />Joseph Kahne<br />Civic Engagement Research Group at Mills College<br />
    2. 2. Contact Information<br />Joseph Kahne, Mills College<br />jkahne@mills.edu<br />www.civicsurvey.org<br />Cover photos courtesy of UCLA Idea<br />Courtesy UCLA Idea<br />
    3. 3. The Civic Mission of Schools<br />The qualifications of self-governance are not innate. They are the result of habit and long training.<br /> -- Thomas Jefferson<br />
    4. 4. Courtesy UCLA Idea<br />We should be concerned<br />
    5. 5. Late 1990s – Present<br /><ul><li>Concern about low levels of youth civic/political participation
    6. 6. Concern about inequitable civic/political engagement</li></li></ul><li>Concern: Low Levels of <br />Civic Values<br />
    7. 7. Concern: Low Levels of <br />Interest in Current Events<br />
    8. 8. Concern: Low Levels of <br />Political Campaign Work<br />
    9. 9. Concern: Low Levels of Political Engagement<br />2010<br />Less than 23% of 1-29 year olds voted<br />
    10. 10. Concern: Low Levels of Engagement<br /><ul><li>9% of youth could list two ways a democratic society benefits from civic participation (NAEP)
    11. 11. 55% judged disengaged</li></li></ul><li>Concern Inequitable EngagementPolitical Influence<br />The policy preferences of those in the bottom third of the income distribution had no apparent statistical effect on their senators’ roll call votes.<br /> -Larry Bartels (2005)<br />
    12. 12. Concern Inequitable EngagementUnequal Voting Rates<br />In the General Election:<br /><ul><li>16% of 18-29 year olds had a college degree, but they were 24% of the voters
    13. 13. 14% of 18-29 year olds did not have a high school degree, but they were 6% of the voters </li></li></ul><li>Concern Inequitable EngagementUnequal Voice<br />High vs. Low Income Citizens<br />4x as likely to be part of campaign work <br />3x as likely to do informal community work <br />2x as likely to contact elected officials <br />9x as likely to contribute to campaigns<br />-Verba, Scholzman, Brady (1995) <br />
    14. 14. Youth Participation Gap<br />Of young adults under 30 : <br />41% with some college experience were not very engaged.<br /> 81% with no college experience were not very engaged. (Civic Health Index)<br />
    15. 15. Late 1990s – Present: Response to Declining Youth Participation<br />Can Schools Help?<br />
    16. 16. The Study<br /><ul><li>502 Students
    17. 17. 7 high schools from 7 different California school districts
    18. 18. API scores ranged from bottom 20% to top 10%
    19. 19. % of students receiving free lunch ranged from 1% to 83%
    20. 20. Followed students for 3.5 years
    21. 21. Diverse Outcomes</li></li></ul><li>Two Visions for Promoting the Civic Mission of Schools<br />Information/ Discussion-Based Education<br />Experience-Based Education<br />
    22. 22. Information and Discussion-Centered – The Theory<br />Civic Learning Outcomes<br />Civic Learning Opps<br />Learning about social problems<br />Learning about social policies<br />Respectful discussion of controversial issues<br />Linking civic/political issues to student interests<br />Activates awareness, interest, concern, and understanding which motivates participation.<br />Civic & Political Engagement<br />
    23. 23. Experience-Centered The Theory<br />Civic Learning Outcomes<br />Civic Learning Opps<br />Simulations<br />Service Learning<br />Extracurricular activities<br />Skills<br />Agency<br />Connection<br />Commitment<br />Civic & Political Engagement<br />
    24. 24. Civic Outcomes<br />Political Interest<br />Interest in Diverse Perspectives<br />Intention to Vote<br />Commitment to Participate<br />Political Action & Expression (Negatively)<br />Findings:Information and Discussion – Centered Opps<br />
    25. 25. Findings:Experience - Centered Opps<br />Civic Outcomes<br />Voluntary Activity<br />Civic Skills<br />Political Action & Expression<br />Commitment to Participate<br />
    26. 26. Summary of Findings<br />
    27. 27. Ruth Fremson/The New York Times 4/27/10<br />Civic Learning Opportunities Matter<br />
    28. 28. Student Access to Civic Education Promising Practices<br /><ul><li>36% of students reported never participating in a simulation in high school
    29. 29. 34% of students reported never doing service learning in high school
    30. 30. 68% said they learned a lot about the structure and function of government
    31. 31. 58% said they often discussed current events
    32. 32. 46% said they were often in classes where a wide range of views were discussed</li></li></ul><li>Youth Participation Gap<br />Of young adults under 30 : <br />41% with some college experience were not very engaged.<br /> 81% with no college experience were not very engaged. (Civic Health Index)<br />
    33. 33. Inequitable Access to Civic Learning OppsRace/ Ethnicity<br />Compared with white students, Latino students report:<br /><ul><li>Fewer opportunities for service learning
    34. 34. Less open classroom climates
    35. 35. Fewer experiences with role plays and simulations</li></li></ul><li>Compared with AP American Government students, students in College Prep Gov’t report fewer of all civic learning opportunities <br /><ul><li>80% of AP sample took part in simulations
    36. 36. 51% of college prep students took part in simulations</li></ul>Inequitable Access to Civic Learning OppsStudent Achievement<br />
    37. 37. High SES 9th graders when compared to average SES 9th graders are:<br />2x more likely to discuss how laws are made<br />1.9x more likely to report participating in service activities<br />1.4x more likely to take part in a debate or panel discussion<br />Inequitable Access to Civic Learning OppsSES<br />
    38. 38. Conclusion: Democracy for Some:<br />Good News<br />Civic learning opps can support development of civic and democratic capacities and commitments<br />Bad News<br />Schools are not providing equitable access to these opportunities<br />
    39. 39. The end of democracy is not likely to not likely to be an assassination from ambush. It will be a slow extinction from apathy, indifference, and undernourishment.<br />-Robert Maynard Hutchins<br />
    40. 40. A Possibility: Civic Education in the Digital Age<br />Digital Media can support civic education<br /><ul><li>Games/simulations
    41. 41. Social networks
    42. 42. Resources
    43. 43. Peer to peer, new forms of production, …</li></li></ul><li>A Possibility: Civic Education in the Digital Age<br />Civic and Political Life is Digital<br /><ul><li>Credibility
    44. 44. Diverse Exposure
    45. 45. Production
    46. 46. Respectful interaction
    47. 47. Media Literacy can help</li></li></ul><li>Indicators can provide a rationale for action and way to judge impact?<br /><ul><li>Assess opportunities to learn and outcomes
    48. 48. Use of indicators to provide direction and feedback (low stakes assessment)
    49. 49. Link to reform direction in productive ways.
    50. 50. Focus on Quantity, Quality, and Equality</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Thoughts
    51. 51. Questions
    52. 52. Comments
    53. 53. Next Steps</li>

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